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Condição dos agregados e da constituição microbiologica de solos submetidos a diferentes usos e manejos agricolas em Selviria (MS); Aggregates conditions and soil microbial biomass constitution used in differents cropping systems in Selviria (MS)

Joseane Carina Borges de Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2006 PT
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Este estudo trata do processo de degradação da estrutura do solo sob diferentes condições de uso, a partir da análise da estabilidade dos agregados e análise microbiológica, aliados a análises de rotina, como a distribuição granulométrica e complexo sortivo, carbono e pH, além da densidade e porosidade do solo. Os diferentes usos dos solos estudados foram: substrato degradado, substrato degradado com aplicação de lodo, solo com pastagem, substrato com vegetação regenerada (capoeira) e solo sob cerrado. Os tratamentos que sofreram degradação estão inseridos em uma grande ?área de empréstimo?, no município de Selvíria (MS), onde está instalada a Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP do Campus de Ilha Solteira/SP, ao lado da Usina Hidrelétrica de Ilha Solteira. Todos os tratamentos sem lodo revelaram baixa fertilidade dos solos, em função dos teores de bases, matéria orgânica e CTC, além de processos de compactação mecânica, com altos valores de densidade associados. O emprego do lodo de esgoto no substrato degradado imprimiu mudanças consideráveis nos solos. A análise de agregados mostrou altos percentuais de componentes estruturais nas classes de menores tamanhos, muito adensados, em consonância com a porosidade e a densidade. A aplicação de lodo de esgoto provocou melhora no substrato degradado...

Below ground interactions for sustainable cropping systems.

Goss, Michael J.; Brito, Isabel; Carvalho, Mário; Kadir, S.; de Varennes, A.
Fonte: Association of Applied Biology Publicador: Association of Applied Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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Key aspects of cropping systems are described in terms of their impacts on soil, water and air resources. The importance of microbial symbiotic relations with crop plants are briefly considered in the context of nutrient resource use efficiency and the resilience of plants to biotic and abiotic stress. It is argued that cropping systems need to include crops with fibrous root systems and legumes in the rotation to ensure sustainable use of resources. Three series of experiments are discussed that considered how the efficacy of rhizobia and indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could be enhanced in sustainable cropping systems. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that there are potential benefits to crop production from improved management of soil resources through the adoption of reduced tillage practices coupled with suitable crop rotation and weed control.

Strategy to manage AMF biological diversity within the cropping system

Brígido, C; van Tuinen, D; Brito, I; Alho, L; Goss, MJ; Carvalho, M
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
ENG
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Despite the great biological diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its functional consequences on the host plant, a strategy to manage this diversity within the cropping system is still missing. The importance of this strategy is reinforced by the fact that commercial inocula are too expensive to be used in a large scale and only contain a single or few AMF species. When high levels of botanical hierarchy are considered, such as grasses and forbs, there are evidences of strong preferential associations between some AMF and host plants, that can even superimpose the environmental conditions. To investigate the AMF biological diversity associated to different host plants in a non-sterilized soil with a diverse indigenous AMF population, a 454 pyrosequencing technique was used. When spores and root fragments were the propagule source, the results showed that the AMF species present, in the two dicot plant species (Ornithopus compressus and Trifolium subterraneum) and in the two monocots (Lolium rigidum and Triticum aestivum) used in this study, were similar within each plant species group and clear differences could be detected between the two botanical groups. However, when a monocot was planted after a dicot or vice- versa...

