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Aduana do Brasil e medidas de facilitação comercial : estudo simulado de melhorias no despacho aduaneiro de importação aérea; Brazilian customs and trade facilitation measures : simulation study of improvements on air import customs clearance

Yuri da Cunha Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/05/2015 PT
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37.13%
A Aduana (ou alfândega) é um elo da cadeia internacional de suprimentos com a função de controlar a entrada e a saída de mercadorias de um país. A transposição de mercadorias pelas fronteiras está diretamente relacionada aos processos aduaneiros. Medidas de facilitação comercial objetivam tornar o controle da Aduana mais simplificado e efetivo, tornando a cadeia de suprimentos mais fluida e segura. Iniciativas como a utilização de laudos de imagens dos escâneres de raio-X, os programas de facilitação comercial, como o Despacho Aduaneiro Expresso (Linha Azul), e metas de desempenho para servidores aduaneiros podem ser citadas como medidas de facilitação comercial. O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar o impacto dessas medidas de facilitação comercial na Aduana brasileira, em relação aos diversos tempos que impactam o fluxo de importação. Não existem estudos nas literaturas científica e profissional que analisem quantitativamente os impactos dessas medidas de facilitação comercial no Brasil. Caracterizada pelo método de pesquisa explicativa de natureza experimental, por meio da ferramenta de simulação de eventos discretos, foi desenvolvido um Projeto de Experimentos Fatorial 2^k Completo. O objeto do estudo experimental foi aplicado no fluxo de importação aérea no Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos...

Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs Union for Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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In 2010, Kazakhstan entered into a customs union with Belarus and Russia. The first, relatively easy step in the implementation of the customs union was accomplished in 2010 with the adoption of a common external tariff, with varying exceptions in each of the three member countries. It is the intention of the customs union to eliminate the exceptions, in phases, by 2015. In fact, the goals of the customs union are much more ambitious than implementation of the common external tariff. The governments of the member countries are working to achieve deep integration in key areas. Clearly, successfully addressing the challenge of reducing trade-facilitation costs is a major task that requires significant institutional development both in Kazakhstan and in the other member countries of the customs union. It is very difficult, however, to assess the probability of success that the customs union will have with the reduction of these costs.

Customs Modernization Handbook

De Wulf, Luc; Sokol, José B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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37.22%
This handbook aims to make a positive contribution to the efforts that many countries are undertaking to modernize their customs administrations. The handbook views a competent and well-organized customs service as one that successfully balances its various responsibilities to ensure a high level of compliance with revenue objectives and regulatory requirements while at the same time intervening as little as possible in the legitimate movement of goods and people across borders. The handbook recognizes that conditions differ greatly across countries, so that each customs administration will need to tailor its modernization efforts to national objectives, implementation capacities, and resource availability.

Breaking Up the Logjam : Automated Customs Risk Management System Implementation in Georgia

Beruashvili, Natalia; Mcgill, Olin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
How do you turn a confusing tangle of red tape into a smooth operation? In Georgia, the solution involved risk management, automation, and a good mechanism for public-private dialogue. This customs reform was a key component of the trade logistics reform introduced by the Government of Georgia and supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Georgia Business Climate Reform (GBCR) Project, implemented from September 2005 to August 2009. This smart lesson captures some of what made this project a success.

Reforming Customs Clearance in Pakistan

Ahmad, Manzoor
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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37.24%
Simple, fast, transparent customs clearance procedures encourage trade-and the resulting tariffs and related taxes raise government revenue and stimulate economic development. After outsourcing failed to make customs more efficient or increase revenue, in 2002 Pakistan began pursuing a modern single window system for customs clearance. In 2005 the system was introduced at the port of Karachi, replacing numerous procedures with one electronic declaration and sharply cutting customs processing times. Despite dramatically reduced tariffs, annual customs revenue grew dramatically after the reform-though tariffs and customs reform have since stalled.

Kazakhstan : Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13%
In 2010, Kazakhstan entered into a customs union with Belarus and Russia. The first, relatively easy step in the implementation of the customs union was accomplished in 2010 with the adoption of a common external tariff, with varying exceptions in each of the three member countries. It is the intention of the customs union to eliminate the exceptions, in phases, by 2015. In fact, the goals of the customs union are much more ambitious than implementation of the common external tariff. The governments of the member countries are working to achieve deep integration in key areas. Clearly, successfully addressing the challenge of reducing trade-facilitation costs is a major task that requires significant institutional development both in Kazakhstan and in the other member countries of the customs union. It is very difficult, however, to assess the probability of success that the customs union will have with the reduction of these costs.

