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A função política do Supremo Tribunal Federal; The political function of Federal Supreme Court

Paixao, Leonardo André
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Função política do Estado é a atividade que órgãos instituídos pela Constituição exercem no âmbito de sua competência, tendo por objetivo preservar a sociedade política e promover o bem comum, e que consiste em determinar, mediante a livre interpretação de normas constitucionais, o que é o interesse público e quais são os meios necessários à sua implementação. A função política é desempenhada por diversos órgãos e poderes, inclusive pelos tribunais constitucionais. Os tribunais constitucionais exercem função política, basicamente, em relação a quatro grandes temas: separação de poderes, federalismo, direitos fundamentais e funcionamento das instituições democráticas. O exercício da função política pelos tribunais constitucionais possui características específicas. Os tribunais constitucionais têm legitimidade para exercer função política, apesar de seus integrantes normalmente não serem escolhidos pelo voto popular. No desempenho de função política, os tribunais constitucionais devem observar limites. No Brasil, o órgão que exerce o papel de tribunal constitucional é o Supremo Tribunal Federal. O Supremo Tribunal Federal, ao longo de sua história, desde sua instalação, em 1891...

Precedentes e argumentação no Supremo Tribunal Federal: entre a vinculação ao passado e a sinalização para o futuro; Precedents and reasoning in the Brazilian Supreme Court: binding decisions from the past and guides for the future

Vojvodic, Adriana de Moraes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
Precedentes são decisões anteriores utilizadas como guia para novas decisões. No âmbito jurídico, precedentes funcionam não só como elementos conferidores de segurança e previsibilidade, limitando o grau de discricionaridade dos juízes, mas seu uso também está relacionado à garantida de igualdade. Apesar de serem tradicionalmente colocados em segundo plano quando estudados em sistemas de civil law, os precedentes aparecem com grande frequência na fundamentação de decisões judiciais em muitos destes sistemas jurídicos, dentre eles o brasileiro. A fim de determinar qual é o papel desempenhado pelos precedentes na fundamentação das decisões do Supremo Tribunal Federal, a pesquisa voltou-se à análise do papel desempenhado pelos precedentes nas decisões do tribunal envolvendo o conflito, ou a restrição, de direitos fundamentais. A partir da diferenciação de duas funções exercidas hoje pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal, já que nele estão concentradas as funções de última instância do Poder Judiciário e de Corte Constitucional, foram estabelecidos comportamentos esperados do tribunal com relação ao uso de precedentes em cada uma dessas funções. A análise da jurisprudência do tribunal foi realizada em duas etapas. Num primeiro momento...

Developing Specialized Court Services : International Experiences and Lessons Learned

Gramckow, Heike; Walsh, Barry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Court specialization is commonly considered to be an important reform initiative to advance the development of a successful judicial system. Court specialization is thought useful even to address broader development constraints, such as the need for more effective access to contract enforcement, improvements in the investment climate, or more adequate protection of the environment. These studies have also pointed to some drawbacks, however. For example, special attention to, and the allocation of additional resources for, handling business cases can lead to the perception that a court provides preferential services to the business community but not the average person. Judges may also develop too close a relationship with a particular group of lawyers and interest groups that are involved in special case types, especially if those groups are relatively small and if judges serve in this special capacity exclusively and for an extended period. This report outlines the international experiences and good practices related to establishing specialized courts and creating the associated judicial expertise. It specifically highlights the information that is needed to determine if specialization is required in particular areas...

Evaluating the cultural responsiveness of the design of an Aboriginal Court Complex for Aboriginal Users: Post Occupancy Evaluation of the Port Augusta Court Complex

Grant, E.; Rowden, E.; Taitz, M.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Conference item
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
The design of Port Augusta Courts Complex is unique. The design aimed to meet the environmental needs of Aboriginal people in the court system and to support the process of Aboriginal Courts. The design process drew on extensive consultation with the local community resulting in a court complex inclusive of Aboriginal signs and symbols, way finding and legibility mechanisms, strong relationships between the internal and external environments and considerations to meet the socio-spatial needs of Aboriginal users. The design intended to support culturally sensitive court processes such as the Aboriginal Court while fulfilling the requirements of the Anglo-Australian Western judicial system. It is unknown how successful the court complex was at fulfilling these requirements. Post-occupancy evaluation is the term for a broad range of activities aimed at understanding how buildings perform once they are completed and how satisfied building users are with the environment that has been created. This paper discusses the results and issues involved in conducting a post-occupancy evaluation of the cultural responsiveness of Port Augusta Courts Complex to Aboriginal users’ needs. It analyses various spaces including a flexible courtroom space in the complex...

Die russische Hofgesellschaft in der Zeit Katharinas II.; The Russian court society in the time of Catherine II

Otto, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Die Arbeit ist eine Fallstudie zur Geschichte des neuzeitlichen Fürstenhofs und nimmt den Tatbestand zum Ausgangspunkt, daß der russische Zarenhof in der modernen Hof- und Absolutismusforschung kaum eine Rolle spielt. Gegenstand ist die Hofgesellschaft unter Katharina II. Anhand funktionaler und quantitativer Kriterien werden die Personenkreise, die sich für die Konstituierung der Hofgesellschaft als relevant erwiesen, sowohl differenziert als auch in ihren politischen wie sozialen Beziehungen hierarchisiert und analysiert: von eher repräsentativen Ämtern bis zu dem engen Kreis einflußreicher Administratoren um die Monarchin. Auf dieser Grundlage werden einzelne Themenfelder abgesteckt zur Untersuchung der herrschaftspolitischen Strukturen des Hofes und seiner Funktionen in einem gesamtgesellschaftlichen Kontext, insbesondere im Spannungsfeld von aufgeklärter Reformprogrammatik und autokratisch-absolutistischer Herrschaftsordnung. Dazu gehören die ökonomischen Voraussetzungen höfischer Existenz; die Traditionen politischer und kultureller Deutungsmuster in der Hofgesellschaft und die unter anderem daraus resultierenden Erwartungshaltungen; die zeremonialen und rituellen Strukturen des Hoflebens sowie die Wirkmächtigkeit der Repräsentationsstrategien und die Wahrnehmung durch die Betroffenen; das Bild des Höflings und die Hofkritik; das Verhältnis von Festkultur...

Harmoniemusik in der Fürstenbergischen Hofkapelle zu Donaueschingen; Wind music of the Fuerstenberg Court orchestra at Donaueschingen

Loy, Felix
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Trotz einiger grundlegender Arbeiten zur Harmoniemusik (Musik für Bläserensemble im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert) seit den 1970er Jahren fehlen für viele Orte bzw. Höfe Mitteleuropas, an denen Harmoniemusik gepflegt wurde, noch immer entsprechende Materialpublikationen und Untersuchungen. Die vorliegende Dissertation will in diesem Sinne einen Beitrag dazu leisten, das Netz von Informationen zur Harmoniemusik in Mitteleuropa durch die Untersuchung der Verhältnisse am Donaueschinger Hof dichter zu knüpfen. Sie hat sich zur Aufgabe gestellt, den Bestand an Harmoniemusik als Ganzes in seiner repertoiregeschichtlichen Bedeutung ebenso zu untersuchen wie – hauptsächlich mit Hilfe der Archivalien im Donaueschinger Fürstenberg-Archiv – die musiksoziologischen Rahmenbedingungen, unter denen Harmoniemusik im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert in Donaueschingen als Teil der Hofmusik stattfand. Das gesamte Repertoire wird durch Analyse nach Komponisten und Bearbeitern, Besetzungen, Gattungen u. a. analysiert, die erhaltenen Werke außerdem in einem Katalogteil erfasst. Die Musikaliensammlung des Hauses Fürstenberg wurde im Jahre 1999 vom Land Baden-Württemberg erworben und wird seitdem in der Badischen Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe aufbewahrt. Der in dieser herausragenden Notensammlung enthaltene Bestand an Harmoniemusik gehört zu den umfangreichsten und am besten erhaltenen überhaupt; gemessen an der Zahl der überlieferten Werke (ca. 230) übertrifft er zum Beispiel die entsprechenden Bestände der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München oder der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek Wien. Die erhaltenen Notenbestände an Harmoniemusik lenkten den Blick zunächst auf die letzten etwa zwei Jahrzehnte des 18. Jahrhunderts...

From Autonomy to Full Deference in the Relationship between the EFTA Court and the ECJ: The Case of the International Exhaustion of the Rights Conferred by a Trademark

GALLO, Daniele
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Differently from other international tribunals set up in the context of regional economic integrations, the existing relationship between the EFTA Court and the ECJ, having been “institutionalized” at a primary level by the EEA Agreement itself, is naturally apt to give rise to a structural, natural and original interdependence between the two phenomena of mirror jurisdiction and mirror legislation. The relevance of the ECJ case law for the EFTA case law is not limited to the references to the former court case law, which can be found in all the advisory opinions and in all the judgments given up to now by the latter. It also and above all reveals itself in the constant adoption both of the reasoning made by the ECJ and of the constitutional principles of EU law. By putting on the same level its jurisprudence and that of the ECJ, the EFTA Court attributes to both of them the same efficacy in terms of judicial precedent. This does not mean that the EFTA Court has restricted itself to passively adopt the ECJ case law. EFTA judges have had a relevant influence on the ECJ in the course of the years. In doing so the EFTA Court has built up a strong judicial dialogue with the ECJ, according to the EEA principle that the interpretation and application of EEA law and EU law must be carried out “in full deference to the independence of courts”. In some other cases the EFTA Court has even developed reasonings which seem to underline a detachment of the former from the criteria and principles adopted by the ECJ. In this context...

Giving effect to EEA law : examining and rethinking the role and relationship between the EFTA Court and the Icelandic National Courts in the EEA legal order

HANNESSON, Ólafur Ísberg
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Defence date: 21 January 2013; Examining Board: Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, European University Institute (Supervisor); Professor M. Elvira Mendez-Pinedo, University of Iceland (external co-supervisor); Professor Miguel Poiares Maduro, European University Institute; Judge Páll Hreinsson, EFTA Court.; Doctrines developed by the EFTA Court have placed considerable demands on the various national courts in the EFTA States. The Court now considers the EEA Agreement to form an "international treaty sui generis which contains a distinct legal order of its own." This thesis will study the interaction between the EFTA Court and Icelandic courts. The basis of this research rests on two levels. At the EEA level, it is the ECJ and the EFTA Court that form the basis of the study. At the national level, the thesis studies Icelandic Supreme Court and district court decisions. I will approach the question of the impact of EEA law on Icelandic domestic law from two dimensions: substantive and procedural. In substantive terms, the study examines fundamental European judgemade principles, as well as the impact these doctrines have had on Icelandic law. This will indicate how Icelandic courts deal with potential conflicts of law between EEA and Icelandic law...

Enforceability of Labor Law : Evidence from a Labor Court in Mexico

Kaplan, David S.; Sadka, Joyce
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
The authors analyze lawsuits involving publicly-appointed lawyers in a labor court in Mexico to study how a rigid law is enforced. They show that, even after a judge has awarded something to a worker alleging unjust dismissal, the award goes uncollected 56 percent of the time. Workers who are dismissed after working more than seven years, however, do not leave these awards uncollected because their legally-mandated severance payments are larger. A simple theoretical model is used to generate predictions on how lawsuit outcomes should depend on the information available to the worker and on the worker's cost of collecting an award after trial, both of which are determined in part by the worker's lawyer. Differences in outcomes across lawyers are consistent with the hypothesis that firms take advantage both of workers who are poorly informed and of workers who find it more costly to collect an award after winning at trial.

Malaysia : Court Backlog and Delay Reduction Program, A Progress Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
This study reviews the initial results of efforts by the Federal Court of Malaysia to improve judicial performance, especially in the areas of backlog and delay reduction. It was written at the request of the Court and was intended to evaluate progress to date, suggest how the program might be improved, and provide recommendations on further actions in a second phase reform. The work is based on documents and statistics made available by the Court, two weeks of fieldwork (January 2011) in Putrajaya (the Federal Government Administrative Center and seat of the Federal Court and Court of Appeal) and the High Courts in the two largest court complexes, Kuala Lumpur and Shah Alam, and a follow-up visit in May 2011 to discuss the preliminary conclusions with the Judiciary and also to update material on this rapidly moving program. While intended as an external review of the Malaysian Judiciary's recent reform efforts, the study describes a model and lessons applicable to court systems elsewhere that are facing similar problems or wishing to improve other aspects of their performance.

Ghana - Establishment of the Commercial Court

Cofie, Sandra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
An often-repeated remark about George Kingsley Acquah, Ghana's chief justice from 2003 until 2007 and driver of his country's major judicial reforms was that "it took a man like him for this to happen". The author certainly subscribe to this view, having observed his impact from position as director of the judicial reform, project development and implementation unit at the judicial service of Ghana. Doubtless, most prominent reform is the establishment of the commercial division at the High Court in Accra, the first commercial court in Ghana, and possibly the most significant addition to the judicial service since independence. After decades of political turmoil that had left behind a disrupted court system, the reform not only brought about shorter delays to commercial dispute resolution. It also instilled new spirit in Ghana's justice sector. In light of Ghana's policy objective of becoming a middle income country by 2020, the state of legal affairs looked dire a mere 10 years ago. Military rule had given way to an emerging democracy only in the 1990s. In 1982...

Court Auctions : Effective Processes and Enforcement Agents

Gramckow, Heike
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
This paper considers the historical origins and efficacy of enforcement of civil court judgments, with a special focus on court auctions. It reviews the procedural and practical options available to courts and associated agencies for the identification of assets that may be used to satisfy a judgment debt and the processes for court-supervised asset seizure and sale by public auction. The efficiencies of public court auction processes are considered, including the elements of enforcement systems that can produce sub-optimal returns on sold assets and higher incentives for corrupt practices. Also considered is the trend in some systems for greater use of private agents as a means by which the cost of court enforcement processes can be reduced and for overcoming sometimes lengthy delays in enforcement. The paper concludes by identifying alternatives to public auction that in some cases can offer better prospects of assuring full payment of a judgment debt.

Perceptions of the Judiciary's Performance in Serbia; Results of the Survey with the General Public, Enterprises, Lawyers, Judges, Prosecutors, and Court Administrative Staff

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
With the purpose of providing assistance to government efforts in justice sector reform and modernization, the World Bank conducted two surveys. The first survey was conducted in 2010 in order to collect baseline information on perceptions of the court and prosecutorial performance and expectations from the reform implemented in January 2010. The second, follow-up, survey was conducted in 2013 in order to identify the impact of the first four years (2010 - 2013) of reforms and the expectations from the new national strategy of reform for the period 2014-2018. The surveys aimed to measure perceptions of judicial performance against five core values (efficiency, quality, fairness, accessibility, and integrity - independence and presence of corruption), and to compare the views of multiple stakeholders (court services users - general public and business sector, court services providers -judges, prosecutors and providers of court administrative services, and lawyers as intermediaries between users and providers of court services). The survey also focused on costs of judicial services...

Mapping the Way through Court Procedures in Bulgaria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
The aim of this report is to illustrate the steps court users take in order to protect their interests through procedures carried out by courts. The focus is on the difference between the procedure in the law and actual practice. In outlining these differences, the report shall identify procedural inefficiencies, bottlenecks and potential areas for improvement of the procedure. It shall also estimate the approximate costs of these procedures to the parties.

A Constitutional Crisis: The Kentucky Court of Appeals Schism, 1824-1826

Nudelman, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 23/04/2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This thesis examines Kentucky’s tumultuous political history from 1824 to 1826. Prompted by power struggles between the legislature and judiciary, a court schism ensued. Dueling judicial bodies, the “Old Court” versus the “New Court,” each claimed to be the rightful Court of Appeals. In answering why a schism occurred and how it was resolved, I identify and analyze the underlying critical yet subtle constitutional issues. When Kentucky’s debtor relief laws were ruled unconstitutional in 1823, the legislative majority and its constituents were outraged. Although statesmen initially appeared politically-motivated, the debate mushroomed into a critique of their democratic form of government and what powers the state constitution sanctioned to each branch. Words led to action. In 1824, the legislature enacted a law to disband and replace the original court. However, the “former” judges refused to resign causing two tribunals to exist concurrently. A new constitutional question emerged: Did the legislature have the authority to dissolve the highest state court? Two political parties formed espousing opposite viewpoints and supporting the corresponding “legitimate” court. Over the next two years, the parties addressed “the people...

Judicial Review, the Long-Run Game: Endogenous Institutional Change at the U.S. Supreme Court

Houck, Aaron Mitchell
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%

In this project, I examine why the judicial authority of the United States Supreme Court has increased. I propose a theoretical explanation of endogenous institutional change at the Court whereby the actions of the Court---specifically its decisions and the opinions in which it announces those decisions---have, over the long-run, altered the structures of the American separation-of-powers system. The Court has built up public support for the institution of judicial review to such a degree that its rulings are respected even when opposed by strong political actors---including the public. I evaluate this theory by analyzing three important transitional periods of Supreme Court history. The first case study explores the Court under Chief Justice John Marshall, and examines how the Court established judicial review as the most important means of constitutional interpretation. The second case study explores the Court's first cases interpreting the three Reconstruction Amendments, and shows that through these decisions the Court established itself as the arbiter of the meaning of these new amendments. The third case study looks at the Court's decision to hear reapportionment cases and its articulation of the political question doctrine that provided a legalistic method of expanding the political power of the Court. I conclude from these case studies that my theory provides a useful explanation for the expansion of judicial authority.