Solid biofuel and biogas production from grassland-willow alley cropping systems

Ehret, R.; Grass, M.; Wachendorf, M.
Fonte: EURAF Publicador: EURAF
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /06/2014 ENG
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Poster; Worldwide the demand for renewable energy is rising and biogenic energy carriers play an important role in bioenergy provision. However, increase and intensification of biomass production for energetic use has already shown adverse impacts on agro-ecosystems (e.g., biodiversity losses, nitrate leaching, and erosion). Energy cropping and related conversion systems should be improved in terms of their efficiency and environmental impact in future. Modern agroforestry systems offer an alternative agro-ecological approach to a sustainable intensification of energy crop production. The present study was part of the joint research project “BEST – Strengthening Bioenergy Regions“ (2010?2014) and analyzed the energetic potential of a young alley cropping system of grassland and fast-growing willows grown on a 3 to 6 year rotation. The study was conducted on an experimental area in Central Germany from 2011–2013. Two different grassland mixtures were established in a split-plot randomized block design with three replications, and intercropped with rows of willows. The woody biomass was converted to wood chips for thermal combustion. For the grassland biomass, three types of energetic conversion were evaluated: integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB)...

Energy and wood production in alley cropping agroforestry systems

Lamerre, J.; Schwarz, K.-U.; Langhof, M.; Bliefernich, S.; Greef, J.-M.; Wuhlisch, G.
Fonte: EURAF Publicador: EURAF
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Poster; Bioenergy was the second most important source of renewable energy - after wind-energy - in Germany to provide electricity during 2012. As the German government fixed an objective of 35 % of renewable resources in the final energy consumption by 2020, biomass production will continue to increase (Böhme and Musiol, 2013). Wood, as a source of renewable bioenergy can contribute to combined or separate heat and/or power production. It can be produced on farm land in short rotation coppices (SRC), mostly with poplars and willows. Such plantations have a high tree number and short harvest cycles (3 to 6 years), reaching a total of 6000 ha in Germany. Agroforestry systems combine tree and crop exploitation on one field, offering the possibility to simultaneously produce energy wood and food products. Many authors report of the benefits of such combination, especially of the increase in productivity of both, the annual and perennial plants compared to a conventional cropping system with only trees or annual crops (Dupraz and Liagre, 2011). Other positive effects of such a system can be the prevention of wind erosion, the introduction of valuable landscape structures and raising biodiversity (Nair, 1993). However...

Effects of biophysical interactions of the alley cropping system on yield and nutrition of forage crops in Saskatchewan

Issah, G.; Kimaro, A.A.; Kort, J.; Knight, D.J.
Fonte: EURAF Publicador: EURAF
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Presentation; Competition between trees and crops in alley cropping systems for soil moisture, light and nutrients, especially N can lead to decreased crop yield. However, there is tree-crop interactions in alley cropping the Canadian prairies are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of light and soil moisture conditions in the alleyways on yield and nutrition of forage crops. The experiment was conducted using a 9-yeald old Manitoba maple alley cropping site with oats inter-planted in the alleys at the experimental site of the Agroforestry Development Centre, Indian Head, SK. Apart from crude protein (CP) and total nitrogen (TN) in the oats plant, dry matter content (DM), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were not affected by distance from the tree row, orientation of oats plots and their interactions. Apparently, soil moisture (SMC) influenced yield and nutrition of oats in the northern orientation since DM, TN and CP were also higher in north facing plots. Producers may integrate trees on farm to diversify production cycles without comprising forage crop production and nutrition because no significant adverse effects were noted within 6m from the tree row.

Soil organisms in organic and conventional cropping systems

Bettiol,Wagner; Ghini,Raquel; Galvão,José Abrahão Haddad; Ligo,Marcos Antônio Vieira; Mineiro,Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and corn (Zea mays) crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. CO2 evolution during the cropping season was higher, up to the double for the organic agriculture system as compared to the conventional. The number of earthworms was about ten times higher in the organic system. There was no difference in the decomposition rate of organic matter of the two systems. In general, the number of microartropods was always higher in the organic plots in relation to the conventional ones, reflectining on the Shannon index diversity. The higher insect population belonged to the Collembola order, and in the case of mites, to the superfamily Oribatuloidea. Individuals of the groups Aranae, Chilopoda, Dyplopoda, Pauropoda, Protura and Symphyla were occasionally collected in similar number in both cropping systems.

