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## Distribuição de corrente entre semicondutores em retificadores de alta corrente - estudo de casos reais.; Current distribution in high current rectifier semiconductors - real case study.

Moraes, Edison Pires de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
Nos processos industriais envolvendo eletrólise, como na produção de alumínio, cobre, zinco, níquel, manganês, carbeto de silício, cloro e seus derivados, as correntes envolvidas em geral atingem patamares que excedem o valor nominal de um único semicondutor, exigindo a associação de componentes em paralelo com uma distribuição de corrente equilibrada. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise comparativa da distribuição de corrente em associações de semicondutores em paralelo em vinte retificadores de alta potência com diferentes tipos de arquitetura física de barramentos. A particularidade deste estudo é a medição simultânea das correntes em todos os semicondutores de todos os ramos do retificador obtendo-se uma imagem da distribuição real de correntes do conversor.; The industrial electrolytic processes to produce, aluminum, cooper, zinc, nickel, manganese, silicon carbide, chlorine and its derivative, require current values which greatly exceed the capability of single rectifying devices and paralleled combinations of semiconductors or equipments are necessary. This study evaluated through a comparative analyzes twenty rectifiers, with different busbar geometries, in order to verify the current distribution in paralleled devices. The differential of this study is the simultaneous measurement of currents in all semiconductors of each branch in order to obtain a real representation of the rectifiers current distribution.

## Co-ocorrência, interações tróficas e distribuição potencial da onça-pintada (Panthera onca) no bioma Amazônia; Co-occurrence, trophic interactions and potential distribution of jaguar (Panthera onca) in the Amazon biome

Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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## Assessing the areas under risk of invasion within islands through potential distribution modelling: the case of Pittosporum undulatum in São Miguel, Azores

Hortal, Joaquín; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Silva, Luís
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.; Non-indigenous plant species have been frequently reported as successful invaders in island environments, changing plant community composition and structure. This is the case of the sweet pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum), native from Australia, which is one of the most successful plant invaders in the Azores archipelago. Data extracted from recent forestry inventories were used to model and map the potential distribution of P. undulatum in São Miguel, the larger island of the Azores. Current distribution of P. undulatum is related to climate, altitude and some human activity effects. Further analysis of the areas under risk of invasion showed that protected areas are under potential threat, although only a few native forest remnants seem to be threatened due to future expansion of P. undulatum, since the current distribution of these native communities has been reduced due to clearing and competition with invasive plants. We discuss the threats that any further expansion of the species will represent for low-altitude native forests, as well as the utility of species distribution models in the assessment of the areas under risk of invasion.

## Influence of intercellular clefts on potential and current distribution in a multifiber preparation.

Haas, H G; Brommundt, G
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A theoretical model is presented for current and voltage clamp of multifiber bundles in a double sucrose gap. Attention is focused on methodological errors introduced by the intercellular cleft resistance. The bundle is approximated by a continuous geometry. Voltage distribution, as a function of radial distance and time, is defined by a parabolic partial differential equation which is specified for different membrane characteristics. Assuming a linear membrane, analytical solutions are given for current step and voltage step conditions. The theoretical relations (based on Bessel functions) may be used to calculate membrane conductance and capacity from experimental clamp data. The case of a nonlinear membrane with standard Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics for excitatory Na current is treated assuming maximum Na conductances (gNa) of 120, 10, and 1 mmho/cm2. Numerical simulations are presented for potential and current distribution in a bundle of 60 microns diameter during depolarizing voltage steps. Adequate voltage control is restricted to the peripheral fibers of the bundle whereas the membrane potential of the inner fibers deviates from the command level during early inward current, tending to the Na equilibrium potential. In the peak current-voltage diagram the loss of voltage control is reflected by an increased steepness of the negative region and a decreased slope conductance of the positive region. With gNa = 120 mmho/cm2...

## A primary current distribution model of a novel micro-electroporation channel configuration

Troszak, Gregory D.; Rubinsky, Boris
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Traditional macro and micro-electroporation devices utilize facing electrodes, which generate electric fields inversely proportional to their separation distance. Although the separation distances in micro-electroporation devices are significantly smaller than those in macro-electroporation devices, they are limited by cell size. Because of this, significant potential differences are required to induce electroporation. These potential differences are often large enough to cause water electrolysis, resulting in electrode depletion and bubble formation, both of which adversely affect the electroporation process. Here, we present a theoretical study of a novel micro-electroporation channel composed of an electrolyte flowing over a series of adjacent electrodes separated by infinitesimally small insulators. Application of a small, non-electrolysis inducing potential difference between the adjacent electrodes results in radially-varying electric fields that emanate from these insulators, causing cells flowing through the channel to experience a pulsed electric field. This eliminates the need for a pulse generator, making a minimal power source (such as a battery) the only electrical equipment that is needed. A non-dimensional primary current distribution model of the novel micro-electroporation channel shows that decreasing the channel height results in an exponential increase in the electric field magnitude...