Customs Modernization Initiatives : Case Studies

De Wulf, Luc; Sokol, José B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
EN_US
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This volume presents case studies of customs modernization initiatives in eight developing countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda. The purpose of these case studies was to obtain a firsthand view of how these countries undertook customs reforms and to assess their success. The overall lessons learned from these studies are presented in chapter 2 of the Customs Modernization Handbook (World Bank forthcoming), a companion volume that provides policymakers, practitioners, and project managers from development agencies with an overview of the key issues they need to address in preparing and implementing customs modernization initiatives. The audience for the Customs Modernization Handbook is customs officials who are called on to design and implement customs reform and modernization strategies, as well as staff members of the World Bank and of other multilateral and bilateral development agencies who support developing countries in implementing such strategies. All the case studies except for the one on Ghana were prepared using basically the same methodology...

Trade Facilitation in the Caribbean : The Case of Customs Performance

Ossio, Jose Eduardo Gutierrez; Alessandro, Martin; Neyra, Juan Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The trade of goods and services and the inflows from Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) represent large proportions of their Gross Domestic Products (GDP), especially in English Speaking Caribbean (ESC) countries. Therefore, the proper functioning of the channels that connect them to the rest of the world, including customs offices, is essential to the performance of their economies. This note shows that, despite integration into the world economy, customs performance in the Caribbean countries is comparatively low. This note presents data from the Customs Assessment Trade Toolkit (CATT), which provides empirical evidence that processes do not meet adequate standards in terms of speed, predictability and transparency. This inconsistency is partially explained by the lack of an effective complementarity between the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) systems and the actual operational practices. This policy note is organized as follows: section three presents evidence on the economic profile of the Caribbean countries to show high integration to the world economy. Trade and FDI are they key aspects being considered in this regard. Section four discusses the role of customs systems for economic development. It analyzes the performance of the Caribbean customs offices in a number of aspects (clearance times...

Tariff Evasion and Customs Corruption : Does Pre-Shipment Inspection Help?

Anson, Jose; Cadot, Olivier; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
The authors provide a new approach to the evaluation of pre-shipment inspection (PSI) programs as ways of improving tariff-revenue collection and reducing fraud when customs administrations are corrupt. They build a model highlighting the contribution of surveillance firms to the generation of information and describing how incentives for fraud and collusive behavior between importers and customs are affected by the introduction of PSI. The authors show theoretically that the introduction of PSI has an ambiguous effect on the level of customs fraud. Empirically, the econometric results suggest that PSI reduced fraud in the Philippines, it increased it in Argentina, and did not have significant impact in Indonesia.

Never Too Late to Get Together Again : Turning the Czech and Slovak Customs Union into a Stepping Stone to EU Integration

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Javorcik, Beata
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
The Czech and Slovak Customs Union (CSCU), which came into effect in January 1993, differs from regular regional trading arrangements as its goal was to minimize the economic cost of a decline in economic ties between its members rather than to set in motion the mechanism of integration. The creation of the CSCU ensured a smooth and conflict-free break up of Czechoslovakia and resulted in divergence in regulatory regimes of the two republics. This study argues that the process of mutual adjustment triggered by the emergence of national borders is over and that integration within the CSCU, similar in depth and scope to that existing within the European Union (EU), would be a desirable policy objective. By deepening integration, both the Czech and Slovak Republics would be better prepared to handle challenges associated with the EU accession. Such a regulatory realignment would also lower border costs and behind-the-border barriers to trade and result in a more attractive investment environment in both countries.