Numerical Simulation of Cropping

Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John Woodside
Fonte: ASME International Publicador: ASME International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject to shearing action by opposing rigid platens. Shear failure at the local level is modeled by a cohesive zone characterized by the peak shear traction and the energy dissipated by shear failure process at the microscopic level. The model reveals the interplay between shear cracking and the extensive plastic shearing accompanying the cutting process. Specifically, it provides insight into the influence of the material’s microscopic shear strength and toughness on the total work of cropping. The computational model does not account for deformation of the cropping tool, friction between sliding surfaces and material temperature and rate-dependence.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

The experimental mixed cropping plantation two years after installation: a provisional balance for agriculture.

GASPAROTTO, L.
Fonte: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters... Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995. Publicador: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters... Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 151.
EN
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Shifting cultivation is the norm in Amazonia, because the soils are extremely poor. Mixed cropping in under discussion as a means of making agriculture self-sustaining and reducing clearance of primary forest. Mixed cropping systems involving different test (fertilizer input, inoculation with VA-mycorrhizal fungi spores, management of the spontaneous vegetation and of the cover crop (Pueraria phaseoloides) are being tested in a former experimental rubber plantation with the objective of achieving sustainability. The paper presents the useful plants of the four mixed cropping systems; 1. rubber, cupuacu, peach palm, papaya;2. cupuacu, peach palm, Brazil nut, urucum, manioc; 3. rubber, cupuacu, coonut, orange, parica, manioc, beans, maize; 4. rubber, parica, ma-hogny, andiroba; and of four conventional monocultures (rubber, cupuacu, peach palm and orange). The plants inoculated with VA-mycorrhizal spores had better growth in the nursery, and higher survival rates after planting out. However, the possible beneficial effects of mycorrhizal fungi were not detected in the field. The incidence of diseases and pests in the mixed systems is the same as in the monocultures, because the plants in those systems have not yet reached a height sufficient to form pathogen barriers. The crop yields...

Acceptance of mixed cropping systems by farmers.

LIMA, R. M. B.
Fonte: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters. Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995. Publicador: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters. Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 156.
EN
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Land use in the Amazon region by the indigenous populations was ecologically appropriate, but inappropriate in the general sense of sustainability, resulting in economic hardship for the people concerned. Modern agricultural practices (monocultures), for their part, have led to a series of failures. Successful agricultural activity in Amazonia calls for more complex systems that improve nutrient recycling and reduce the loss of plant material. In this context, agroforestry systems can rehabilitate traditional, indigenous practices by optimizing land use and satisfying basic human needs without destroying natural resources, and improving them where possible. The poster analyses the possible contribution of mixed cropping systems. Because of the similarities to the production systems encountered in Amazonia, mixed cropping systems may become more attractive to the local population to the extent that they prove to be flexible, sustainable and economically viable in practice. Their acceptance, adoption and use by farmers will help to alley general concerns, and improve overall prosperity and security.; 1995

Development of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) in mixed cropping systems.

MACEDO, J. L. V.; CRUZ, A. A.; ARAUJO, R. de C.; MARTINS, G. C.
Fonte: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters... Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995. Publicador: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters... Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 159.
EN
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The Amazon region has a great variety of native species with economic potential, notably peach palm. The development of peach palm was monitored in mixed cropping systems treated by application of 30% or 100% of the recommended fertilizer dose and inoculation or not of seedlings wth VA-mycorrhizal fungi. The parameters evaluated were height of the plants at 12 and 18 months, number of shoots/plant at 12 months, diameter of the stem and palm heart production at 18 months. As regards height of the plants and stem diameters, there were significant differences between the treatments with 30% and 100% fertilizer in the two systems. However, within the two fertilization levels, there was no significant difference between the treatments with and without mycorrhiza. There was a significant difference in number of shoots/plant between the two fertilization levels in System 1 only. Although, the difference was not significant, the number of shoots/plant was greater in the treatments with mycorrhiza. The data for palm heart production in the mixed cropping and monoculture systems will be discussed and compared.; 1995