; Dissertation

A Data-Intensive Framework for Analyzing Dynamic Supreme Court Behavior

Calloway, Timothy Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%

Many law professors and scholars think of the Supreme Court as a black box--issues and arguments go in to the Court, and decisions come out. The almost mystical nature that these researchers impute to the Court seems to be a function of the lack of hard data and statistics about the Court's decisions. Without a robust dataset from which to draw proper conclusions, legal scholars are often left only with intuition and conjecture.

Explaining the inner workings of one of the most important institutions in the United States using such a subjective approach is obviously flawed. And, indeed, data is available that can provide researchers with a better understanding of the Court's actions, but scholars have been slow in adopting a methodology based on data and statistical analysis. The sheer quantity of available data is overwhelming and might provide one reason why such an analysis has not yet been undertaken.

Relevant data for these studies is available from a variety of sources, but two in particular are of note. First, legal database provider LexisNexis provides a huge amount of information about how the Court's opinions are treated by subsequent opinions; thus, if the Court later overrules one of its earlier opinions...

Supreme Court of the United States Decision on Assoc. Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al.

Supreme Court of the United States
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 13/06/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Decision rendered by the Supreme Court, ruling that isolated DNA is not patentable. The opinion of the court was delivered by Justice Clarence Thomas, with Justice Scalia concurring in part and concurring in the judgement.

United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit Disposition Sheet

United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 13/09/2011 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit Disposition Sheet stating that the petition for rehearing was denied.

Constitutional Court 1995 - 2012: How did the cases reach the Court, why did the Court refuse to consider some of them, and how often did the Court invalidate laws and actions?

Rautenbach,IM
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
The purpose of this article is to contribute data for the purposes of debates on how effectively the Constitutional Court performed its functions between 1995 and 2012. The cut-off date of 31 December 2012 has no other significance than that it was the last date before the beginning of the year in which this article was written. However, it is envisaged that the Constitution Seventeenth Amendment Act of 2012, which expressly provides that the Constitutional Court will after its commencement have jurisdiction to hear applications on non-constitutional matters. The figures contained in this article could at a later stage be used to determine what effect this amendment might have had on the functioning of the Court. it is envisaged that the Constitution Seventeenth Amendment Act of 2012, which expressly provides that the Constitutional Court will after its commencement have jurisdiction to hear applications on non-constitutional matters, will commence in the course of the second half of 2013. The figures contained in this article could at a later stage also be used to determine what effect this amendment might have had on the functioning of the Court. Between 1995 and the end of 2012, the Constitutional Court considered 464 applications for review. The ways in which these 464 applications reached the Court were as follows: • 35 referrals in terms of the interim Constitution; • 21 applications and referrals on matters within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court; • 78 applications for confirmations of parliamentary or provincial laws and actions of the President; • 45 applications for direct access to the Constitutional Court; • 101 applications for leave to appeal against judgments of the Supreme Court of Appeal; • 150 applications for leave to appeal against judgments of other Courts; • 34 applications concerning previous judgments of the Court and other matters. The Constitutional Court refused to consider applications in 103 instances and considered the merits of applications in 361 instances. The number of refusals per category is as follows: • 7 refusals in respect of 35 referrals in terms of the interim Constitution; • no refusals in respect of 21 applications and referrals on matters within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court; • 7 refusals in respect of 78 applications for confirmations of parliamentary of provincial laws and actions of the President; • 34 refusals in respect of 45 applications for direct access to the Constitutional Court; • 21 refusals in respect of 101 applications for leave to appeal against judgments of the Supreme Court of Appeal; • 34 refusals in respect of 150 applications for leave to appeal against judgments of other Courts; • 34 applications concerning previous judgments of the Court and other matters. The Constitutional Court invalidated in 192 instances legal rules and actions of organs of state and individuals. These invalidations were done in respect of 464 applications for review in all the categories and they were done in respect of 361 instances in which the Court reviewed the merits of applications. 41.39% of the 464 applications received were invalidated. 53.18% of the applications of the merits were considered...