## Evidence of environmental niche differentiation in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys sp.): inference from its current distribution in southern Africa

Meynard, Christine N; Pillay, Neville; Perrigault, Manon; Caminade, Pierre; Ganem, Guila
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aim of this study was to characterize environmental differentiation of lineages within Rhabdomys and provide hypotheses regarding potential areas of contact between them in the Southern African subregion, including the Republic of South Africa, Lesotho, and Namibia. Records of Rhabdomys taxa across the study region were compiled and georeferenced from the literature, museum records, and field expeditions. Presence records were summarized within a 10 × 10 km grid covering the study area. Environmental information regarding climate, topography, land use, and vegetation productivity was gathered at the same resolution. Multivariate statistics were used to characterize the current environmental niche and distribution of the whole genus as well as of three mitochondrial lineages known to occur in southern Africa. Distribution modeling was carried out using MAXENT in order to generate hypotheses regarding current distribution of each taxa and their potential contact zones. Results indicate that the two species within Rhabdomys appear to have differentiated across the precipitation/temperature gradient present in the region from east to west. R. dilectus occupies the wettest areas in eastern southern Africa, while R. pumilio occupies the warmer and drier regions in the west...

## Anomalous statistical properties of the critical current distribution in superconductor containing fractal clusters of a normal phase

Kuzmin, Yuriy I.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Statistical properties of the critical current distribution in superconductor with fractal clusters of a normal phase are considered. It is found that there is the range of fractal dimensions in which the variance and expectation for this distribution increases infinitely. Simple technique of avoiding such a divergence by the use of truncated distributions is proposed. It is suggested that the most current-carrying capability of a superconductor can be achieved by modifying the cluster area distribution in such a way that the regime of giant variance of critical currents will be realized.; Comment: 11 pages with 6 figures

## Current distribution and transition width in superconducting transition-edge sensors

Swetz, D. S.; Bennett, D. A.; Irwin, K. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Present models of the superconducting-to-normal transition in transition-edge sensors (TESs) do not describe the current distribution within a biased TES. This distribution is complicated by normal-metal features that are integral to TES design. We present a model with one free parameter that describes the evolution of the current distribution with bias. To probe the current distribution experimentally, we fabricated TES devices with different current return geometries. Devices where the current return geometry mirrors current flow within the device have sharper transitions, thus allowing for a direct test of the current-flow model. Measurements from these devices show that current meanders through a TES low in the resistive transition but flows across the normal-metal features by 40% of the normal-state resistance. Comparison of transition sharpness between device designs reveals that self-induced magnetic fields play an important role in determining the width of the superconducting transition. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4771984]; Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures

## Current Distribution in the Three-Dimensional Random Resistor Network at the Percolation Threshold

Batrouni, G. George; Hansen, Alex; Larson, Brond
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We study the multifractal properties of the current distribution of the three-dimensional random resistor network at the percolation threshold. For lattices ranging in size from $8^3$ to $80^3$ we measure the second, fourth and sixth moments of the current distribution, finding {\it e.g.\/} that $t/\nu=2.282(5)$ where $t$ is the conductivity exponent and $\nu$ is the correlation length exponent.; Comment: 10 pages, latex, 8 figures in separate uuencoded file

## Soft-boundary graphene nanoribbon formed by a graphene sheet above a perturbed ground plane: conductivity profile and SPP modal current distribution

Forati, Ebrahim; Hanson, George W.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
An infinite sheet of graphene lying above a perturbed ground plane is studied. The perturbation is a two dimensional ridge, and a bias voltage is applied between the graphene and the ground plane, resulting in a graphene nanoribbonlike structure with a soft-boundary (SB) The spatial distribution of the graphene conductivity forming the soft-boundary is studied as a function of the ridge parameters and the bias voltage. The current distribution of the fundamental TM surface plasmon polariton (SPP) is considered. The effect of the ridge parameters and shape of the soft boundary on the current distributions are investigated, and the conditions are studied under which the mode remains confined to the vicinity of the ridge region.

## Current Distribution and random matrix ensembles for an integrable asymmetric fragmentation process

Rákos, A.; Schütz, G. M.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
We calculate the time-evolution of a discrete-time fragmentation process in which clusters of particles break up and reassemble and move stochastically with size-dependent rates. In the continuous-time limit the process turns into the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (only pieces of size 1 break off a given cluster). We express the exact solution of master equation for the process in terms of a determinant which can be derived using the Bethe ansatz. From this determinant we compute the distribution of the current across an arbitrary bond which after appropriate scaling is given by the distribution of the largest eigenvalue of the Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrices. This result confirms universality of the scaling form of the current distribution in the KPZ universality class and suggests that there is a link between integrable particle systems and random matrix ensembles.; Comment: 11 pages

## Local Current Distribution and "Hot Spots" in the Integer Quantum Hall Regime

Dubi, Y.; Meir, Y.; Avishai, Y.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
In a recent experiment, the local current distribution of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime was probed by measuring the variation of the conductance due to local gating. The main experimental finding was the existence of "hot spots", i.e. regions with high degree of sensitivity to local gating, whose density increases as one approaches the quantum Hall transition. However, the direct connection between these "hot spots" and regions of high current flow is not clear. Here, based on a recent model for the quantum Hall transition consisting of a mixture of perfect and quantum links, the relation between the "hot spots" and the current distribution in the sample has been investigated. The model reproduces the observed dependence of the number and sizes of "hot spots" on the filling factor. It is further demonstrated that these "hot spots" are not located in regions where most of the current flows, but rather, in places where the currents flow both when injected from the left or from the right. A quantitative measure, the harmonic mean of these currents is introduced and correlates very well with the "hot spots" positions.

