Página 1 dos resultados de 3614 itens digitais encontrados em 0.025 segundos

The influence of stroke mechanics into energy cost of elite swimmers

Barbosa, Tiago M.; Fernandes, R.J.; Keskinen, K.L.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between energy cost (C), swimming velocity (v), stroke frequency (SF) and stroke length (SL) in toplevel swimmers. Eighteen elite swimmers (four freestylers, five backstrokers, five breaststrokers and four butterflyers) performed an intermittent set of n 9 200 m swims (n B 8) with increasing velocity. The oxygen consumption was measured breath-by-breath by a portable metabolic cart (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to measure pulmonary ventilation and collect expiratory gases. Blood samples were taken from the ear lobe before and after each swim to analyze the blood lactate concentration (YSI 1500L, Yellow Springs, OH, USA). At Backstroke, Breaststroke and Butterfly strokes, increases of SF were associated to increases of C, even when controlling the v. The increases in SL only promoted significant decreases in the C in Breaststroke. There was a significant and polynomial relationship between v and SF for all competitive swimming techniques. The polynomial relationship between v and SL was significant only in Freestyle and Butterfly stroke. Partial correlations between v and SF controlling the effect of SL and between v and SL controlling the effect of SF...

Corruption and Education: Empirical evidence from cross-country micro-data

Afonso, Helena Maria Dias
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; This study uses two micro-level datasets to perform an empirical assessment of the role of education on the decision to be corrupt. Bribe payments are used as proxy for corruption. The results show that increasing the level of schooling increases the propensity to bribe. A model of costs and benefits is assumed and regressions are ran to evaluate the effect of education on an intrinsic and an extrinsic cost of being corrupt, measured by justifiability of corruption and perception of corruption, respectively. The estimates show education increases one’s intrinsic cost (decreases justifiability) and decreases one’s extrinsic cost (increases perception).

Cost effectiveness of peginterferon alfa-2B combined with ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in Brazil

Fonseca,Marcelo Cunio Machado; Araújo,Gabriela Tannus Branco de; Araújo,Denizar Vianna
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
The treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with peginterferon alpha-2b/ribavirin (PegIFN + Rib) produced larger sustained viral response (SVR) compared to the conventional (non-pegylated) interferon/ribavirin (IFN + Rib), but its cost-effectiveness was not assessed in Brazil. We developed a Markov model to mirror the natural disease history and cohorts of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), that received PegIFN + Rib or IFN + Rib treatment for 48 or 24 weeks, according to viral genotype and liver histology. The SVRs for the treatments PegIFN + Rib and IFN + Rib were respectively 48% and 34% (genotype 1), and 88% and 80% (genotype non-1). Three Delphi panels were conducted with hepatologists and intensivists, and another one with oncologists. The costs are expressed in 2006 Brazilian Reais (R$) and the benefits were discounted at 3%. In genotype 1 HCV patients, PegIFN + Rib increases the life expectancy (LE) in 0.51 year, and the quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in 0.78, as compared to IFN + Rib. In genotype non-1 HCV patients, PegIFN + Rib increases the LE in 0.29 years and the QALY in 0.44 years, as compared to IFN + Rib. The incremental cost-effectiveness rate, considering all the genotypes, was of R$19,848.34 per QALY. Peginterferon alpha-2b with ribavirin is a cost-effective therapy for the treatment of naïve CHC adult patients compared to the interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin regime...

Hospital Utilization and Cost Trends in Canada and the United States

Andersen, Ronald; Hull, John T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1969 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Differences in hospital costs and utilization between the United States and Canada are analyzed and an attempt made to measure the significance of various demographic, economic, and other factors thought to be related to the differences. Increases in utilization are traced to population increases and to actual increased use per person; and cost increases tied to general inflationary trends are separated from those attributable to specific hospital price increases. Differences in the financing and reimbursement mechanisms in the two countries are shown to have had little effect on relative cost increases, which in the period under consideration were parallelled by similar or greater increases in other industrialized nations.