Evaluation of the EU-Turkey Customs Union

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The implementation of the customs union (CU) in 1995 was the culmination of thirty-two years of association between the European Union (EU) and Turkey and was expected by Turkey to be the first step in the EU accession process. The CU has been a major instrument of integration for the Turkish economy into both European and global markets. The CU covers trade in just industrial goods (including the industrial components of processed agricultural products) and excludes primary agriculture, services, and public procurement but has proved to be a powerful force of regulatory convergence. The evaluation s objectives are to assess the impacts of the CU and to make forward looking, solution-orientated recommendations for its improvement with an emphasis on the economics behind the various trade irritants and options for dealing with problems related to asymmetries as well as examining the case for widening. The evaluation provides quantitative and qualitative estimates of the effects of the CU and demonstrates that the trade agreement has been highly beneficial for both Turkey and the EU. The evaluation consists of two main parts: (i) an evaluation of the impact of the CU on trade...

Through turbulent waters: foreign administration of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service, 1923-1937.

Brunero, Donna Maree
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2000
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In modern times customs services are the institutions entrusted with monitoring trade through collecting duties on imports and exports, preventing smuggling and patrolling national boundaries. The Chinese Maritime Customs Service of the Republic was imbued with many of these modern ideas. The Service maintained an extensive network of Customs houses both along China's coastline and inland. It maintained harbours and lighthouses and also established a preventive service to counteract smuggling. The comparisons, however, end here. The Chinese Maritime Customs Service was a uniquely cosmopolitan institution that emerged as a product of the Opium Wars and the Unequal Treaties. Headed by successive British Inspectors General, Sir Robert Hart (1863-1911), Sir Francis Aglen (1911-1927) and Sir Frederick Maze (1929-1943), the Service recruited foreigners to administer the Customs establishments. This dissertation examines the fate of the Customs foreign Inspectorate during the 1923-1937 period. By examining episodes such as the Canton Customs controversy of 1923; the Canton-Hong Kong Boycott 1925-1926; the Customs succession crisis; negotiations surrounding the proposed Hong Kong-China Trade and Customs Agreement 1929-30; the seizure of the Tientsin Customs 1930; and the loss of Customs houses in the northeast to Manchukuo authorities in 1923-1933...

Managing Risk in Customs : Lessons from the New Zealand Customs Service

Foley, Rebecca; Northway, Bruce
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The New Zealand Customs Service's risk management system enables it to manage large volumes of cargo crossing borders with limited resources. The system encompasses a culture of problem-solving and accountability for decisions, a standard methodology for identifying and assessing risk, and an intelligence function that applies this methodology. This note highlights the fundamental principles and processes guiding the system, offering lessons for governments reforming their trade logistics functions to meet global standards and security requirements.

Reform by Numbers : Measurement Applied to Customs and Tax Administrations in Developing Countries

Cantens, Thomas; Ireland, Robert; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper is organized as follows. In chapter two, Samson Bilangna and Marcellin Djeuwo from the Cameroon customs administration present the history and the outcomes of the performance measurement policy launched by their administra-tion: the General Directorate of Customs signed 'performance contracts' with the frontline customs officers in 2010 and with some importers in 2011. In chapter three, Jose-Maria Munoz, an anthropologist, offers a complementary view of the introduction of figures in the Cameroon tax administration. The fourth chapter ends the book's first part, which focuses on performance measurement. Xavier Pascual from the French customs administration describes the system implemented by his administration to measure the collective performance of customs units and bureaus. In chapter five, Anne-Marie Geourjon and Bertrand Laporte, who are both economists, and Ousmane Coundoul and Massene Gadiaga, who are from the Senegalese customs administration, present the use of data mining to select imports for inspection. This project is being developed in Senegal and embodies the concept of risk analysis. Sharing the same global aim to make controls more efficient...

Russian Federation Customs Development Project : Measurable Progress; Proiectul Federatiei Ruse de Dezvoltare a Autoritatilor Vamale : progrese masurabile

Johns, Kimberly; Kristensen, Jens Kromann; McLinden, Gerard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The Russian Federation Customs Development Project (CDP), launched in 2003, has been helping reform and modernizes the country's federal customs service. Reforms under the CDP have resulted in improved performance: both customs clearance times and rent-seeking incidents have been reduced. However, despite major progress in critical areas, global rankings such as the world economic forum's enabling trade index and the World Bank's logistics performance index suggest there is still significant room for further improvement in customs administration.