## Sheet-current distribution in a dc SQUID washer probed by vortices

Doenitz, D.; Ruoff, M.; Brandt, E. H.; Clem, J. R.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
We present a novel method, based on vortex imaging by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM), to directly image the sheet-current distribution in YBa2Cu3O7 dc SQUID washers. We show that the LTSEM vortex signals are simply related to the scalar stream function describing the vortex-free circulating sheet-current distribution J. Unlike previous inversion methods that infer the current distribution from the measured magnetic field, our method uses pinned vortices as local detectors for J. Our experimental results are in very good agreement with numerical calculations of J.; Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; submitted to Physical Review Letters

## Current distribution and ac loss for a superconducting rectangular strip with in phase alternating current and applied field

Pardo, E.; Gomory, F.; Souc, J.; Ceballos, J. M.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
The case of ac transport at in-phase alternating applied magnetic fields for a superconducting rectangular strip with finite thickness has been investigated. The applied magnetic field is considered perpendicular to the current flow. We present numerical calculations assuming the critical state model of the current distribution and ac loss for various values of aspect ratio, transport current and applied field amplitude. A rich phenomenology is obtained due to the metastable nature of the critical state. We perform a detailed comparison with the analytical limits and we discuss their applicability for the actual geometry of superconducting conductors. We also define a loss factor which allow a more detailed analysis of the ac behavior than the ac loss. Finally, we compare the calculations with experiments, showing a significant qualitative and quantitative agreement without any fitting parameter.; Comment: 21 pages, 12 figures in 15 extra pages/files. Submitted to Physical Review B

## A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking the advantages of high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two 128-channel Faraday cup arrays are built, and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.; Comment: 6 piges, 8 figures; Submitted to Review of Scientific Instruments

## Critical Current Distribution in Spin Transfer Switched Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

Pakala, Mahendra; Huai, Yiming; Valet, Thierry; Ding, Yunfei; Diao, Zhitao
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
The spin transfer switching current distribution within a cell was studied in magnetic tunnel junction based structures having alumina barriers with resistance-area product (RA) of 10 to 30 Ohm-um2 and tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) of ~20%. These were patterned into current perpendicular to plane configured nano-pillars having elliptical cross-sections of area ~0.02 um2. The width of the critical current distribution (sigma/average of distribution), measured using 30 ms current pulse width, was found to be 7.5% and 3.5% for cells with thermal factor (KuV/kBT) of 40 and 65 respectively. The distribution width did not change significantly for pulse widths between 1 s and 4 ms. An analytical expression for probability density function, p(I/Ico) was derived considering the thermally activated spin transfer model, which supports the experimental observation that the thermal factor is the most significant parameter in determining the within cell critical current distribution width.; Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures

## Quantum Hall Effect: Current Distribution and Existence of Extended States

Tsemekhman, K.; Tsemekhman, V.; Wexler, C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
We present a consistent description of the current distribution in the quantum Hall effect, based on two main ingredients: the location of the extended states and the distribution of the electric field. We show that the interaction between electrons produces a boundary line below the Fermi energy, which extends from source to drain. The existence of this line and that of a physical boundary are responsible for the formation of a {\em band} of extended states that carry the Hall current. The number and density of these extended states are determined by the difference between the energy of this equipotential boundary line and the energy of the single extended state that would exist in an infinite system. This is used to prove that the band of extended states is distributed through the bulk of the sample. We explore the distribution of the Hall currents and electric fields in by presenting a model that captures the main features of the charge relaxation processes. Theoretical predictions based on this model and on the preceding theory are used to unambiguously explain recent experimental findings.; Comment: 12 pages, 8 eps figures (in paper)

## Generation of Relativistic Electron Bunches with Arbitrary Current Distribution via Transverse-to-Longitudinal Phase Space Exchange

Piot, P.; Sun, Y. -E; Power, J. G.; Rihaoui, M.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
We propose a general method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed method to exchange the longitudinal phase space emittance with one of the transverse emittances. The method consists of transversely shaping the bunch and then converting its transverse profile into a current profile via a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space-exchange beamline. We show that it is possible to tailor the current profile to follow, in principle, any desired distributions. We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the application of the method to generate trains of microbunches with tunable spacing and linearly-ramped current profiles. We also briefly explore potential applications of the technique.; Comment: 13 pages, 17 figures

## Universal Scaling of Optimal Current Distribution in Transportation Networks

Simini, Filippo; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica