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Crime and Violence in Central America : A Development Challenge - Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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56.47%
Crime and violence are now a key development issue for Central American countries. In three nations El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras crime rates are among the top five in Latin America. This report argues that successful strategies require actions along multiple fronts, combining prevention and criminal justice reform, together with regional approaches in the areas of drug trafficking and firearms. It also argues that interventions should be evidence based, starting with a clear understanding of the risk factors involved and ending with a careful evaluation of how any planned action might affect future options. In addition, the design of national crime reduction plans and the establishment of national cross-sectoral crime commissions are important steps to coordinate the actions of different government branches, ease cross-sectoral collaboration and prioritize resource allocation. Of equal importance is the fact that national plans offer a vehicle for the involvement of civil society organizations, in which much of the expertise in violence prevention and rehabilitation resides. Prevention efforts need to be complemented by effective law enforcement. The required reforms are no longer primarily legislative in nature because all six countries have advanced toward more transparent adversarial criminal procedures. The second-generation reforms should instead help deliver on the promises of previous reforms by: (i) strengthening key institutions and improving the quality and timeliness of the services they provide to citizens; (ii) improving efficiency and effectiveness while respecting due process and human rights; (iii) ensuring accountability and addressing corruption; (iv) increasing inter-agency collaboration; and (v) improving access to justice...

Crime and Violence in Central America : A Development Challenge - Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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Crime and violence are now a key development issue for Central American countries. In three nations El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras crime rates are among the top five in Latin America. This report argues that successful strategies require actions along multiple fronts, combining prevention and criminal justice reform, together with regional approaches in the areas of drug trafficking and firearms. It also argues that interventions should be evidence based, starting with a clear understanding of the risk factors involved and ending with a careful evaluation of how any planned action might affect future options. In addition, the design of national crime reduction plans and the establishment of national cross-sectoral crime commissions are important steps to coordinate the actions of different government branches, ease cross-sectoral collaboration and prioritize resource allocation. Of equal importance is the fact that national plans offer a vehicle for the involvement of civil society organizations, in which much of the expertise in violence prevention and rehabilitation resides. Prevention efforts need to be complemented by effective law enforcement. The required reforms are no longer primarily legislative in nature because all six countries have advanced toward more transparent adversarial criminal procedures. The second-generation reforms should instead help deliver on the promises of previous reforms by: (i) strengthening key institutions and improving the quality and timeliness of the services they provide to citizens; (ii) improving efficiency and effectiveness while respecting due process and human rights; (iii) ensuring accountability and addressing corruption; (iv) increasing inter-agency collaboration; and (v) improving access to justice...

Making Brazilians Safer : Aanalyzing the Dynamics of Violent Crime

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.44%
This report analyzes the dynamics of violent crime in Brazil. What factors are driving the overall crime decline in Brazil? Why is violent crime declining in some states while it is increasing in others? What types of interventions could help to reduce youth violence? These are the questions that motivate this report. Understanding what has gone right to bring crime down during the past 10 years is crucial to tackling the challenges posed by the new decade. The purpose of this report is to enhance that understanding. To do so, we examine the determinants of the crime shift at the national level, review the experience of the high-performing states, and generate new evidence on the impact of education policies on youth violence prevention. This report is organized in four chapters. Chapter one sets the stage for the issues covered in the report. Chapter two estimates the correlation of the change in crime in Brazil and across regions and states. Chapter three reviews the evidence on the policies implemented to reduce crime and violence in Sao Paulo...

Crime and Victimization

Baliki, Ghassan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.36%
Historically, higher crime rates have been associated with higher inequality and poverty. Nevertheless, there remains an ambiguity over the most prominent socioeconomic factors that increase crime rates and individual victimization. This paper discusses victimization and crime rate data collections from the International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS), the UNODC, and the World Value Surveys (WVS) in an effort to achieve three goals: (1) conduct an assessment on perceptions of public and private insecurity, as well as the fear of victimization; (2) provide a robust cross-regional comparison, where possible, on incidence of crime and evaluate the variability of exposure to victimization across gender and urban and rural residences; and (3) undertake a supplementary regional assessment for Latin America and the Caribbean to match perceptions with actual experience of crime to evaluate the magnitude of the gap in perceived risk of victimization among individuals.

Crime and Growth Convergence : Evidence from Mexico

Enamorado, Ted; López-Calva, Luis F.; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.4%
Scholars have often argued that crime deters growth, but the empirical literature assessing such effect is scarce. By exploiting cross-municipality income and crime data for Mexico -- a country that experienced a high increase in crime rates over the past decade -- this study circumvents two of the most common problems faced by researchers in this area. These are: (i) the lack of a homogenous, consistently comparable measure of crime and (ii) the small sample problem in the estimation. Combining income data from poverty maps, administrative records on crime and violence, and public expenditures data at the municipal level for Mexico (2005-2010), the analysis finds evidence indicating that drug-related crimes indeed deter growth. It also finds no evidence of a negative effect on growth from crimes unrelated to drug trafficking.

Economic Growth and Crime against Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Developing Economies

Islam, Asif
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
Several studies have explored the relationship between economy-level crime rates or individual-level crime and economic growth. However, few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and crime against firms. This study uses data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries and finds that economic growth is negatively associated with crime. This relationship is stronger for small and medium firms than large firms. The study also explores several economy-wide factors and their influence on the growth-crime relationship for small and medium enterprises. The results are robust to various sensitivity checks.

Crime and Local Inequality in South Africa

Demombynes, Gabriel; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
The authors examine the effects of local inequality on property and violent crime in South Africa. Their findings are consistent with economic theories relating inequality to property crime, and also with sociological theories that imply that inequality leads to crime in general. Burglary rates are 20-30 percent higher in police station jurisdictions that are the wealthiest among their neighbors, suggesting that criminals travel to neighborhoods where the expected returns from burglary are highest. The authors do not find evidence that inequality between racial groups fosters interpersonal conflict at the local level.

Trends in crime and violence in Papua New Guinea

Lakhani, Sadaf; Willman, Alys M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Crime and violence are widely viewed as posing a considerable challenge to development in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The full scale of crime and violence in PNG is difficult to assess, given the scarcity of national-level studies and a distinct urban bias in the available studies. Yet various commentators and surveys estimate that violence victimization rates in PNG are among the highest in the world. This briefing note presents some preliminary findings regarding the prevalence of crime and violence in PNG. It was prepared as part of a broader study to understand the socioeconomic costs of crime and violence to businesses, government agencies, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and households in PNG. The different data sources reviewed and the most significant challenges with the data available are noted in Annex 1. The challenges in partial data and questions concerning the methodology used for collecting and collating some of the data sets and data integrity call for some caution in interpreting the findings, in particular making generalizations about the wide diversity of provincial experiences on the basis of geographically limited data sets.

Drivers of Crime and Violence in Papua New Guinea

Lakhani, Sadaf; Willman, Alys M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.36%
Reports in both the national and international media and anecdotal evidence indicate that the prevalence of crime and violence is high in PNG, and presents an important obstacle to long-term development. A growing body of literature and data on the issue identify a diverse range of forms of crime and violence; from violence in the household to violent conflict between clans, and various forms of interpersonal violence. This violence has been linked to various factors, ranging from historical and cultural factors, to, more recently, economic drivers. Conflict and violence have historically been an integral part of social life in PNG. This briefing note presents an analysis of the drivers of violence and crime in PNG. An extensive data and literature review was undertaken by a World Bank team, following a scoping mission to PNG in December 2011. A follow-up mission to Port Moresby in October 2012 which included individual consultations with stakeholders as well as an experts meeting on Conflict and Fragility helped test and refine the analysis. The brief begins with a description of the role of conflict in PNG society...

Gates, Hired Guns and Mistrust - Business Unusual : The Cost of Crime and Violence to Businesses in Papua New Guinea

Lakhani, Sadaf; Willman, Alys M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
High levels of crime and violence are widely viewed as a critical constraint to development in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The most casual discussion on the topic inevitably elicits stories of personal experiences of victimization, or those of friends or family. Reports of violent incidents appear in the media on a daily basis. Despite 10 years of strong economic growth, with an increase in GDP of over 8 percent in 2011, there is a perception is that crime and violence have an impact on the business climate in the country, and that the costs to development are significant. This paper is the fourth in a series produced by the World Bank as part of the study "Socioeconomic Costs of Crime and Violence in PNG". The aim of the study has been to conduct targeted data collection and mine existing information sources, creating new analyses, in order to feed an informed dialogue among key stakeholders in PNG, and to help the business community in their ongoing discussions. As such, the study provides an overview of costs according to key themes along with presenting relevant empirical evidence...

