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A chemometric study on the analgesic activity of cannabinoid compounds using SDA, KNN and SIMCA methods

ARROIO, A.; LIMA, E. F.; HONORIO, K. M.; SILVA, A. B. F. da
Fonte: SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS Publicador: SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
The supervised pattern recognition methods K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA), and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) were employed in this work with the aim to investigate the relationship between the molecular structure of 27 cannabinoid compounds and their analgesic activity. Previous analyses using two unsupervised pattern recognition methods (PCA-principal component analysis and HCA-hierarchical cluster analysis) were performed and five descriptors were selected as the most relevants for the analgesic activity of the compounds studied: R (3) (charge density on substituent at position C(3)), Q (1) (charge on atom C(1)), A (surface area), log P (logarithm of the partition coefficient) and MR (molecular refractivity). The supervised pattern recognition methods (SDA, KNN, and SIMCA) were employed in order to construct a reliable model that can be able to predict the analgesic activity of new cannabinoid compounds and to validate our previous study. The results obtained using the SDA, KNN, and SIMCA methods agree perfectly with our previous model. Comparing the SDA, KNN, and SIMCA results with the PCA and HCA ones we could notice that all multivariate statistical methods classified the cannabinoid compounds studied in three groups exactly in the same way: active...

Artificial Neural Networks and the Study of the Psychoactivity of Cannabinoid Compounds

HONORIO, Kathia M.; LIMA, Emmanuela F. de; QUILES, Marcos G.; ROMERO, Roseli A. F.; MOLFETTA, Fabio A.; SILVA, Alberico B. F. da
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Cannabinoid compounds have widely been employed because of its medicinal and psychotropic properties. These compounds are isolated from Cannabis sativa (or marijuana) and are used in several medical treatments, such as glaucoma, nausea associated to chemotherapy, pain and many other situations. More recently, its use as appetite stimulant has been indicated in patients with cachexia or AIDS. In this work, the influence of several molecular descriptors on the psychoactivity of 50 cannabinoid compounds is analyzed aiming one obtain a model able to predict the psychoactivity of new cannabinoids. For this purpose, initially, the selection of descriptors was carried out using the Fisher`s weight, the correlation matrix among the calculated variables and principal component analysis. From these analyses, the following descriptors have been considered more relevant: E(LUMO) (energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), Log P (logarithm of the partition coefficient), VC4 (volume of the substituent at the C4 position) and LP1 (Lovasz-Pelikan index, a molecular branching index). To follow, two neural network models were used to construct a more adequate model for classifying new cannabinoid compounds. The first model employed was multi-layer perceptrons...

Theoretical models for the antitrypanosomal activity of thiosemicarbazone derivatives

Lozano, N. B. H.; Weber, K. C.; Honorio, Káthia Maria; Guido, Rafael Victório Carvalho; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Da Silva, A. B. F.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell; Hoboken Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell; Hoboken
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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36.13%
Thiosemicarbazones are cruzain inhibitors which have been identified as potential antitrypanosomal agents. In this work, several molecular properties were calculated at the density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP/6-311G* level for a set of 44 thiosemicarbazones. Unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, kth-nearest neighbors, and soft independent modeling by class analogy) were used to obtain structureactivity relationship models, which are able to classify unknown compounds according to their activities. The chemometric analyses performed here revealed that 12 descriptors can be considered responsible for the discrimination between high and low activity compounds. Classification models were validated with an external test set, showing that predictive classifications were achieved with the selected variable set. The results obtained here are in good agreement with previous findings from the literature, suggesting that our models can be useful on further investigations on the molecular determinants for the antichagasic activity. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.; FAPESP; FAPESP; CNPq; CNPq; CAPES; CAPES

Estudo da modelagem molecular do receptor canabinóide CB1 e suas interações com o ∆9 - THC; Molecular modeling study of CB1 cannabinoid receptor and its interaction with delta-9-THC

Lima, Emmanuela Ferreira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2009 PT
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Marihuana (Cannabis sativa) é uma planta amplamente usada pelo ser humano há séculos e suas várias aplicações têm benefícios importantes. A planta Cannabis sativa tem sido usada pelo homem como comida, em práticas medicinais e rituais religiosos. Seus efeitos incluem analgesia, alteração na percepção, cognição, memória e atividade psicomotora. Os compostos canabinoides têm sido usados na quimioterapia do câncer e AIDS. No entanto, o uso da marijuana é um problema devido aos seus efeitos indesejados, nesse caso, a atividade psicotrópica apresentada pelos compostos canabinoides. Devido ao grande interesse nos efeitos causados pelos compostos extraídos da Cannabis, vários estudos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de melhor entender a relação entre a estrutura química e a atividade biológica de compostos canabinoides, bem como as suas interações com os receptores canabinoides, CB1 e CB2. Ambos são receptores de sete transmembranas (TM) que pertencem à família classe A, como a da rodopsina bovina, dos receptores acoplados à proteína-G (GPCRs). Esta Tese representa um estudo da modelagem molecular do receptor CB1 baseado na estrutura da rodopsina bovina já publicada, uma vez que a maioria dos efeitos terapêuticos dos canabinoides tem sido mostrado serem mediados pelo receptor canabinoide CB1. Esse trabalho fornece...