Gazing into the Mirror : Operational Internal Control in Cameroon Customs; Se regarder dans le miroir : le controle de l'execution du service dans les douanes camerounaises

Libom, Minette Li Likeng; Cantens, Thomas; Bilangna, Samson
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Cameroon is a model example of a developing country facing the challenges of trade facilitation, in light of its geographic location within Central Africa. Close to 20 percent of its customs revenues are used to finance the national budget. Cameroon's customs administration therefore plays a critical role in its economy. This paper presents the modernization process launched in Cameroon customs in 2006 and, in particular, the original approach adopted the very early introduction of operational internal control as the keystone of the reform process under way. Beyond the technical measures in and of themselves, the document seeks to show one aspect of Cameroon's reform experience: how technical measures, namely the definition and dissemination of indicators based on a number of principles, have contributed to increased revenues and stronger ethics, an experience that could be replicated in other Sub-Saharan African countries.

Gazing Into the Mirror II : Performance Contracts in Cameroon Customs; Se regarder dans le miroir : Deuxieme volume - Les contrats de performance dans les douanes Camerounaises

Likeng, Minette Libom Li; Djeuwo, Marcellin; Bilangna, Samson
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper revolves around the World Customs Organization's (WCO) 2011 theme of the year, 'knowledge as a catalyst for excellence'. The contracts clearly define the scope and procedures for their implementation. In light of the foregoing, the policy for performance contracts is part of the effort to implement the plan to reform the Customs Administration. These contracts aim to combat customs fraud and corruption more effectively, and introduce speed and efficiency in the processing of files. In other words, the contracts, which are based on objective indicators, seek performance, responsibility, and transparency, with a particular emphasis on ethics. Inspectors who sign the contract must work swiftly, while seeking to uncover fraud. To that end, they must be present at their work stations, behave in a professional manner, and themselves be confident that their contribution to efforts to reduce clearance times and costs of goods is essential. In sum, the procedure seeks to enhance the performance of Cameroon customs with a view to providing quality service to enterprises...

Customs, Brokers, and Informal Sectors : A Cameroon Case Study

Cantens, Thomas; Kaminski, Jonathan; Raballand, Gaël; Tchapa, Tchouawou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Based on extensive interviews with informal importers and brokers in Cameroon, this paper explains why customs reform aimed at reducing fraud and corruption may be difficult to achieve. Informal traders and brokers (without licenses) follow various business models and practices, which are product-specific. Overall, what matters first are customs brokers' practices. Information asymmetries mark transactions between brokers and importers and are accompanied by misperceptions of the costs and risks of informal brokers working among informal importers. In a low-governance environment with widespread informal practices, blanket policies should be avoided in order to discourage activities of unprofessional and systematic bribe-taker brokers. It is also essential that customs officials disrupt information asymmetries and better disseminate information to informal importers on customs processes and official costs. Finally, customs should more strongly sanction some informal brokers in order to reduce collusion with some customs officers.

Best Practices in Customs Reform - Lessons from Morocco

De Wulf, Luc; Finateau, Emile
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Successful trade policy reform, often requires customs reform. In the 1990s Morocco's trade policies were strongly influenced by its agreement with the European Union, with the World Trade Center, and the Multi-fiber Agreement, which led the Customs and Indirect Taxes Administration to examine its procedures. Customs reforms were based on the principles of the World Customs Organization, supported by technical assistance provided by the International Monetary Fund and bilateral partners. Such reforms were the result of public-private partnerships, focused on four main areas: 1) simplified procedures and selective controls; 2) increased use of information technology; 3) improved management of special customs procedures; and, 4) enhanced transparency and partnerships with the private sector.

Kosovo's new customs declaration processing system / [presentation given in May 2011]; Customs declaration processing system

Haxhidauti, Bujar
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project Formato: 50 p. : col. ill., col. map + 1 PowerPoint file.
EN
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This capstone project assessed available options for new Customs Declaration Processing System for Kosovo Customs. The outcome of the analysis clearly shows that Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA World) of United Nation Conference for Trade Aid and Development is the most suitable system for Kosovo Customs.; Chapter 1. Historical traditions and customs duties -- Chapter 2. Customs duties in Kosovo 1980-2010? -- Chapter 3. International experiences with automated customs procedures -- Chapter 4. TIMS system in Kosovo -- Chapter 5. Assessment and implementation -- Chapter 6. Pilot installation procedures -- Chapter 7. Training programme -- Chapter 8. Final discussions & recommendations.