Crime, Violence, and Community-Based Prevention in Honduras

Berg, Louis-Alexandre; Carranza, Marlon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Violent crime has emerged as a growing development challenge, affecting large segments of societies, and taking a severe toll on economic development. In many high crime environments, weak institutions, fiscal constraints, and political resistance have undermined the effectiveness of development programs and threatened their sustainability. The World Bank has begun to confront this challenge. The country of Honduras is the most violent in the world as measured by its homicide rate, which reached 90.4 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012. This report presents the findings of a study of crime dynamics and prevention practices focused around a comparison of nine neighborhoods in three of the most violent cities in Honduras: La Ceiba, El Progreso, and Choloma. The research revealed that although the transnational drug trade, economic downturn, and political crisis have deepened the country’s vulnerability, some neighborhoods have successfully prevented crime. Drawing from extensive qualitative research in these neighborhoods...

Immigration and crime: do Asian immigrants bring more crimes to Australia?

Tran, Nguyen To
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 137913 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
The link between the increased Asian immigration to Australia and crime rates has been subjected to debates in Australian contemporary society. With the concern of Australia being overwhelmed by Asians, some politicians, scholars and the public strongly oppose the increase in Asian immigrants. Most of anti-Asian debates are however based on rather subjective claims that Asian immigrants bring more crimes and social disorders to Australia, and these claims have not been supported by any convincing empirical research. Applying multivariate regression analysis, this paper statistically examines the relationship between Asian population, Asian immigrants and crime rates in six states and two territories of Australia from 1981 to 2004. After controlling for the relevant factors such as the population size, state-specific fixed effects, and a measure of urbanisation, the results are mixed. On the one hand, an increase in Asian immigrants has no effect on crime against persons and crime against properties. On the other hand, an increase in the size of Asian population has a statistically significant effect on crime against persons.; no

The impact of unilateral divorce on crime

Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio; Giolito, Eugenio P.
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2008 ENG; ENG
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56.48%
In this paper, we evaluate the impact of unilateral divorce on crime. First, using crime rates from the FBI´s Uniform Crime Report program for the period 1965-1998 and differences in the timing in the introduction of the reform, we find that unilateral divorce has a positive impact on violent crime rates, with an 8% to 12% average increase for the period under consideration. Second, arrest data not only confirms the findings of a positive impact on violent crime but also shows that this impact is concentrated among those age groups (15 to 24) that are more likely to engage in these type of offenses. Specifically, for the age group 15-19, we observe an average impact over the period under analysis of 40% and 36% for murder and aggravated assault arrest rates, respectively. Disaggregating total arrest rates by race, we find that the effects are driven by the Black sub-sample. Third, using the age at the time of the divorce law reform as a second source of variation to analyze age-specific arrest rates we confirm the positive impact on the different types of violent crime as well as a positive impact for property crime rates, controlling for all confounding factors that may operate at the state-year, state age or age-year level. The results for murder arrests and for homicide rates (Supplemental Homicide Report) for the 15-24 age groups are robust with respect to specifications and specifically those that include year-state and year-age dummies. The magnitude goes from 15% to 40% depending on the specification and the age at the time of the reform.

The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: A local area empirical investigation

Wheeler, S.; Round, D.; Sarre, R.; O'Neil, M.
Fonte: Human Sciences Press, Inc. Publicador: Human Sciences Press, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002–2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn.; Sarah Ann Wheeler, David K. Round, Rick Sarre and Michael O’Neil; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Crime, Violence, and Development : Trends, Costs, and Policy Options in the Caribbean

World Bank; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
The report on Crime, violence, and development: trends, costs, and policy options in the Caribbean, is organized as follows. It begins with an overview of crime in the region, separately considering conventional and organized crime. Two subsequent chapters examine risk factors and the costs of crime for the region as a whole. Next, a series of chapters presents case studies designed to highlight particular issues in specific countries. These case studies were chosen in order to provide a detailed analysis of the most pressing issues that are amenable to policy making at the regional and national levels. The specific issues were chosen in consultation with stakeholders in the region to ensure that the report was responding to their demands and needs. The report ends with a chapter on public policy responses to crime in the region. The report states that through multiple channels, crime and violence threaten the welfare of Caribbean citizens. Beyond the direct effect on victims, crime and violence inflict widespread costs...

Income Inequality and Violent Crime : Evidence from Mexico's Drug War

Enamorado, Ted; López-Calva, Luis-Felipe; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos; Winkler, Hernán
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
The relationship between income inequality and crime has attracted the interest of many researchers, but little convincing evidence exists on the causal effect of inequality on crime in developing countries. This paper estimates this effect in a unique context: Mexico's Drug War. The analysis takes advantage of a unique data set containing inequality and crime statistics for more than 2,000 Mexican municipalities covering a period of 20 years. Using an instrumental variable for inequality that tackles problems of reverse causality and omitted variable bias, this paper finds that an increment of one point in the Gini coefficient translates into an increase of more than 10 drug-related homicides per 100,000 inhabitants between 2006 and 2010. There are no significant effects before 2005. The fact that the effect was found during Mexico's Drug War and not before is likely because the cost of crime decreased with the proliferation of gangs (facilitating access to knowledge and logistics, lowering the marginal cost of criminal behavior)...