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

Honório,Káthia Maria; Arroio,Agnaldo; Silva,Albérico Borges Ferreira da
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 PT
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Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

THE NEURONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CANNABINOID RECEPTOR TYPE 1 IN THE TRIGEMINAL GANGLION OF THE RAT

PRICE, T. J.; HELESIC, G.; PARGHI, D.; HARGREAVES, K. M.; FLORES, C. M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
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36.35%
Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to produce antinociception and antihyperalgesia by acting upon cannabinoid receptors located in both the CNS and the periphery. A potential mechanism by which cannabinoids could inhibit nociception in the periphery is the activation of cannabinoid receptors located on one or more classes of primary nociceptive neurons. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the neuronal distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of the adult rat through combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). CB1 receptor mRNA was localized mainly to medium and large diameter neurons of the maxillary and mandibular branches of the TG. Consistent with this distribution, in a de facto nociceptive sensory neuron population that exhibited vanilloid receptor type 1 immunoreactivity, colocalization with CB1 mRNA was also sparse (<5%). Furthermore, very few neurons (approximately 5%) in the peptidergic (defined as calcitonin gene-related peptide- or substance P-immunoreactive) or the isolectin B4-binding sensory neuron populations contained CB1 mRNA. In contrast, and consistent with the neuron-size distribution for CB1, nearly 75% of CB1-positive neurons exhibited N52-immunoreactivity...

Conformational characteristics of the interaction of SR141716A with the CB1 cannabinoid receptor as determined through the use of conformationally constrained analogs

Thomas, Brian F.; Zhang, Yanan; Brackeen, Marcus; Page, Kevin M.; Wayne Mascarella, S.; Seltzman, Herbert H.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/10/2006 EN
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26.55%
Interest in cannabinoid pharmacology increased dramatically upon the identification of the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1) in 1998 and continues to expand as additional endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors are discovered. Using CB1 receptor (CB1R) systems, medicinal chemistry programs began screening libraries searching for cannabinoid ligands, ultimately leading to the discovery of the first potent cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR141716A (Rimonabant). Its demonstrated efficacy in treating obesity and facilitating smoking cessation, among other impressive pharmacological activities, has furthered the interest in cannabinoid receptor antagonists as therapeutics, such that the number of patents and publications covering this class of compounds continues to grow at an impressive rate. At this time, medicinal chemistry approaches including combinatorial chemistry, conformational constraint, and scaffold hopping are continuing to generate a large number of cannabinoid antagonists. These molecules provide an opportunity to gain insight into the 3-dimensional structure-activity relationships that appear crucial for CB1R-ligand interaction. In particular, studies in which conformational constraints have been imposed on the various pyrazole ring substituents of SR141716A provide a direct opportunity to characterize changes in conformation/conformational freedom within a single class of compounds. While relatively few conformationally constrained molecules have been synthesized to date...

Atypical Responsiveness of the Orphan Receptor GPR55 to Cannabinoid Ligands*

Kapur, Ankur; Zhao, Pingwei; Sharir, Haleli; Bai, Yushi; Caron, Marc G.; Barak, Larry S.; Abood, Mary E.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, associated with drugs of abuse, may provide a means to treat pain, mood, and addiction disorders affecting widespread segments of society. Whether the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 is also a cannabinoid receptor remains unclear as a result of conflicting pharmacological studies. GPR55 has been reported to be activated by exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid compounds but surprisingly also by the endogenous non-cannabinoid mediator lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). We examined the effects of a representative panel of cannabinoid ligands and LPI on GPR55 using a β-arrestin-green fluorescent protein biosensor as a direct readout of agonist-mediated receptor activation. Our data demonstrate that AM251 and SR141716A (rimonabant), which are cannabinoid antagonists, and the lipid LPI, which is not a cannabinoid receptor ligand, are GPR55 agonists. They possess comparable efficacy in inducing β-arrestin trafficking and, moreover, activate the G-protein-dependent signaling of protein kinase CβII. Conversely, the potent synthetic cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 acts as a GPR55 antagonist/partial agonist. CP55,940 blocks GPR55 internalization, the formation of β-arrestin GPR55 complexes...

Cannabinoid and cannabinoid-like receptors in microglia, astrocytes and astrocytomas

Stella, Nephi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2010 EN
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36.51%
CB1 and CB2 receptors are activated by a plethora of cannabinoid compounds, be they endogenously-produced, plant-derived or synthetic. These receptors are expressed by microglia, astrocytes and astrocytomas, and their activation regulates these cells’ differentiation, functions and viability. Recent studies show that glial cells also express cannabinoid-like receptors, and that their activation regulates different cell functions, but also control cell viability. This review summarizes this evidence, and discusses how selective compounds targeting cannabinoid-like receptors constitute promising therapeutics to manage neuroinflammation and eradicate malignant astrocytomas. Importantly, the selective targeting of cannabinoid-like receptors should provide therapeutic relieve without inducing the typical psychotropic effects and possible addictive properties associated with the use of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic ingredient produced by the plant Cannabis sativa.

International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid Receptors and Their Ligands: Beyond CB1 and CB2

Pertwee, R. G.; Howlett, A. C.; Abood, M. E.; Alexander, S. P. H.; Di Marzo, V.; Elphick, M. R.; Greasley, P. J.; Hansen, H. S.; Kunos, G.; Mackie, K.; Mechoulam, R.; Ross, R. A.
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 EN
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There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands activate or block one type of cannabinoid receptor more potently than the other type. This review summarizes current data indicating the extent to which cannabinoid receptor ligands undergo orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB1, non-CB2 established GPCRs, deorphanized receptors such as GPR55, ligand-gated ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and other ion channels or peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors. From these data, it is clear that some ligands that interact similarly with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors are likely to display significantly different pharmacological profiles. The review also lists some criteria that any novel “CB3” cannabinoid receptor or channel should fulfil and concludes that these criteria are not currently met by any non-CB1, non-CB2 pharmacological receptor or channel. However, it does identify certain pharmacological targets that should be investigated further as potential CB3 receptors or channels. These include TRP vanilloid 1...

Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Cannabinoid Compounds on Emotion and Cognition

Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/09/2011 EN
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This review addresses the issue of sex differences in the response to cannabinoid compounds focusing mainly on behaviors belonging to the cognitive and emotional sphere. Sexual dimorphism exists in the different components of the endocannabinoid system. Males seem to have higher CB1 receptor binding sites than females, but females seem to possess more efficient CB1 receptors. Differences between sexes have been also observed in the metabolic processing of THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of marijuana. The consistent dimorphism in the endocannabinoid system and THC metabolism may justify at least in part the different sensitivity observed between male and female animals in different behavioral paradigms concerning emotion and cognition after treatment with cannabinoid compounds. On the basis of these observations, we would like to emphasize the need of including females in basic research and to analyze results for sex differences in epidemiological studies.

The Central Role of Glia in Pathological Pain and the Potential of Targeting the Cannabinoid 2 Receptor for Pain Relief

Wilkerson, Jenny L.; Milligan, Erin D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Under normal conditions, acute pain processing consists of well-characterized neuronal signaling events. When dysfunctional pain signaling occurs, pathological pain ensues. Glial activation and their released factors participate in the mediation of pathological pain. The use of cannabinoid compounds for pain relief is currently an area of great interest for both basic scientists and physicians. These compounds, bind mainly either the cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1R) or cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) and are able to modulate pain. Although cannabinoids were initially only thought to modulate pain via neuronal mechanisms within the central nervous system, strong evidence now supports that CB2R cannabinoid compounds are capable of modulating glia, (e.g. astrocytes and microglia) for pain relief. However, the mechanisms underlying cannabinoid receptor-mediated pain relief remain largely unknown. An emerging body of evidence supports that CB2R agonist compounds may prove to be powerful novel therapeutic candidates for the treatment of chronic pain.

Cannabinoid Receptors: Nomenclature and Pharmacological Principles

Console-Bram, Linda; Marcu, Jahan; Abood, Mary E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that are pharmacologically well defined. However, the discovery of additional sites of action for endocannabinoids as well as synthetic cannabinoid compounds suggests the existence of additional cannabinoid receptors. Here we review this evidence, as well as the current nomenclature for classifying a target as a cannabinoid receptor. Basic pharmacological definitions, principles and experimental conditions are discussed in order to place in context the mechanisms underlying cannabinoid receptor activation. Constitutive (agonist-independent) activity is observed with the overexpression of many GPCRs, including cannabinoid receptors. Allosteric modulators can alter the pharmacological responses of cannabinoid receptors. The complex molecular architecture of each of the cannabinoid receptors allows for a single receptor to recognize multiple classes of compounds and produce an array of distinct downstream effects. Natural polymorphisms and alternative splice variants may also contribute to their pharmacological diversity. As our knowledge of the distinct differences grows, we may be able to target select receptor conformations and their corresponding pharmacological responses. Importantly...

