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The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung, Patrick W. L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is largely unknown and has not been studied. The present study aimed at testing the cross-cultural factorial validity of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF, as well as the applicability of the taxonomy of preschool psychopathology they embody, to Mainland Chinese preschoolers. Country effects between our Chinese sample and the original U.S. sample, gender differences, and cross-informant agreement between teachers and parents were also to be examined. A Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF was completed by parents and teachers respectively on 876 preschoolers in Mainland China. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the original, U.S.-derived second order, multi-factor model best fit the Chinese preschool data of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. Rates of total behavior problems in Chinese preschoolers were largely similar to those in American preschoolers. Specifically...

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) : Reviewing the Link with In-Country Policy and Planning Processes - Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
The synthesis report concerns to go beyond a summary of the country studies to provide lessons and recommendations on how to further improve Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) effectiveness. To do so, it draws on findings from country case studies, the literature and recent internal Bank reviews (World Bank 2006, 2008) on PSIA. The synthesis is structured in three parts. Section two reviews the role of PSIA in country work drawing on internal guidance from the Bank and the wider literature. It introduces the PSIA framework and the main elements of an effective PSIA. Section two ends with a presentation of the review framework and the approach to sampling and methodology for the country studies. Section three presents the bulk of the review findings and lessons learned with a focus on lessons for embedding PSIA into country processes. Section four addresses the future of PSIA with recommendations aimed at: (i) improving the influence that PSIA has on policy and planning processes in-country, and (ii) ensuring that it is applied more routinely by partner governments and Bank programs.

Trade Policy, Trade Costs, and Developing Country Trade

Hoekman, Bernard; Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
This paper briefly reviews new indices of trade restrictiveness and trade facilitation that have been developed at the World Bank. The paper also compares the trade impact of different types of trade restrictions applied at the border with the effects of domestic policies that affect trade costs. Based on a gravity regression framework, the analysis suggests that tariffs and non-tariff measures continue to be a significant source of trade restrictiveness for low-income countries despite preferential access programs. This is because the value of trade preferences is quite limited: a new measure of the relative preference margin developed in the paper reveals that this is very low for most country-pairs. Most countries with very good (duty-free) access to a market generally have competitors that have the same degree of access. The empirical analysis suggests that measures to improve logistics performance and facilitate trade are likely to have the greatest positive effects in expanding developing country trade...

Export Variety and Country Productivity

Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization, as well as cross-country comparison. They construct country productivity based on relative endowments and product variety. Increases in output product variety improve country productivity as the new mix of output may better use resources of the economy, and improve allocation efficiency. Such effects depend on the elasticity of substitution in production between the different varieties. The more different the varieties are in terms of production, the more efficient it is to use the endowments of the economy when a new variety is available, which leads to productivity gains. In addition, as suggested in the literature...

Emerging Markets Instability : Do Sovereign Ratings Affect Country Risk and Stock Returns?

Kaminsky, Graciela; Schmukler, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Financial market instability has been the focus of attention of both academic and policy circles. Rating agencies have been under particular scrutiny lately as promoters of financial excesses, upgrading countries in good times and downgrading them in bad times. Using a panel of emerging economies, this paper examines whether sovereign ratings affect financial markets. We find that changes in sovereign ratings have an impact on country risk and stock returns. We also find that these changes are transmitted across countries, with neighbor-country effects being more significant. Rating upgrades (downgrades) tend to occur following market rallies (downturns). Countries with more vulnerable economies, as measured by low ratings, are more sensitive to changes in U.S. interest rates.

Just-in-Case Inventories : A Cross-Country Analysis

Guasch, J. Luis; Kogan, Joseph
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
The authors find that raw materials inventories in the manufacturing sector in the 1970s and 1980s were two to three times higher in developing countries than in the United States, despite the fact that in most developing countries real interest rates were at least twice as high. Those significantly high levels of inventories are a burden and an obstacle to country competitiveness and need to be addressed. Poor infrastructure and ineffective regulation, as well as deficiencies in market development, rather than the traditional factors used in inventory models (such as interest rates and uncertainty), are the main determinants and explain these differences. Cross-country estimations show that a one standard deviation worsening of infrastructure increases raw materials inventories by 11 percent to 37 percent, and a one standard deviation worsening of markets increases raw materials inventories by 18 percent to 37 percent. These findings are robust across a number of different proxies and specifications, including an industry-level specification that controls for fixed country effects.

Growth is Good for the Poor

Dollar, David; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
When average income rises, the average incomes of the poorest fifth of society rise proportionately. This is a consequence of the strong empirical regularity that the share of income accruing to the bottom quintile does not vary systematically with average income. The authors document this empirical regularity in a sample of 92 countries spanning the past four decades and show that it holds across regions, periods, income levels, and growth rates. The authors next ask whether the factors that explain cross-country differences in the growth rates of average incomes have differential effects on the poorest fifth of society. They find that several determinants of growth--such as good rule of law, opennness to international trade, and developed financial markets--have little systematic effect on the share of income that accrues to the bottom quintile. Consequently, these factors benefit the poorest fifth of society as much as everyone else. Thee is some weak evidence that stabilization from high inflation and reductions in the overall size of government not only increase growth but also increase the income share of the poorest fifth in society. Finally...

Finance and Macroeconomic Volatility

Denizer, Cevdet; Iyigun, Murat F.; Owen, Ann L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Countries with more developed financial sectors, experience fewer fluctuations in real per capita output, consumption, and investment growth. But the manner in which the financial sector develops matters. The relative importance of banks in the financial system is important in explaining consumption, and investment volatility. The proportion of credit provided to the private sector, best explains volatility of consumption, and output. The authors generate their main results using fixed-effects estimates with panel data from seventy countries for the years 1956-98. Their general findings suggest that the risk management, and information processing provided by banks, maybe especially important in reducing consumption, and investment volatility. The simple availability of credit to the private sector, probably helps smooth consumption, and GDP.

Growth, Inequality, and Social Welfare : Cross-Country Evidence

Dollar, David; Kleineberg, Tatjana; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Social welfare functions that assign weights to individuals based on their income levels can be used to document the relative importance of growth and inequality changes for changes in social welfare. In a large panel of industrial and developing countries over the past 40 years, most of the cross-country and over-time variation in changes in social welfare is due to changes in average incomes. In contrast, the changes in inequality observed during this period are on average much smaller than changes in average incomes, are uncorrelated with changes in average incomes, and have contributed relatively little to changes in social welfare.

Deconstructing country of origin for services and examining their effects on expectations of service quality: a conjoint analysis approach.

Aruan, Daniel Tumpal Hamonangan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Research in the area of international marketing has shown that consumers’ assessments of product quality may change (positively/negatively) according to country of manufacture, country of design and /or country of parts of the products. While this notion has been established in the product context, no research has attempted to isolate similar effects of the country of origin construct in relation to service offerings. This research deconstructs the country of origin construct for international services along country of origin of the brand (COB), country of origin of where the service is delivered (COSD), and country of origin of the person providing the service (CPI).This research also examines the extent to which these COO dimensions interact with specific consumers characteristics in determining consumers’ expectations of service quality for selected service categories. A total of 1071 respondents participated in the online survey undertaken in three countries (Australia, Indonesia and Singapore). Conjoint analysis was used to measure the relative importance and the utilities of the proposed dimensions. Using fractional factorial design, nine profiles (plus two hold-outs), were included in the experiment for each service. The services chosen in the experiment were opening a bank account (search service)...

Home Country Effects of Outward Foreign Direct Investment: Theoretical Approach and Empirical Evidence

Denzer-Schulz, Annemie
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Given their ability to transfer knowledge across borders, academic research has in large numbers highlighted the role of the Multinational Corporation (MNC) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as a channel for the international diffusion of knowledge. Pioneering works explain one of the motivations of firms to engage in FDI based on their firm-specific ownership advantages and the chance to exploit them abroad. It is assumed that MNCs transfer their strategic assets and knowledge capital across international borders. As a result, a large empirical literature has emerged, which examines the spillover effects and the general impact of inward FDI on the host economy, in particular with regards to productivity and economic growth. Newer research has shifted the focus and has considered MNCs and outward FDI not just as a means to “exploit” home country knowledge, but has increasingly focused on outward FDI as an instrument to “explore” and to tap into foreign sources of knowledge. In this context, it is assumed that outward FDI may give access to modern technological products and processes as well as organizational, managerial and marketing skills of host country knowledge sources. So far, however, academic studies have come up with a limited understanding of the home economy effects of outward FDI...

