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Custos de Refeições em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição: Uma Aplicação para a Divisão de Alimentação COSEAS/ U.S.P, em 1997.; Meal costs: an application in restaurants from the foodservice department of COSEAS/USP (University of São Paulo) in 1997.

Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/08/1999 PT
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Os custos em organizações públicas representam o indicador de sua eficiência econômica. Distinguindo-se das empresas particulares, que visam lucros, os serviços públicos com seus objetivos sociais bem definidos, incluindo, no caso das Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição da Divisão de Alimentação COSEAS/USP, a concessão de subsídio, precisam ter seus custos avaliados e acompanhados para instrumentalizar as decisões da Administração Pública, quanto à alocação dos recursos orçamentários. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se realizar uma análise dos custos das refeições nas seis Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição no ano de 1997, a preços de abril de 1998. Visualizando a produção de refeições dentro do enfoque da função de produção, os custos foram estudados segundo plantas de produção, e ao longo do ano, destacando-se os custos diretos dos custos totais, que incluíram os custos indiretos dos serviços dos setores da Administração e do Serviço de Distribuição. A abordagem dos valores nutritivos das refeições, em relação à energia, macronutrientes, cálcio e ferro, foi realizada na fase de planejamento e produção, com a finalidade de se analisarem os custos do seu insumo básico: os gêneros alimentícios. Como principais resultados têm-se que as refeições produzidas excederam o valor de energia...

Custos hospitalares da meningite causada por Streptococcus pneumoniae na cidade de São José dos Campos, SP; Hospital costs of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in the city of São José dos Campos, SP

Lucarevschi, Bianca Rezende
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2010 PT
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36.5%
O conhecimento dos custos das doenças imunopreveníveis, em especial os custos hospitalares da meningite pneumocócica, objeto de estudo desta tese, são de grande importância para os processos de tomada de decisão no que se refere a intervenções ou estratégias de saúde pública. O objetivo desta tese foi estimar os custos hospitalares relacionados à meningite pelo Streptococcus pneumoniae em crianças com idade até 13 anos (inclusive), na cidade de São José dos Campos, nos últimos dez anos. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de custo-de-doença, a partir dos casos notificados de meningite pneumocócica ocorridos de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2008. O cálculo da estimativa de custos hospitalares foi realizado de acordo com o método misto para a mensuração das quantidades dos itens de custos identificados e também para atribuição de valor aos itens consumidos, fazendo uso do micro-costing quando este era possível, e do gross-costing, como alternativa de viabilidade. Todos os custos foram calculados com os valores monetários referentes a novembro de 2009, e expressos em reais. Para análise das freqüências e médias, foi usado o programa Epi-Info versão 3.5.1. Resultados: De 1999 a 2008, foram notificados ao núcleo municipal de vigilância epidemiológica 41 casos de meningite pneumocócica em menores com até 13 anos de idade (média = 4...

Health care costs of domestic violence against women – evidence from Portugal

Barros, Pedro; Lisboa, Manuel; Barrenho, Eliana; Cerejo, Dalila
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 27/01/2010 ENG
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Our main objective is to estimate the additional health care costs to the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS) due to domestic violence against women. We collected information through a survey addressed to health care centres’ female users. Both victims and non-victims of violence were inquired. We estimate costs according to five different groups – consultation costs, health care treatment and therapeutic costs, costs of complementary and diagnostic exams, drugs costs and transport costs. The estimations have been split into two perspectives – the NHS perspective (public perspective) and private perspective of inquired women (out of pocket payments). The timeframe of our calculations is one year, referring to all costs generated by domestic violence situations in the last twelve months. Essentially costs were estimated through the product of total number of episodes by the average estimated price per episode. Additionally, for the private costs, we also considered the costs originated by income losses, the opportunity cost of time spent on health care treatments and the work inability caused by sickness. The results suggest that the victims of domestic violence’s additional demand for health care is valued €140 per annum...

Entry costs and quality of business environment: a critical analysis

Zylbersztajn,Decio
Fonte: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Publicador: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 EN
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Transaction costs are the costs to protect property rights. Institutions are shaped in order to control transaction costs in society. Studies have been developed to measure transaction costs both at the macro and microeconomic levels. Entry costs, i.e., the cost to start up a new business are considered a proxy for business environment quality, being also interpreted as a proxy to transaction cost measurement. This paper presents new elements in order to amplify the potential of research in business environment, particularly business entry costs. It stresses the limitation related to two theoretical points: first, the near decomposability of one complex transaction, and second, the complementarity between ex-ante and ex-post transaction costs, both related to the methodology adopted to measure business entrance costs.

Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa – a systematic review

Barter, Devra M; Agboola, Stephen O; Murray, Megan Blanche; Bärnighausen, Till
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$). Results: Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs; and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs...

Explaining High Transport Costs within Malawi : Bad Roads or Lack of Trucking Competition?

Lall, Somik V.; Wang, Hyoung; Munthali, Thomas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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What are the main determinants of transport costs: network access or competition among transport providers? The focus in the transport sector has often been on improving the coverage of "hard" infrastructure, whereas in reality the cost of transporting goods is quite sensitive to the extent of competition among transport providers and scale economies in the freight transport industry, creating monopolistic behavior and circular causation between lower transport costs and greater trade and traffic. This paper contributes to the discussion on transport costs in Malawi, providing fresh empirical evidence based on a specially commissioned survey of transport providers and spatial analysis of the country s infrastructure network. The main finding is that both infrastructure quality and market structure of the trucking industry are important contributors to regional differences in transport costs. The quality of the trunk road network is not a major constraint but differences in the quality of feeder roads connecting villages to the main road network have significant bearing on transport costs. And costs due to poor feeder roads are exacerbated by low volumes of trade between rural locations and market centers. With empty backhauls and journeys covering small distances...

Tools for Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Green Growth : The U.S. and Mexico

Harrington, Winston; Morgenstern, Richard; Velez-Lopez, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper examines the processes used in the United States and Mexico to assess the economic costs and benefits of environmental improvement, the kinds of information obtained from these procedures, and the additional knowledge that is needed about both elements to improve understanding of the problems and prospects of advancing a green growth agenda. Because environmental and other development needs are large and resources are limited, it is important to choose the best projects, those with the highest returns on both public investments and private resources harnessed by regulation. The United States is well-established as a world leader in the use of quantitative methods to evaluate options for environmental regulation and policy. Mexico represents a case where a developing country has made clear advances in reforming its economy and in introducing transparency in its regulatory processes for environmental and other policy areas.

Trade Costs in the Developing World : 1995 - 2010

Arvis, Jean-François; Duval, Yann; Shepherd, Ben; Utoktham, Chorthip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The authors use newly collected data on trade and production in 178 countries to infer estimates of trade costs in agriculture and manufactured goods for the 1995-2010 period. The data show that trade costs are strongly declining in per capita income. Moreover, the rate of change of trade costs is largely unfavorable to the developing world: trade costs are falling noticeably faster in developed countries than in developing ones, which serves to increase the relative isolation of the latter. In particular, Sub-Saharan African countries and low-income countries remain subject to very high levels of trade costs. In terms of policy implications, the analysis finds that maritime transport connectivity and logistics performance are very important determinants of bilateral trade costs: in some specifications, their combined effect is comparable to that of geographical distance. Traditional and non-traditional trade policies more generally, including market entry barriers and regional integration agreements, play a significant role in shaping the trade costs landscape.

Transaction Costs of Low-Carbon Technologies and Policies : The Diverging Literature

Mundaca, Luis; Mansoz, Mathilde; Neij, Lena; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Transaction costs are major challenge to moving forward toward low-carbon economic growth, as new technologies or policies tend to have higher transaction costs compared with those in the business as usual situation. However, neither a well-developed theoretical foundation nor a consensus interpretation is available for those transaction costs in the existing literature. The definitions and therefore the estimations of transaction costs vary across existing studies. The wide variations in the estimates could be attributed to several factors such as the very definitions and scope of transaction costs considered in the studies, the methodology for quantifying these costs, the type and size of low-carbon technologies, and complexities involved in the transactions. Nevertheless, the existing literature converges on addressing market failures, such as lack of information, in developing regulatory and institutional capacity to enhance private sector confidence in energy efficiency business as a key means to help reduce the transaction costs of low-carbon technologies.