Utilization management as a cost-containment strategy

Bailit, Howard L.; Sennett, Cary
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Utilization management (UM) is now an integral part of most public and private health plans. Hospital review, until recently the primary focus of UM, is associated with a reduction in bed days and rate of hospital cost increases. These reductions appear to have had limited impact on aggregate health care costs because of increases in unmanaged services. In the future, with electronic connectivity between payers and providers and the use of clinical guidelines and computer-based decision-support systems, the need for prospective case-level reviews will be reduced. With these changes, UM programs are likely to become more acceptable to providers and patients.

Cost-effectiveness of 7-day-Holter monitoring alone or in combination with transthoracic echocardiography in patients with cerebral ischemia

Mayer, Felix; Stahrenberg, Raoul; Gröschel, Klaus; Mostardt, Sarah; Biermann, Janine; Edelmann, Frank; Liman, Jan; Wasem, Jürgen; Goehler, Alexander; Wachter, Rolf; Neumann, Anja
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Background and purpose Prolonged Holter monitoring of patients with cerebral ischemia increases the detection rate of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); this leads to improved antithrombotic regimens aimed at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes. The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day-Holter monitoring (7-d-Holter) alone or in combination with prior selection via transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to a standard 24-h-Holter using a cost-utility analysis. Methods: Lifetime cost, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated for a cohort of patients with acute cerebral ischemia and no contraindication to oral anticoagulation. A Markov model was developed to simulate the long-term course and progression of cerebral ischemia considering the different diagnostic algorithms (24-h-Holter, 7-d-Holter, 7-d-Holter after preselection by TTE). Clinical data for these algorithms were derived from the prospective observational Find-AF study (ISRCTN 46104198). Results: Predicted lifelong discounted costs were 33,837 € for patients diagnosed by the 7-d-Holter and 33,852 € by the standard 24-h-Holter. Cumulated QALYs were 3.868 for the 7-d-Holter compared to 3.844 for the 24-h-Holter. The 7-d-Holter dominated the 24-h-Holter in the base-case scenario and remained cost-effective in extensive sensitivity analysis of key input parameter with a maximum of 8...

Logistics in Lagging Regions : Overcoming Local Barriers to Global Connectivity

Kunaka, Charles
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
This report is based on two case studies carried out in Brazil and India on the impact of various strategies to reduce the cost of trade for small-scale producers. Small scale producers especially those located in lagging regions in developing countries lack easy access to efficient logistics services. They are faced with long distances from both domestic and international markets. Unless the enterprises are able to consolidate traffic volumes they can be excluded from international supply chains. However, the process of consolidation is not without cost nor does it occur on its own accord. It is typically handled by outside parties in the form of intermediaries. The study was designed around the horizontal relationships between the small scale producers and their vertical connections to higher tier parties involved in the same supply chain. It analyzes the cooperative approach to linking producers, the role of itinerant traders, and a newer and innovative approach to the same problem through virtual integration of farmers using modern information communication technologies. These approaches were explored by studying two separate supply chains...

Does Uncertainty Matter? A Stochastic Dynamic Analysis of Bankable Emission Permit Trading for Global Climate Change Policy

Zhang, Fan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
Emission permit trading is a centerpiece of the Kyoto Protocol which allows participating nations to trade and bank greenhouse gas permits under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. When market conditions evolve stochastically, emission trading produces a dynamic problem, in which anticipation about the future economic environment affects current banking decisions. In this paper, the author explores the effect of increased uncertainty over future output prices and input costs on the temporal distribution of emissions. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of stochastic prices of electricity and fuel. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes a risk-neutral firm to reduce ex ante emissions so as to smooth out marginal abatement costs over time. The convexity results from the asymmetric impact of changes in counterfactual emissions on the change of marginal abatement costs. Empirical analysis corroborates the theoretical prediction. The author finds that a 1 percent increase in electricity price volatility measured by the annualized standard deviation of percentage price change is associated with an average decrease in the annual emission rate by 0.88 percent. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty could induce substantially early abatements...