Determinants and home-country effects of FDI outflows: Evidence from Latin American countries

Padilla, Ramón; Gomes Nogueira, Caroline
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Tipo: Texto
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Foreign direct investment (FDI) by Latin American companies has increased sharply since the beginning of the 2000s. While most investment flows correspond to firms from large economies (i.e. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Colombia), small economies have also witnessed the increasing internationalisation of their domestic companies. This study examines the strategies followed by multinational enterprises (MNEs) from Latin America when they decide to invest in other countries, highlighting differences by sector and issuer-country size. To that end a new database, which comprises quantitative information on the main operations abroad of Latin American enterprises (both greenfield, and mergers and acquisitions) was constructed, based on fDi Markets and Thomson Reuters Datastream. It also investigates the home-country effects of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) by conducting a case study of Costa Rica through a representative sample of firms investing abroad.

Towards an integrative framework of brand country of origin recognition determinants : a cross-classified hierarchical model

Cerviño, Julio
Fonte: Emerald Publicador: Emerald
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
To propose a framework integrating the types and levels of the determinants of brand CO recognition and to provide evidence on Internet users’ brand CO recognition rates using a sample of multi-regional and global brands from a variety of product categories and countries. We integrate 'level-1' consumer and brand characteristics and 'level-2' product category and country effects in a single framework. Data obtained through an original on-line survey hosted by Yahoo provide the basis for the empirical analysis. Seven hypotheses are tested using a two-level cross-classified random-effect model (‘HCM2’) : (a) Education is positively related with brand CO recognition; (b) experience with brands is positively related with brand CO recognition; (c) integration between the consumer and the country of a foreign brand is positively related with brand CO recognition; (d) Internet users’ classification performance is significantly better for domestic than for foreign brands; (e) brand-name congruence with true brand origin is positively related with brand CO recognition; (f) brand equity explains brand CO recognition, and (g) product categories with higher consumer involvement enhance brand CO recognition. Brand CO recognition performance by Internet users is in line with classification performance rates reported in other studies dealing with well-know and global brands. The main limitation is the cross-sectional study design. The research implications suggest that scholars should consider level-2 product category and country characteristics in their models...

Analyzing the Effects of Policy Reforms on the Poor : An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of World Bank Support to Poverty and Social Impact Analyses

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
The current global financial and economic crises are likely to put enormous pressure on governments to respond with immediate measures and to undertake far-reaching reforms in the medium term, requiring a substantial increase in donor support. To protect the poor and enhance benefits to them, key policy reforms will need to be underpinned by systematic analysis of their expected poverty and social impacts. The World Bank's experience to date with the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) approach provides useful lessons for addressing these issues. Overall, implementation of the PSIA approach has had considerable limitations. There have been tensions between the various operational objectives assigned to PSIAs. The tensions concern inconsistencies between informing country and Bank policy decisions in a timely way and building country analytic capacity. PSIAs have had limited ownership by Bank staff and managers and have often not been effectively integrated into country assistance programs. Quality assurance...

Relative Returns to Policy Reform : Evidence from Controlled Cross-Country Regressions

de Castro, Alexandre Samy; Goldin, Ian; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
The authors aim at contributing to understand the dispersion of returns from policy reforms using cross-country regressions. The authors compare the "before reform" with "after reform" GDP growth outcome of countries that undertook import-liberalization and fiscal policy reforms. They survey a large sample (about 54) of developing countries over the period 1980-99. The benefits of openness to trade and fiscal prudence have been extensively identified in the growth literature, but the evidence from simple cross-section analysis can sometimes be inconclusive and remains vulnerable to criticism on estimation techniques, such as identification, endogeneity, multi-colinearity, and the quality of the data. The authors use a different analytical framework that establishes additional controls. First, they construct a counterfactual control group. These are countries that-under specific thresholds-did not introduce policy reforms under scrutiny. Second, the authors also try to use the most appropriate variable of policy reform...