Assessing the Impact of Communication Costs on International Trade

Fink, Carsten; Mattoo, Aaditya; Neagu, Ileana Cristina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Recent research suggests that trade costs influence the pattern of specialization and trade, but there is limited empirical research on the determinants of trade costs. The existing literature identifies a range of barriers that separate nations, but then typically focuses only on transport costs. Although communication costs figure prominently in intuitive explanations and casual observations, they have played little role in the formal analysis of trade costs. The authors seek to examine whether this neglect matters, and whether the inclusion of the magnitude and variation of communication costs across partner countries can add value to existing explanations of the pattern of trade. The authors develop a simple multi-sector model of "impeded" trade that generates hypotheses in a gravity-type estimation framework. The main proxies for bilateral communication costs are the per-minute country-to-country calling prices charged in the importing and exporting countries. The use of bilateral variations in prices yields estimates that are superior to the ones obtained from country-specific measures of communication infrastructure used in previous studies. The authors find that international variations in communication costs have a significant influence on bilateral trade flows...

Firm Productivity and Infrastructure Costs in East Africa

Iimi, Atsushi; Humphrey, Richard Martin; Melibaeva, Sevara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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Infrastructure is an important driving force for economic growth. It reduces trade and transaction costs and stimulates the productivity of the economy. Africa has been lagging behind in the global manufacturing market. Among others, infrastructure is an important constraint in many African countries. Using firm-level data for East Africa, the paper reexamines the relationship between firm performance and infrastructure. It is shown that labor costs are by far the most important to stimulate firm production. Among the infrastructure sectors, electricity costs have the highest output elasticity, followed by transport costs. In addition, the paper shows that the quality of infrastructure is important to increase firm production. In particular, quality transport infrastructure seems to be essential. The paper also finds that agglomeration economies can reduce firm costs. The agglomeration elasticity is estimated at 0.03–0.04.

The Cost of Being Landlocked : Logistics Costs and Supply Chain Reliability

Arvis, Jean-François; Raballand, Gaël; Marteau, Jean-François
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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In the last two decades new emphasis has been given to the economic impact of geography, especially on the cost of being landlocked. From a development perspective, understanding the cost of being landlocked and its economic impact is critical, since one country of four in the world is landlocked (almost one out of three in Sub-Saharan Africa). Attempts to address the cost of being landlocked have mainly focused on regional and multilateral conventions aiming at ensuring freedom of transit, and on the development of regional transport infrastructure. The success of these measures has been limited, and many massive investments in infrastructure seem to have had a disappointing impact on landlocked economies. Although there may still be an infrastructure gap, this book, based on extensive data collection in several regions of the world, argues that logistics and trade services efficiency can be more important for landlocked countries than investing massively in infrastructure. Logistics have become increasingly complex and critical for firms' competitiveness...

Eastern Africa - A study of the Regional Maize Market and Marketing Costs

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
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Maize is the most important staple food in the Eastern Africa region and the most widely traded agricultural commodity. Therefore, the performance of grain markets has a significant impact on people's welfare, particularly the poor, and is critical to inducing pro-poor growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, i.e. the countries under review in this report. Marketing costs at the borders would need to be reduced but even more attention should be paid to domestic marketing costs. Policy makers in East Africa should not be misled that encouraging greater regional trade is solely a diplomatic matter. Instead, concerted public investments and policy actions at local, national, and regional levels are required. Reduced marketing costs would allow a reduction in input prices and thus production costs. This report aims to examine, identify, and quantify the factors behind the marketing costs for maize in East African countries. While a number of studies have recognized major barriers to trade in the region, few have actually quantified their relative importance or the magnitudes of these constraints on grain trade. Since much past research has been inconclusive...