Public Expenditure and Growth

Herrera, Santiago
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Given that public spending will have a positive impact on GDP if the benefits exceed the marginal cost of public funds, the present paper deals with measuring costs and benefits of public spending. The paper discusses one cost seldom considered in the literature and in policy debates, namely, the volatility derived from additional public spending. The paper identifies a relationship between public spending volatility and consumption volatility, which implies a direct welfare loss to society. This loss is substantial in developing countries, estimated at 8 percent of consumption. If welfare losses due to volatility are this sizeable, then measuring the benefits of public spending is critical. Gauging benefits based on macro aggregate data requires three caveats: a) considering of the impact of the funding (taxation) required for the additional public spending; b) differentiating between investment and capital formation; c) allowing for heterogeneous response of output to different types of capital and differences in network development. It is essential to go beyond country-specificity to project-level evaluation of the benefits and costs of public projects. From the micro viewpoint...

Water Markets, Demand and Cost Recovery for Piped Water Supply Services : Evidence from Southwest Sri Lanka

Nauges, Celine; van den Berg, Caroline
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
In many countries water supply is a service that is seriously underpriced, especially for residential consumers. This has led to a call for setting cost recovery policies to ensure that the tariffs charged for water supply cover the full cost of providing for the service. Yet, the question arises on how consumers will react to such price increases. The authors illustrate the impact of price increases on consumption of piped water through a study of the demand for water of piped and non-piped households using cross-sectional data from 1,800 households in Southwest Sri Lanka. The (marginal) price elasticity is estimated at -0.74 for households exclusively relying on piped water, and at -0.69 for households using piped water but supplementing their supply with other water sources, with no significant differences between income groups. Those households that depend on non-piped water sources have a time cost elasticity (as a proxy for price elasticity) of only -0.06. The authors discuss the implications of these results in terms of pricing policy.

Does Land Fragmentation Increase the Cost of Cultivation? Evidence from India

Deininger, Klaus; Monchuk, Daniel; Nagarajan, Hari K.; Singh, Sudhir K.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Although a large literature discusses the productivity effects of land fragmentation, measurement and potential endogeneity issues are often overlooked. This paper uses several measures of fragmentation and controls for endogeneity and crop choice by looking at inherited paddy and wheat plots to show that these issues matter empirically. While crop choice can mitigate effects, fragmentation as measured by the Simpson index increases production cost and fosters substitution of labor for machinery, especially for small and medium farmers. Greater distances between fragments have a smaller effect. Creating opportunities for market-based consolidation could be one step to limit fragmentation-induced cost increases.

The Indirect Cost of Natural Disasters and an Economic Definition of Macroeconomic Resilience

Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
The welfare impact of a disaster does not depend only on the physical characteristics of the event or its direct impacts in terms of lost lives and assets. Depending on the ability of the economy to cope, recover, and reconstruct, the reconstruction will be more or less difficult, and the welfare effects smaller or larger. This ability, which can be referred to as the macroeconomic resilience of the economy to natural disasters, is an important parameter to estimate the overall vulnerability of a population. Here, resilience is decomposed into two components: instantaneous resilience, which is the ability to limit the magnitude of the immediate loss of income for a given amount of capital losses, and dynamic resilience, which is the ability to reconstruct and recover quickly. The paper proposes a rule of thumb to estimate macroeconomic resilience, based on the interest rate (a higher interest rate decreases resilience and increases welfare losses), the reconstruction duration (a longer reconstruction duration increases welfare losses)...

Addressing Cost Increases in Evolutionary Acquisition

Douglas A. Bodner; Farhana Rahman; Bill Rouse
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); Acquisition programs are under pressure to deliver increasingly complex capability to the field without the cost growth associated with recent programs. Evolutionary acquisition was adopted to help reduce system cost (through the use of mature technologies) and to improve system performance (through faster deployment of incremental capability). While the ultimate verdict is not yet in on this decision, our previous simulation-based results have demonstrated that evolutionary acquisition can deliver improved capability more quickly than traditional acquisition, but that cost may actually increase over that of traditional acquisition. This is due to the overhead resulting from more frequent system deployment and update cycles. Are there other factors that can help reduce the cost of evolutionary acquisition? This paper investigates the role of system modularity and production level in the cost of evolutionary acquisition. Modularity typically imposes upfront costs in design and development, but may result in downstream savings in production and sustainment (including deployment of evolutionary new capability). A simulation experiment is conducted to determine under which conditions cost increases are minimized.

