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A homogeneidade da rentabilidade bancária em relação a tamanho, origem de capital e operações de crédito; The banking profitability homogeneity in relation to size, kind of control and credit operation

Oliveira, Daniel Diniz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/06/2008 PT
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46.75%
Nos últimos anos a sociedade brasileira tem criticado os lucros alcançados pelos bancos, por considerá-los excessivamente elevados. Tal situação tem, inclusive, incentivado medidas, por parte do governo federal, para proteger o consumidor em relação às tarifas e aos juros cobrados pelas instituições financeiras. Por sua vez, a sociedade parece enxergar o setor de forma homogênea, sem atentar para as diferenças existentes entre seus integrantes. Este estudo tem o intuito de explicitar eventuais diferenças, relativas à rentabilidade, existentes no setor, de forma a fomentar uma visão mais crítica e menos superficial do segmento bancário, podendo, eventualmente, contribuir na elaboração de políticas para o setor. Para tanto, avaliou-se a uniformidade dos resultados dos bancos em relação a origem de capital, tamanho e nível de operações de crédito, a partir de uma base de dados, que compreendeu o período entre 1996 e 2006. O intervalo de tempo total foi dividido em três partes, de 1996 a 1998, denominado 1º período; de 1999 a 2002, 2º período; e, de 2003 a 2006, 3º período. Com esta divisão é possível identificar alterações nas relações entre as categorias das variáveis de um período para outro...

Macroprudential Stress Testing of Credit Risk : A Practical Approach for Policy Makers

Buncic, Daniel; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36.89%
Drawing on the lessons from the global financial crisis and especially from its impact on the banking systems of Eastern Europe, the paper proposes a new practical approach to macroprudential stress testing. The proposed approach incorporates: (i) macroeconomic stress scenarios generated from both a country specific statistical model and historical cross-country crises experience; (ii) indirect credit risk due to foreign currency exposures of unhedged borrowers; (iii) varying underwriting practices across banks and their asset classes based on their relative aggressiveness of lending; (iv) higher correlations between the probability of default and the loss given default during stress periods; (v) a negative effect of lending concentration and residual loan maturity on unexpected losses; and (vi) the use of an economic risk weighted capital adequacy ratio as the relevant outcome indicator to measure the resilience of banks to materializing credit risk. The authors apply the proposed approach to a set of Eastern European banks and discuss the results.

Global Survey of Development Banks

de Luna-Martinez, José; Vicente, Carlos Leonardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36.93%
Historically, development banks have been an important instrument of governments to promote economic growth by providing credit and a wide range of advisory and capacity building programs to households, small and medium enterprises, and even large private corporations, whose financial needs are not sufficiently served by private commercial banks or local capital markets. During the current financial crisis, most development banks in Latin America, followed by Asia, Africa, and Europe, have assumed a countercyclical role by scaling up their lending operations exactly when private banks experienced temporary difficulties in granting credit to the private sector. Despite the importance of development banks during crisis and non-crisis periods, little is known about them. This survey examines how development banks operate, what their policy mandates are, what financial services they offer, which type of clients they target, how they are regulated and supervised, what business models they have adopted, what governance framework they have...

A Review of Credit Guarantee Schemes in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Saadani, Youssef; Arvai, Zsofia; Rocha, Roberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36.87%
Many countries in the MENA region have established partial credit guarantee schemes to facilitate SME access to finance. These schemes can play an important role, especially in a period where MENA governments are making efforts to improve the effectiveness of credit registries and bureaus and strengthen creditor rights. This paper reviews the design of partial credit guarantee schemes in MENA, and assesses their preliminary outcomes. The paper is based on a survey conducted in 10 MENA countries in early 2010. The authors find that the average size of guarantee schemes in MENA (measured by the total value of outstanding guarantees) is in line with the international average, although there are wide differences across countries, and some schemes seem too small to make any significant impact. Most importantly, the number of guarantees looks generally small while their average value looks large. This suggests that guarantee schemes are not yet reaching the smaller firms. Guarantee schemes in MENA look financially sound and most schemes have room to grow. However...

Trade Credit Contracts

Klapper, Leora; Laeven, Luc; Rajan, Raghuram
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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46.46%
The authors employ a novel dataset on almost 30,000 trade credit contracts to describe the broad characteristics of the parties that contract together; the key contractual terms, such as the discount for early payment; and the days by when payment is due. Whereas prior work has typically used information on only one side of the buyer-seller transaction, this paper utilizes information on both. The authors find that the largest and most creditworthy buyers receive contracts with the longest maturities from smaller suppliers, with the latter extending credit to the former perhaps as a way of certifying product quality. Discounts for early payment seem to be offered to riskier buyers to limit the potential nonpayment risk when credit is extended for non-financial reasons.

Development Banks : Role and Mechanisms to Increase their Efficiency

Gutierrez, Eva; Rudolph, Heinz P.; Homa, Theodore; Blanco Beneit, Enrique
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Past performance of development banks, has generally been considered poor and the value of state ownership questioned. There are few institutions that achieve the optimum balance of effectively addressing a policy objective while being financially sustainable. Following the financial crisis, there is a renewed interest in the role development banks can play in weathering the crisis. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the lessons learned following the financial crisis and to present some of the best practices in development banking so that policy makers can be better informed should they be considering how to build strong state financial institutions to address current and future needs in their respective countries.

Credit Growth and Financial Stability in the Czech Republic

Frait, Jan; Gersl, Adam; Seidler, Jakub
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The Czech Republic had experienced a credit boom similar to those in other converging economies in the pre-crisis years. Nevertheless, the consequences of this credit boom were limited as was the impact of the global crisis on domestic financial institutions. This paper describes the developments in the Czech banking sector and explains how the tough macroeconomic environment in the Czech Republic acted as a strong tool of macroprudential policy. It concludes that although it is difficult to tame credit booms in small converging economies, a concerted set of microprudential and macroprudential measures, including monetary and fiscal ones, may ensure some success.

Macroprudential Regulation of Credit Booms and Busts : The Case of Croatia

Kraft, Evan; Galac, Tomislav
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Croatia employed macroprudential measures to manage credit growth and capital inflows during the boom years of the 2000s, including reserve requirements on loan growth, a marginal reserve requirement on increases in foreign liabilities, foreign exchange liquidity minima, and elevated capital adequacy ratios. Although quantitative analysis is complicated by substantial overlaps among measures, the econometric results in this paper suggest that the measures were most effective in requiring banks to hold high liquidity and capital buffers, and less effective in slowing credit growth and capital inflows. Larger buffers seem to have helped Croatian banks weather the financial crisis, making the adjustments to capital and liquidity during the crisis smaller.

How Do Banks Serve SMEs? Business and Risk Management Models

de la Torre, Augusto; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Politi, María Mercedes; Schmukler, Sergio L.; Vanasco, Victoria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.92%
This study describes the business and risk management practices that banks use to serve small and medium enterprises (SMEs). To do so, we use recently collected evidence from Argentina and Chile for a significant number of banks in each country, gathered through on-site meetings, a tabulated questionnaire, and a detailed data request. We find that banks are setting up separate departments to serve the segment, targeting many SMEs from all economic sectors and geographic regions. Banks use relationship managers to seek out new clients. Risk management and loan approval is separate from sales, mostly centralized, but not largely automated. Knowing the client is still crucial to minimize risks. Overall, the patterns we uncover suggest that banks are in the middle of an on-going learning process, by which they are developing the structure to deal with SMEs in a sustainable basis over the coming years.

European Bank Deleveraging and Global Credit Conditions : Implications of a Multi-Year Process on Long-Term Finance and Beyond

Feyen, Erik; González del Mazo, Inés
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
This paper assesses European bank deleveraging and its impact on global credit conditions. Before the onset of the global financial crisis, European banks had rapidly expanded their foreign lending activities. However, European banks have since been tightening credit conditions in Europe more for longer-term lending, a trend that banks expect to continue. European financial stress has been transmitted to emerging markets that have experienced a sustained deterioration of credit standards and funding conditions. As a result, European lending in emerging markets has been lagging behind lending of other international banks although European banks remain a dominant source of funding. "Good" bank deleveraging is still necessary from a prudential perspective. Although acute "bad" deleveraging pressures due to financial stress, which can trigger a credit crunch, have subsided recently on account of decisive policy measures, tail risks remain. Curtailing lending will probably be a core component of this multi-year deleveraging process. Taken together...

Review of State-Owned Banks in Belarus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.87%
This note reviews state-owned banks in Belarus and offers recommendations on how to strengthen them. It covers the Belarusbank, Belagroprombank, Belinvestbank, and Paritetbank (the public banks), and the recently established Development Bank of Belarus (DBB). Recommendations focus on corporate governance, funding, ownership function, mandate, lending models, and regulation and supervision. The note is based on information provided by the public banks, the Ministry of Finance, and the NBRB. However, due to their unavailability, the team did not hold meetings with the DBB and the Ministry of Economy. Thus, the analyses concerning the DBB are based on the review of its law as well as on discussions with the Ministry of Finance and the NBRB. The note is organized as follows: after this introduction, section two presents an overview of the public banks in Belarus and the role that they play in the local economy; section three discusses the details of Lending under Government Programs (LGP) and the importance for the public banks of the funding attached to these programs; section four analyzes the key features of the DBB...

Bank Ownership and Credit over the Business Cycle : Is Lending by State Banks Less Procyclical?

Bertay, Ata Can; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.89%
This paper finds that lending by state banks is less procyclical than lending by private banks, especially in countries with good governance. Lending by state banks in high-income countries is even countercyclical. On the liability side, state banks expand potentially unstable non-deposit liabilities relatively little during booms, especially in countries with good governance. Public banks also report loan non-performance more evenly over the business cycle. Overall the results of the analysis suggest that state banks can play a useful role in stabilizing credit over the business cycle as well as during periods of financial instability. However, the track record of state banks in credit allocation remains quite poor, questioning the wisdom of using state banks as a short-term countercyclical tool.

Facilitating SME Financing through Improved Credit Reporting

International Committee on Credit Reporting
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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46.88%
The general principles for credit reporting were issued by the World Bank in September 2011. Since then, the World Bank and the international committee on credit reporting (ICCR) have been leading efforts towards the implementation of the general principles worldwide. This report is one of the concrete outputs of the work following the general principles. It addresses one of the most significant problems that limit the ability of most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world to obtain adequate external financing to underpin their productive activities: information asymmetries. Creditors assess the creditworthiness of credit and loan applicants based on two basic criteria: ones financial capacity or ability to repay a loan, and ones willingness to repay the loan. A credit reporting system s (CRS) basic objective is to address information asymmetries, which is crucial for determining repayment capacity and repayment willingness. Credit reporting can therefore be extremely valuable to creditors for enhanced...

Essays on the Effect of Tax Exemption on Competitiveness, Performance and Portfolio Risk of Credit Unions and Subchapter S Banks

Jain, Ajeet
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
The tax exemptions granted to financial institutions like Subchapter S banks and credit unions cost billions of dollars to the government. The dissertation investigates the effect of tax exemption on competitiveness, performance and portfolio risk of credit unions and Subchapter S banks. The methodologies include difference in differences estimation, univariate and multivariate analysis. The first essay entitled “The tax exemption to Subchapter S banks: who gets the benefit?” investigates the effect of tax exemption to Subchapter S banks on stakeholders and on job creation. Specifically, we investigate the effect of adoption of Subchapter S status on the four stakeholders of the banks: the customers of the bank, the employees of the bank, the owners of the bank and the government. The results indicate that the tax exemptions to Subchapter S banks do not create new jobs, and that the owners of the bank are the sole beneficiary of the tax exemptions since there is a significant increase in bank’s return on equity after it adopts the Subchapter S status. The second essay entitled “A comparison of credit unions and Subchapter S banks: who shares higher tax benefits with customers?” examines whether credit unions are doing a better job of sharing the tax benefit with its customers. The results indicate that the credit union members do not receive the benefit in terms of lower loan rates...

From Pawn Shops to Banks : The Impact of Formal Credit on Informal Households

Ruiz, Claudia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
This paper examines the effects of expanding access to credit on the decisions and welfare of households. It focuses on the entry of Banco Azteca, the first bank in Mexico targeting households from the informal sector. Panel data suggest that informal households in municipalities with Banco Azteca branches experienced several changes in their saving, credit and consumption patterns. In order to estimate the impact of Azteca's entry, the paper develops a dynamic model of household choices in which the bank is endogenously selecting the municipalities for branch openings. The analysis finds that in municipalities in which the bank entered, households were better able to smooth their consumption and accumulate more durable goods even though the overall proportion of households that save went down by 6.6 percent. These results suggest that the use of savings as a buffer on income fluctuations declines once formal credit is available. What is more, these effects vary across households. Among informal households...

Do We Need Big Banks? Evidence on Performance, Strategy and Market Discipline

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
For an international sample of banks, the authors construct measures of a bank's absolute size and its systemic size defined as size relative to the national economy. They examine how a bank's risk and return, its activity mix and funding strategy, and the extent to which it faces market discipline depend on both size measures. Although absolute size presents banks with a trade-off between risk and return, systemic size is an unmitigated bad, reducing return without a reduction in risk. Despite too-big-to-fail subsidies, the analysis finds that systemically large banks are subject to greater market discipline as evidenced by a higher sensitivity of their funding costs to risk proxies, suggesting that they are often too big to save. The finding that a bank's interest cost tends to rise with its systemic size can also in part explain why a bank's rate of return on assets tends to decline with systemic size. Overall, the results cast doubt on the need to have systemically large banks. Bank growth has not been in the interest of bank shareholders in small countries...

Macro-Prudential Regulation of Credit Booms and Busts : The Case of Poland

Kruszka, Michal; Kowalczyk, Michal
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The last several years before the global downturn of 2008-2009 saw rapid credit growth in Poland. The credit-to-gross domestic product ratio rose from about 25 percent in 2004 to close to 50 percent in 2009. Such an expansion itself might potentially be a source of risks to financial stability, but it was also coupled with relatively new phenomena, such as massive foreign currency lending. Thanks to the pro-active attitude of the Polish authorities and sound economic fundamentals, the risks largely have not materialized. Since 2006 the financial supervisor has addressed in its recommendations for banks the problem of foreign exchange lending, which contributed to the high quality of the portfolio. Before the economy slowed down, the Polish Financial Supervisory Authority persuaded banks to accumulate an additional capital buffer that helped protect them from the negative consequences of the downturn. Some regulatory concepts that had been put into place in Poland in the previous years, including quantitative liquidity requirements...

Bank Competition, Concentration, and Credit Reporting

Bruhn, Miriam; Farazi, Subika; Kanz, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
This paper explores the empirical relationship between bank competition, bank concentration, and the emergence of credit reporting institutions. The authors find that countries with lower entry barriers into the banking market (that is, a greater threat of competition) are less likely to have a credit bureau, presumably because banks are less willing to share proprietary information when the threat of market entry is high. In addition, a credit bureau is significantly less likely to emerge in economies characterized by a high degree of bank concentration. The authors argue that the reason for this finding is that large banks stand to lose more monopoly rents from sharing their extensive information with smaller players. In contrast, the data show no significant relationship between bank competition or concentration and the emergence of a public credit registry, where banks' participation is mandatory. The results highlight that policies designed to promote the voluntary creation of a credit bureau need to take into account banks' incentives to extract monopoly rents from proprietary credit information.

Are Banks Too Big to Fail or Too Big to Save? International Evidence from Equity Prices and CDS Spreads

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Deteriorating public finances around the world raise doubts about countries' abilities to bail out their largest banks. For an international sample of banks, this paper investigates the impact of government indebtedness and deficits on bank stock prices and credit default swap spreads. Overall, bank stock prices reflect a negative capitalization of government debt and they respond negatively to deficits. The authors present evidence that in 2008 systemically large banks saw a reduction in their market valuation in countries running large fiscal deficits. Furthermore, the change in bank credit default swap spreads in 2008 relative to 2007 reflects countries' deterioration of public deficits. The results of the analysis suggest that some systemically important banks can increase their value by downsizing or splitting up, as they have become too big to save, potentially reversing the trend to ever larger banks. The paper also documents that a smaller proportion of banks are systemically important -- relative to gross domestic product -- in 2008 than in the two previous years...

Cyclicality of Credit Supply: Firm Level Evidence

Ivashina, Victoria; Becker, Bo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Theory predicts that there is a close link between bank credit supply and the evolution of the business cycle. Yet fluctuations in bank-loan supply have been hard to quantify in the time series. While loan issuance falls in recessions, it is not clear if this is due to demand or supply. We address this question by studying firms' substitution between bank debt and non-bank debt (public bonds) using firm-level data. Any firm that raises new debt must have a positive demand for external funds. Conditional on issuance of new debt, we interpret firm's switching from loans to bonds as a contraction in bank credit supply. We find strong evidence of substitution from loans to bonds at times characterized by tight lending standards, high levels of non-performing loans and loan allowances, low bank share prices, and tight monetary policy. The bank-to-bond substitution can only be measured for firms with access to bond markets. However, we show that this substitution behavior has strong predictive power for bank borrowing and investments by small, out-of-sample firms. We consider and reject several alternative explanations of our findings.