The Role of Trade Costs in Global Production Networks : Evidence from China’s Processing Trade Regime

Ma, Alyson C.; Van Assche, Ari
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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In a seminal contribution, Yi (2003) has shown that vertically specialized trade should be more sensitive to changes in trade costs than regular trade. Yet empirical evidence of this remains remarkably scant. This paper uses data from China's processing trade regime to analyze the role of trade costs on trade within global production networks (GPNs). Under this regime, firms are granted duty exemptions on imported inputs as long as they are used solely for export purposes. As a result, the data provide information on trade between three sequential nodes of a global supply chain: the location of input production, the location of processing (in China) and the location of further consumption. This makes it possible to examine the role of both trade costs related to the import of inputs (upstream trade costs) and trade costs related to the export of final goods (downstream trade costs) on intra-GPN trade. The authors show that intra-GPN trade differs from regular trade in that it not only depends on downstream trade costs...

Transport Prices and Costs in Africa : A Review of the International Corridors; Le prix et le cout du transport en Afrique : etude des principaux corridors

Teravaninthorn, Supee; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The objective of the study is to examine, identify, and quantify the factors behind Africa's high prices for road transport. Such prices are a major obstacle to economic growth in the region, as shown in several studies. For example, Amjadi and Yeats (1995) concluded that transport costs in Africa were a higher trade barrier than were import tariffs and trade restrictions. Other analyses by the World Bank (2007a) demonstrated that Africa's transport prices were high compared to the value of the goods transported and that transport predictability and reliability were low by international standards. This study's findings should help policy makers take actions that will reduce transport costs to domestic and international trade.

Incorporating Energy Cycle Externality Costs and Benefits in India's Power System Planning Mechanisms

Powell, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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The power sector in India plays a fundamental role in the economic development process. The country faces formidable challenges in meeting its energy needs in an environmentally sustainable manner and at reasonable costs. The planning and operation of the sector has hitherto been conducted without due regard to the environmental consequences. As a result, additions to capacity in recent years have been sub-optimal. Moreover different types of capacity are treated differently. Hydropower is required directly to bear more of its external environmental costs than other sources. The recent Supreme Court ruling has reinforced this tendency. Looking forward, much of the large capacity additions required over the next few years are likely to be coal-fired, with concomitant effects on the country's environment. Against that background, the paper looks at India's power generation planning process; whether and how it might adapt in the light of increased attention to environmental costs and benefits; and if there are other...

The burden of pediatric diarrhea: a cross-sectional study of incurred costs and perceptions of cost among Bolivian families

Burke, Rachel M; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Embrey, Sally R; Wagner, Laura; Cowden, Carter L; Kelly, Fiona M; Smith, Emily Rose; Iñiguez, Volga; Leon, Juan
Fonte: Springer Science + Business Media Publicador: Springer Science + Business Media
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis represents an enormous public health threat to children under five years of age, causing one billion episodes and 1.9 to 3.2 million deaths per year. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, an estimated 15% of under-five deaths are caused by diarrhea. Bolivian caregiver expenses related to diarrhea are believed to be minimal, as citizens benefit from universal health insurance for children under five. The goals of this report were to describe total incurred costs and cost burden associated with caregivers seeking treatment for pediatric gastroenteritis, and to quantify relationships among costs, cost burden, treatment setting, and perceptions of costs. Methods: From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n=1,107) of pediatric patients (<5 years of age) seeking treatment for diarrhea in sentinel hospitals participating in Bolivia’s diarrheal surveillance program across three main geographic regions. Data collected included demographics, clinical symptoms, direct costs (e.g. medication, consult fees) and indirect costs (e.g. lost wages). Results: Patient populations were similar across cities in terms of gender, duration of illness, and age, but familial income varied significantly (p < 0.05) when stratified on appointment type. Direct...