Sensitivity of Cropping Patterns in Africa to Transient Climate Change

Lotsch, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The detailed analysis of current cropping areas in Africa presented here reveals significant climate sensitivities of cropland density and distribution across a variety of agro-ecosystems. Based on empirical climate-cropland relationships, cropland density responds positively to increases in precipitation in semi-arid and arid zones of the sub-tropics and warmer temperatures in higher elevations. As a result, marginal increases in seasonal precipitation lead to denser cropping areas in arid and semi-arid regions. Warmer temperatures, on the other hand, tend to decrease the probability of cropping in most parts of Africa (the opposite is true for increases in rainfall and decreases in temperatures relative to current conditions). Despite discrepancies and uncertainties in climate model output, the analysis suggests that cropland area in Africa is likely to decrease significantly in response to transient changes in climate. The continent is expected to have lost on average 4.1 percent of its cropland by 2039...

The role of nitrogen and in-crop lucerne suppression for increasing cereal performance in companion cropping systems

Harris, Rob; Clune, Tim; Peoples, Mark B.; Swan, Antony; Bellotti, Bill; Chen, Wen
Fonte: The Regional Institute Publicador: The Regional Institute
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2006 EN
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Five field experiments located at four sites (Burraja, Grogan, North Boorhaman and Roseworthy) across south eastern Australia compared cereal grain yields in the presence of lucerne (companion cropping) and absence of lucerne (cereal monoculture). Top-dressed nitrogen (N) was applied to subplots at Burraja, Grogan and North Boorhaman, while in-crop lucerne suppression was applied to plots at Burraja and two separate, but adjacent experiments at Roseworthy, to determine if these management strategies could improve cereal performance in the presence of lucerne. In addition annual lucerne and cereal biomass was measured at North Boorhaman from a companion crop and compared with both a lucerne and cereal monoculture. Over the three years and four sites, cereals growing with lucerne yielded between 19% and 57% less (P<0.05) grain than cereals growing alone. There was no main treatment by top-dressed N interaction at all sites, indicating that applying N to cereals irrespective of whether they were growing with or without lucerne, resulted in same yield responses. Top-dressing N at North Boorhaman in 2003 and 2005 resulted in a 14% and 40% respectively, increase (P<0.05) in grain yield across all cereal crops. The absence of a response at Burraja and Grogan was probably due to sub-optimal growing season rainfall. In-crop lucerne suppression did not increase grain yields at either Burraja or Roseworthy...

Over-cropping lucerne with wheat: effect of lucerne winter activity on total plant production and water use of the mixture, and wheat yield and quality

Humphries, A. W.; Latta, R.; Auricht, G. C.; Bellotti, Bill
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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37.27%
Two field experiments in southern Australia investigated a farming system of over-cropping wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) into established lucerne (Medicago sativa subsp. L.) varieties of different winter activity ratings. The study was completed at Roseworthy, South Australia, and Katanning, Western Australia, between August 2000 and May 2003 in seasons receiving below average and average rainfall. Comparative lucerne persistence and biomass, wheat biomass, grain yield and protein contents, and soil water contents were measured. Wheat grain yield was reduced by 13–63% by over-cropping lucerne compared with wheat monoculture. Winter-dormant lucerne (winter activity Classes 0.5 and 2) reduced the yield penalty compared with winter-active varieties (Classes 6 and 10) in 2 of the 4 evaluations. The positive response to applying N at sowing in the second year of over-cropping wheat at Katanning was greatest in the most winter-dormant lucerne treatment (winter activity 0.5). Soil water contents were similar under the lucerne/wheat over-cropping and lucerne monoculture treatments irrespective of lucerne winter activity. Deficits of up to 43 mm at Roseworthy and 88 mm at Katanning were measured in the 0–200-cm soil profile at the start of the third summer of the study. The study shows that it can be more efficient in terms of land area to over-crop wheat into lucerne than to grow monocultures on separate parcels of land akin to phase farming. The improved productivity of over-cropping is associated with the separation of growth patterns of winter wheat and summer-active lucerne. This farming system offers great potential for improving sustainability and productivity in southern Australian cropping rotations.