Molecular Fingerprint-based Artificial Neural Networks QSAR for Ligand Biological Activity Predictions

Myint, Kyaw-Zeyar; Wang, Lirong; Tong, Qin; Xie, Xiang-Qun
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.56%
In this manuscript, we have reported a novel 2D fingerprint-based artificial neural network QSAR (FANN-QSAR) method in order to effectively predict biological activities of structurally diverse chemical ligands. Three different types of fingerprints, namely ECFP6, FP2 and MACCS, were used in FANN-QSAR algorithm development, and FANN-QSAR models were compared to known 3D and 2D QSAR methods using five data sets previously reported. In addition, the derived models were used to predict GPCR cannabinoid ligand binding affinities using our manually curated cannabinoid ligand database containing 1699 structurally diverse compounds with reported cannabinoid receptor subtype CB2 activities. To demonstrate its useful applications, the established FANN-QSAR algorithm was used as a virtual screening tool to search a large NCI compound database for lead cannabinoid compounds and we have discovered several compounds with good CB2 binding affinities ranging from 6.70 nM to 3.75 μM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for a fingerprint-based neural network approach validated with a successful virtual screening application in identifying lead compounds. The studies proved that the FANN-QSAR method is a useful approach to predict bioactivities or properties of ligands and to find novel lead compounds for drug discovery research.

Use of SPME-HS-GC–MS for the Analysis of Herbal Products Containing Synthetic Cannabinoids

Cox, Anderson O.; Daw, Richard C.; Mason, Michele D.; Grabenauer, Megan; Pande, Poonam G.; Davis, Kenneth H.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Stout, Peter R.; Thomas, Brian F.; Huffman, John W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 EN
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The increasing prevalence and use of herbal mixtures containing synthetic cannabinoids presents a growing public health concern and legal challenge for society. In contrast to the plant-derived cannabinoids in medical marijuana and other cannabinoid-based therapeutics, the commonly encountered synthetic cannabinoids in these mendaciously labeled products constitute a structurally diverse set of compounds of relatively unknown pharmacology and toxicology. Indeed, the use of these substances has been associated with an alarming number of hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Moreover, there are already several hundred known cannabinoid agonist compounds that could potentially be used for illicit purposes, posing an additional challenge for public health professionals and law enforcement efforts, which often require the detection and identification of the active ingredients for effective treatment or prosecution. A solid-phase microextraction headspace gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method is shown here to allow for rapid and reliable detection and structural identification of many of the synthetic cannabinoid compounds that are currently or could potentially be used in herbal smoking mixtures. This approach provides accelerated analysis and results that distinguish between structural analogs within several classes of cannabinoid compounds...

Differential Alteration of Hippocampal Excitatory Synaptic Transmission by Cannabinoid Ligands

Bajo, Michal; Roberto, Marisa; Schweitzer, Paul
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2009 EN
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36.35%
Cannabinoid compounds affect synaptic activity and plasticity in numerous brain areas by activating CB1 receptors (CB1). In hippocampus, varying results have been obtained on the extent and site of cannabinoid actions on excitatory transmission, ranging from no effect to complete obliteration of synaptic responses. Here we used the rat hippocampal slice preparation to study and compare the effect of various synthetic and endogenous CB1 ligands on excitatory synaptic transmission. The full CB1 agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN2) greatly decreased excitatory synaptic transmission by 62%. The effect of WIN-2 was concentration dependent (EC50 of 200 nM) and completely prevented by CB1 antagonists. The nondegradable partial CB1 agonist R1-methanandamide (mAEA) decreased transmission by 25% and the endocannabinoids 2-arachid-onylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) had no significant effect. The action of AEA was improved by inhibiting its degradation but not its transport. The effect of 2-AG was enhanced upon inhibition of COX-2 but remained unchanged with blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The observed effects were prevented by CB1 antagonists regardless of the ligand used, and paired-pulse paradigms pointed to presynaptic mechanisms of cannabinoid action. Our results show that cannabinoid effects on neuronal activity differ widely according to the CB1 ligand used. We observed large differences between full (synthetic) and partial (endogenous) CB1 agonists in altering synaptic transmission...