Estudo da relação entre o crime e a flora urbana numa metrópole portuguesa

Silva, Nuno Micael Alvim Coelho da
Fonte: [s.n.] Publicador: [s.n.]
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Projeto de Graduação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de licenciado em Criminologia; A investigação projectada visa explorar a relação entre a flora urbana e a criminalidade num cenário urbano português, testando a hipótese de que a vegetação contribui para a redução do crime através da mitigação de precursores psicológicos da violência e estímulo da vigilância informal, tal como formulado em estudos prévios. Empregando-se um sistema de informação geográfica, índices de cobertura vegetal produzidos através de detecção remota orbital serão contrastados com os índices de criminalidade georreferenciada derivados de estatísticas oficiais, respectivos às áreas urbanas coincidentes, controlando-se por variáveis sócio-demográficas através de testes estatísticos. Presume-se que os níveis elevados de vegetação são preditores de taxas de criminalidade reduzidas, ou seja, uma correlação inversa entre as duas variáveis. The investigation outlined in this work aims to analyze the relationship of vegetation with crime in a portuguese urban setting, focusing on testing the hypothesis that the vegetation cover contributes to the reduction of crime levels within the city thorough two previously postulated mechanisms...

Crime social, castigo social: desigualdade de renda e taxas de criminalidade nos grandes municípios brasileiros

Resende, João Paulo de; Andrade, Mônica Viegas
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Economic theory suggests that income inequality contributes to the increase of crime. Indeed, this is a recurrent result in Brazilian studies, which usually work with homicide data. The international literature, however, tends to explore data for different types of crimes, for which the results aren't always so strong. This paper explored the criminal report database from the Brazilian National Department for Crime Prevention for large cities, which afforded the possibility of unbundling crime rates into different types of crime.The results reveal a significant effect of inequality mostly upon property crimes. As this category of crime responds for the great majority of registered criminal offenses, income inequality takes a central role in determining crime rates in Brazil.; A teoria econômica sugere que a desigualdade de renda contribui para o aumento da criminalidade. Esse resultado é observado em estudos nacionais que utilizam dados de taxas de homicídio. Na literatura internacional, no entanto, em que os trabalhos buscam desagregar os diferentes tipos de crimes, os resultados nem sempre são significativos. Este trabalho explora base inédita de dados de boletins de ocorrência da Secretaria Nacional de Segurança Pública para os municípios brasileiros com população superior a cem mil habitantes...

Crime on the U.S.-Mexico Border: The Effect of Undocumented Immigration and Border Enforcement

Coronado,Roberto; Orrenius,Pia M.
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
In the 1990s, the U.S. border led the nation in the decline of property-related crimes, while violent crime rates fell twice as fast in the U.S. as in the median border county. This paper asks how changes in undocumented immigration and border enforcement have played a role in generating these divergent trends. We find that migrant apprehensions are correlated with violent crime and that increased border enforcement has not had a deterrent effect on such crime. Rather, increased border enforcement in a sector has led to more violent crime in neighboring sectors. In contrast to the results for violent crime, property crime is not correlated with migrant apprehensions, and while there is some evidence that border enforcement has lowered property crime rates, this result is sensitive to the model's specification. Our findings also indicate that the improved border economy over this period, specifically rapid job growth, played a significant role in lowering property crime rates.

A socio-structural analysis of crime in the city of Tshwane, South Africa

Breetzke,G
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
High and rising levels of crime plague post-apartheid South Africa. A common explanation for these high crime rates relates the country's unique socio-political past to a system of ineffective social control mechanisms that suggest high levels of social disorganisation within certain communities. Other explanations emphasise the presence of disaffected youths and deprivation, as well as the rapid immigration of people from neighbouring African countries into South Africa. I examined a number of these socio-structural explanations of crime on contact crime rates in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. The findings are largely consistent with the social disorganisation theory, as well as with what has previously been suggested in local literature. In order to supplement these preliminary findings, the effects of the same socio-structural explanations on contact crime rates were determined for predominantly Black, White, and 'Mixed' (containing a mix of both Black and White residents) suburbs using spatial regression models. Evidence from these analyses suggests that the effects of the various socio-structural explanations do not appear to traverse racial lines. Rather, the findings suggest non-uniformity in terms of the extent to which the various socio-structural factors impact contact crime rates based on race.