Identifying the cause of cereal yield decline in lucerne companion cropping systems; and the role of agronomy for mitigating cereal productivity losses.

Harris, Robert H.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
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Integrating perennial plants like lucerne into farming systems has been widely recommended to mimic pre-agricultural native vegetation, to improve year round transpiration and reduce the off-site impacts of agriculture on the surrounding environment. Despite perennial plants providing greater hydrological benefits compared to traditional annual plant based farming systems; integration of lucerne into farming systems remains a challenge. One approach that may enhance the integration is companion cropping, where annual crops are sown directly into an existing lucerne stand. However, past research has shown that this practice can be harmful to the productivity of annual crops, due to competition with lucerne for environmental resources. Yet beyond quantifying the effect on annual crop production, little is understood about what causes the loss of yield. Under-standing the underlying mechanisms dictating the performance of annual crops growing with lucerne could help design agronomic strategies that mitigate competition, and improve annual crop productivity; in turn potentially improving industry acceptance and adoption of both lucerne and companion cropping. In this study, two field experiments showed that competition was apparent early in the growing season prior to cereal stem elongation; when cereal biomass in the presence of lucerne was significantly lower than that of cereal grown in monoculture. Although there were no differences in cereal establishment...

Ecology and management of Brome grass (Bromus rigidus Roth and Bromus diandrus Roth) in cropping systems of Southern Australia.

Kleemann, Samuel George Lloyd
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
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Brome grass species Bromus rigidus (rigid brome) and B. diandrus (great brome) are winter annual grasses that have proliferated in recent years to become serious weeds of crops and pastures in southern Australia. Until recently there had been few studies on the population ecology of B. rigidus and B. diandrus and the research that had been done tended to focus on populations that had naturalised in Western Australia. Increased knowledge of the behaviour of B. rigidus and B. diandrus under current farming systems in southern Australia and the impact of management strategies on population ecology and seedbank dynamics would facilitate development of more effective weed control programs. A field survey was undertaken in 2003 on the Yorke and Eyre Peninsulas of South Australia to determine relative distribution of these two brome grass species. Bromus rigidus was found more frequently and at higher densities in South Australian crops than B. diandrus. Field populations of both spp. were shown to possess much longer seed dormancy than what had been previously reported in Australian literature. Germination of dormant seeds of B. rigidus and B. diandrus was overcome with the addition of gibberellic acid (0.001 M GA₃) rather than upon removal of the husk (i.e. lemma and palea) protecting the seed; indicating that dormancy is most likely under hormonal control within the embryo. Dormant populations of B. diandrus from cropping fields were highly responsive to cold stratification (i.e. chilling)...

Pesticide-free agroforestry cropping system: re-conception and first evaluation of the global performances of the SCAOPEST

Grandgirard, D.; Oheix, S.; Leclercq, C.; Lançon, L.; Liagre, F.; Mézière, D.; Dupraz, C.; Wartelle, R.; Poulain, J.L.
Fonte: EURAF Publicador: EURAF
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2014 ENG
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Presentation; From mid 2000, in order to address global challenges, European member states’ strategies for agriculture have progressively identified and given priority to the set up of a multi-functional farm models. In France, to achieve both food security and socio-environmental sustainability, the design, test and deployment of new Productive and Efficient Cropping Systems (PECS) was then engaged. Therefore, those of the particular PECS targeting the re-conquest of water quality often work at reducing drastically, or even renouncing to chemical pesticides. For that, within the 2012 EXPE Dephy Ecophyto program, a 6-years SCA0PEST project (pesticide-free agroforestry cropping system) has been funded. Considering the experimental farm objectives and local sectors' potentials, SCA0PEST objectives are (i) the review of the current conventional agroforestry cropping system and its experts' opinions-based re-design by respecting principles of integrated pest & weed management, (ii) the set up of 6 over 8 of the crops of the crop rotation each year, (iii) the ex-ante and continuous economic, environmental and social assessments of its performances. Depending on raw products sale prices, energy and fertilizers costs, preliminary SCA0PEST ex-ante assessment provided limited economic prevision...