Mastering tricyclic ring systems for desirable functional cannabinoid activity

Petrov, Ravil R.; Knight, Lindsay; Chen, Shao-Rui; Wager-Miller, Jim; McDaniel, Steven W.; Diaz, Fanny; Barth, Francis; Pan, Hui-Lin; Mackie, Ken; Cavasotto, Claudio N.; Diaz, Philippe
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.54%
There is growing interest in using cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain and other indications. In continuation of our ongoing program aiming for the development of new small molecule cannabinoid ligands, we have synthesized a novel series of carbazole and γ-carboline derivatives. The affinities of the newly synthesized compounds were determined by a competitive radioligand displacement assay for human CB2 cannabinoid receptor and rat CB1 cannabinoid receptor. Functional activity and selectivity at human CB1 and CB2 receptors were characterized using receptor internalization and [35S]GTP-γ-S assays. The structure-activity relationship and optimization studies of the carbazole series have led to the discovery of a non-selective CB1 and CB2 agonist, compound 4. Our subsequent research efforts to increase CB2 selectivity of this lead compound have led to the discovery of CB2 selective compound 64, which robustly internalized CB2 receptors. Compound 64 had potent inhibitory effects on pain hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Other potent and CB2 receptor–selective compounds, including compounds 63 and 68, and a selective CB1 agonist, compound 74 were also discovered. In addition...

Cannabinoid Regulation of Brain Reward Processing with an Emphasis on the Role of CB1 Receptors: A Step Back into the Future

Panagis, George; Mackey, Brian; Vlachou, Styliani
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2014 EN
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36.23%
Over the last decades, the endocannabinoid system has been implicated in a large variety of functions, including a crucial modulation of brain-reward circuits and the regulation of motivational processes. Importantly, behavioral studies have shown that cannabinoid compounds activate brain reward mechanisms and circuits in a similar manner to other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, although the conditions under which cannabinoids exert their rewarding effects may be more limited. Furthermore, there is evidence on the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of cue- and drug-induced relapsing phenomena in animal models. The aim of this review is to briefly present the available data obtained using diverse behavioral experimental approaches in experimental animals, namely, the intracranial self-stimulation paradigm, the self-administration procedure, the conditioned place preference procedure, and the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior procedure, to provide a comprehensive picture of the current status of what is known about the endocannabinoid system mechanisms that underlie modification of brain-reward processes. Emphasis is placed on the effects of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor agonists...

Interaction between Cannabinoid Compounds and Capsazepine in Protection against Acute Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizure in Mice

Naderi, Nima; Shafieirad, Effat; Lakpoor, Delaram; Rahimi, Atena; Mousavi, Zahra
Fonte: Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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36.24%
The pharmacological interaction between cannabinoidergic system and vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels has been investigated in various conditions such as pain and anxiety. In some brain structure including hippocampus, CB1 and TRPV1 receptors coexist and their activation produces opposite effect on excitability of neurons. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 channel is involved in the modulation of cannabinoid effects on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold. In single therapy, male mice (n = 10 per group) received either TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine, CB1 receptor agonist ACEA or anandamide reuptake inhibitor VDM11. In combination therapy, mice were treated with either capsazepine-ACEA or capsazepine-VDM11 combination prior to seizure test. Thirty min later, mice were submitted to infusion of PTZ (1%, 0.25 mL/min) into tail vein and the dose of PTZ to induce clonic convulsion was considered as seizure threshold. Administration of capsazepine and ACEA per se produced protective effects against PTZ-induced seizure, while administration of VDM11 per se did not produce such a protection effect. The anticonvulsant actions of both capsazepine and ACEA were attenuated after co-administration of these compounds. Moreover...

Design, Synthesis, Binding and Docking-Based 3D-QSAR Studies of 2-Pyridylbenzimidazoles-A New Family of High Affinity CB1 Cannabinoid Ligands

Recabarren Gajardo, Gonzalo; Espinosa Bustos, Christian; Romero Parra, Javier; Lagos, Carlos F.; Pessoa Mahana, Hernán; Iturriaga Vásquez, Patricio; Pessoa Mahana, Carlos David; Mella Raipán, Jaime A.
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Artículo de publicación ISI; A series of novel 2-pyridylbenzimidazole derivatives was rationally designed and synthesized based on our previous studies on benzimidazole 14, a CB1 agonist used as a template for optimization. In the present series, 21 compounds displayed high affinities with K-i values in the nanomolar range. JM-39 (compound 39) was the most active of the series (K-iCB1 = 0.53 nM), while compounds 31 and 44 exhibited similar affinities to WIN 55212-2. CoMFA analysis was performed based on the biological data obtained and resulted in a statistically significant CoMFA model with high predictive value (q(2) = 0.710, r(2) = 0.998, r(pred)(2) = 0.823).