Healthcare resource utilization and costs of outpatient follow-up after liver transplantation in a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil: cost description study

Soárez,Patricia Coelho de; Lara,Amanda Nazareth; Sartori,Ana Marli Christovam; Abdala,Edson; Haddad,Luciana Bertocco de Paiva; D'Albuquerque,Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Novaes,Hillegonda Maria Dutilh
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Data on the costs of outpatient follow-up after liver transplantation are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct medical costs of the outpatient follow-up after liver transplantation, from the first outpatient visit after transplantation to five years after transplantation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cost description study conducted in a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Cost data were available for 20 adults who underwent liver transplantation due to acute liver failure (ALF) from 2005 to 2009. The data were retrospectively retrieved from medical records and the hospital accounting information system from December 2010 to January 2011. RESULTS: Mean cost per patient/year was R$ 13,569 (US$ 5,824). The first year of follow-up was the most expensive (R$ 32,546 or US$ 13,968), and medication was the main driver of total costs, accounting for 85% of the total costs over the five-year period and 71.9% of the first-year total costs. In the second year after transplantation, the mean total costs were about half of the amount of the first-year costs (R$ 15,165 or US$ 6,509). Medication was the largest contributor to the costs followed by hospitalization, over the five-year period. In the fourth year...

Communicating About Costs: A qualitative analysis to understand the out-of-pocket financial burden associated with cancer care

Harris, Jessica R.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 20/04/2012
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Policy Question In the context of the Affordable Care Act, what factors create financial burden for female breast cancer patients eligible for Medicare? Specifically, how can LIVESTRONG, a leading cancer advocacy organization, minimize the individual burden from out-of-pocket costs? Recommendations The goal of this study was two-fold: 1) develop recommendations to target LIVESTRONG ‘s research about the practical concerns of survivorship, and 2) improve the effectiveness and impact of LIVESTRONG’s navigation services. Correspondingly, my recommendations are separated into these two categories. Past research on patient-provider communication, medical decision-making, and cost-effectiveness precede this work. All recommendations were evaluated using the criteria of minimizing implementation costs, and maximizing collaboration and buy-in among stakeholders, and maximizing applicability to clients of diverse backgrounds. Further Research 1. Conduct market research to develop a segmented approach to assist different client groups. OOP costs are a universal challenge. However, different types of individuals (age, gender, race, socio-economic position, insurance type, etc.) access information in different ways. These groups likely have different coping strategies and varying comfort levels in discussing costs. The Medicare population in this study...

Uma proposta de ampliação da taxonomia geral de custos: uma aplicação em uma Instituição de Ensino Superior (IES); A proposal of amplification of general taxonomy of costs: an application in a higher education institution; A proposal of amplification of general taxonomy of costs: an application in a higher education institution

Lacerda, Daniel Pacheco; UFRJ; Rodrigues, Luis Henrique; UNISINOS
Fonte: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC Publicador: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2009 POR
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O presente artigo apresenta, a partir de uma ampla revisão da atual taxionomia de custos, uma proposta de ampliação, considerando um novo vetor de classificação. Esse novo vetor considera a questão dos custos quanto a sua ocorrência baseado no processo de decisão do mix de produção da organização e afetando os seus respectivos ganhos. Assim sendo, alguns custos poderiam ser classificados em tendo Ganhos Pré-definidos e outros como tendo Ganhos Pós-Definidos. O trabalho relaciona essa nova classificação com os conceitos de variabilidade e a alocação direta e indireta de custos, resultando em oito grupos de custos, os quais foram utilizados no sentido de uma revisão teórica na formulação específica do Lucro Global da organização. Finalizando e procurando ilustrar a proposta apresentada, a mesma foi aplicada em uma Instituição de Ensino Superior, procurando validar a robustez da proposta desenvolvida.; The present article presents, starting from a wide revision of the current classification of costs, an amplification proposal, considering a new taxonomy vector. That new vector considers the subject of the costs with relationship your occurrence based on the process of decision of the mix of production of the organization and affecting your respective ones won. Like this being...