Are Natural Resources Cursed? An Investigation of the Dynamic Effects of Resource Dependence on Institutional Quality

De Rosa, Donato; Iootty, Mariana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
This paper examines whether natural resource dependence has a negative influence on various indicators of institutional quality when controlling for the potential effects of other geographic, economic and cultural initial conditions. Analysis of a panel of countries from 1996 to 2010 indicates that a high degree of resource dependence, measured as the share of mineral fuel exports in a country's total exports, is associated with worse government effectiveness, as well as with reduced levels of competition across the economy. Furthermore, estimation of long-run elasticities suggests that government effectiveness and the intensity of domestic competition decrease over time as the dependence on natural resources increases. An illustration of the Russian case shows that the negative effects accumulate in the long run, leading to a worse deterioration of government effectiveness in Russia than in Canada, a country with a comparable resource endowment but far better overall institutional quality. This result is corroborated by a significant negative correlation found between regional resource dependence and an indicator of regulatory capture in Russian regions...

Economic Growth in Ghana : Determinants and Prospect

Raggl, Anna K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
This paper employs a simple cross-country panel framework to assess the determinants of growth in Ghana's gross domestic product over the past four decades. A set of standard covariates is used to explain growth rates. Natural resource variables are included because the effects of natural resource rents in gross domestic products are of particular interest for Ghana. Using the preferred specification, Ghana's growth potential is predicted for the upcoming decades under different scenarios. The results indicate that under the most pessimistic scenario of no improvements in the determinants of growth compared with the period 2005-09, Ghana's gross domestic product per capita growth rates will stagnate at approximately 4.5 percent during the next decade and decrease thereafter. If the policy measures and country characteristics improve in the way they did in the past three decades, average per capita growth rates of roughly 5.5 percent could be reached during 2015-34. Taking into account the expected oil production until 2034 adds 0.6 percentage points to projected gross domestic product growth rates on average.

Weak Instruments in Growth Regressions; Implications for Recent Cross-Country Evidence on Inequality and Growth

Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This paper revisits four recent cross-country empirical studies on the effects of inequality on growth. All four studies report strongly significant negative effects, using the popular system generalized method of moments estimator that is frequently used in cross-country growth empirics. This paper shows that the internal instruments relied on by this estimator in these inequality-and-growth regressions are weak, and that weak instrument-consistent confidence sets for the effect of inequality on growth include a wide range of positive and negative values. This suggests that strong conclusions about the effect of inequality on growth— in either direction—cannot be drawn from these studies. This paper also systematically explores a wide range of alternative sets of internal instruments, and finds that problems of weak instruments are pervasive across these alternatives. More generally, the paper illustrates the importance of documenting instrument strength, basing inferences on procedures that are robust to weak instruments...

The Effects of Volatility, Fiscal Policy Cyclicality and Financial Development on Growth; Evidence for the Eastern Caribbean

Brüeckner, Markus; Carneiro, Francisco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
This paper presents estimates of the effects that terms of trade volatility has on growth of real gross domestic product per capita. Based on five-year non-overlapping panel data comprising 175 countries during 1980–2010, the paper finds that: (i) in model specifications that do not include country fixed effects, terms of trade volatility has a significant negative average effect on economic growth; (ii) once country fixed effects are included in the model, the average effect of terms of trade volatility on economic growth is not significantly different from zero; (iii) robust to the inclusion of country fixed effects, terms of trade volatility has significantly adverse effects on economic growth in countries with pro-cyclical fiscal policy; and (iv) in model specifications that do not include country fixed effects, financial development is a significant mediating factor with regard to the effect that terms of trade volatility has on economic growth, however, the significance of this effect vanishes once country fixed effects are included in the model. The paper also explores these relationships for the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States region. A key conclusion from the research is that countercyclical fiscal policy and deeper financial markets will have particularly high payoffs in reducing the adverse growth effects of terms of trade volatility in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States region.

Multilevel modelling of country effects: a cautionary tale

Bryan, Mark L.; Jenkins, Stephen P.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2015 EN; EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Country effects on outcomes for individuals are often analysed using multilevel (hierarchical) models applied to harmonised multi-country datasets such as ESS, EU-SILC, EVS, ISSP, and SHARE. We point out problems with the assessment of country effects that appear not to be widely appreciated, and develop our arguments using Monte-Carlo simulation analysis of multilevel linear and logit models. With large sample sizes of individuals within each country but only a small number of countries, analysts can reliably estimate individual-level effects but estimates of parameters summarising country effects are likely to be unreliable. Multilevel modelling methods are no panacea.