'BRS Tospodoro': a high lycopene processing tomato cultivar adapted to organic cropping systems and with multiple resistance to pathogens

Giordano,Leonardo de B; Boiteux,Leonardo S; Quezado-Duval,Alice M; Fonseca,Maria Esther de N; Resende,Francisco V; Reis,Ailton; González,Matías; Nascimento,Warley Marcos; Mendonça,José L
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
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'BRS Tospodoro' is a high lycopene tomato cultivar, which combines multiple disease resistance genes and desirable processing traits. This cultivar was found to be suitable for both conventional and organic crop systems. 'BRS Tospodoro' was obtained via backcross breeding using 'Viradoro' as recurrent parent and the inbred line 'CNPH 1306' as the donor of the Pto gene (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 0). 'BRS Tospodoro' has the Mi1-2 gene that controls resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria) as well as tolerance to populations of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (vector of Potyvirus species), and to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci). 'BRS Tospodoro' has also the Sw-5b gene, which controls resistance to major Tospovirus species (Groundnut ringspotirus, Tomato chlorotic spot virus, Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus). This cultivar is also resistant to Stemphylium solani and S. lycopersici (Sm gene), Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 (I-1 gene) and Verticillium dahlie race 1 (Ve gene). 'BRS Tospodoro' presents uniform fruit ripening, with the first harvest being done around 110 to 120 days after plant emergence. The fruits are firm, square-shaped...

Dugong grazing and turtle cropping: grazing optimization in tropical seagrass systems?

Aragones, Lemnuel; Lawler, I; Foley, William; Marsh, Helene
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Grazing by dugongs and cropping by green turtles have the capacity to alter the subsequent nutritional quality of seagrass regrowth. We examined the effects of simulated light and intensive grazing by dugongs and cropping by turtles on eight nutritionally

Organismos do solo em sistemas de cultivo orgânico e convencional; Soil organisms in organic and conventional cropping systems

Bettiol, Wagner; Ghini, Raquel; Galvão, José Abrahão Haddad; Ligo, Marcos Antônio Vieira; Mineiro, Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2002 ENG
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Apesar do crescente interesse pela agricultura orgânica, são poucas as informações de pesquisa disponíveis sobre o assunto. Assim, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico foram comparados os efeitos de sistemas de cultivo orgânico e convencional, para as culturas do tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum) e do milho (Zea mays), sobre a comunidade de organismos do solo e suas atividades. As populações de fungos, bactérias e actinomicetos, determinadas pela contagem de colônias em meio de cultura, foram semelhantes para os dois sistemas de produção. A atividade microbiana, avaliada pela evolução de CO2, manteve-se superior no sistema orgânico, sendo que em determinadas avaliações foi o dobro da evolução verificada no sistema convencional. O número de espécimes de minhoca foi praticamente dez vezes maior no sistema orgânico. Não foi observada diferença na taxa de decomposição de matéria orgânica entre os dois sistemas. De modo geral, o número de indivíduos de microartrópodos foi superior no sistema orgânico do que no sistema convencional, refletindo no maior índice de diversidade de Shannon. As maiores populações de insetos foram as da ordem Collembola, enquanto para os ácaros a maior população foi a da superfamília Oribatuloidea. Indivíduos dos grupos Aranae...