Reasons for OMB Circular A-76 contract cost increases for U.S. Coast Guard activities and perceptions of the USCG A-76 program

Watson, Jon Michael
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 96 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; OMB Circular A-76 (Contracting out Commercial Activities) is a controversial program which directs the Government to relay on the private sector for commercial services when evaluated cost is lower in the private sector. Many A-76 contracts experience cost increases after contract award. An earlier study of three USCG A-76 contracts showed that Department of Labor (DOL) wage determinations and added work caused cost increases, but the contracts were still cost effective. This thesis updated the earlier study of three activities and analyzed three additional USCG commercial activities to see of DOL wage determinations, added work, or additional factors caused cost increases, and what the Coast Guard contracting officer could do to control them. In addition, contract costs were compared with the Government's Most Efficient Organization (MEO) for each activity to see if Government savings were still being realized. There are problems in the implementation of A-76 that may be associated with the perceptions of its effectiveness. To gauge USCG perceptions of the effectiveness of A-76, interviews were conducted with USCG leaders from units with 'contracted-out' commercial activities. These were compared with interviews conducted with leaders from units that had the functions remaining in-house; http://archive.org/details/reasonsforombcir00wats; Lieutenant Commander...

Efficiency gains and cost reductions from individual transferable quotas: A stochastic cost frontier for the Australian south east fishery

Kompas, Tom; Tuong, Nhu Che
Fonte: Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 29 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
In this paper efficiency gains and associated cost reductions from increases in traded quota are estimated with a stochastic cost frontier for the Australian South East Trawl Fishery (SETF). Estimation of this frontier also provides key information on the relative importance of input costs in the SETF, returns to scale, variations in costs as a result of trade in quota and the economic performance of each fishing vessel, year to year. Final estimations indicate that increases in the volume of quota traded have resulted in considerable efficiency gains and cost reductions in the SETF, ranging from 1.8 to 3.5 cents per kilogram for surveyed vessels for every one per cent increase in the volume of quota traded, or 1 to 2.4 per cent of total variable costs, with considerable gains also accruing to crew and skipper in the form of larger share payments. Mean vessel efficiency is relatively high in the SETF, estimated at over 90 per cent, and increases further to 92 per cent over the sample period with increased trades in quota.

Where to Sell? Market Facilities and Agricultural Marketing

Shilpi, Forhad; Umali-Deininger, Dina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
This paper analyzes the effect of facilities and infrastructure available at the market place on a farmer's decision to sell at the market using a comprehensive survey of farmers, markets and villages conducted in Tamil Nadu, India in 2005. The econometric estimation shows that the likelihood of sales at the market increases significantly with an improvement in market facilities and a decrease in travel time from the village to the market. The results suggest that wealth reduces a farmer's cost of accessing market facilities more than it increases her/his opportunity cost of leisure. The wealthy farmers are able to capture a disproportionate share of the benefits of facilities available at congested markets. The policy simulation, however, shows that the marginal benefits from an improvement in market facilities will favor poorer farmers in the context of India.

Rockets and Feathers : Asymmetric Petroleum Product Pricing in Developing Countries

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
This paper aims to provide those working in developing countries with a review of the issues that can help address the four questions: 1) are petroleum product margins excessively high at certain times?; 2) Does asymmetry of price responses to cost changes exist and, if so, what are the possible reasons that could account for it?; 3) If there is asymmetry of petroleum product price responsiveness, how large is the cost to consumers compared with symmetric pricing?; And 4) what policies can combat excessive petroleum product margins? The discussion focuses mainly on liberalized markets, because, in markets subject to price control, the pattern of responses of prices to cost changes will be determined partially or largely by the Government. Chapter one describes asymmetric pricing and the structure of the oil market, focusing in particular on the links between the retail sector and the rest of the chain of supply. The chapter next briefly reviews types of legislation that exist in liberalized markets to protect consumers from monopolistic or collusive behavior in petroleum products pricing. Chapter two describes different types of firms' pricing behavior...

Can Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide Education Policy in Developing Countries?

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Cost-benefit analysis in education is an important tool in the economists' arsenal. However, it is essential that research, especially on the social benefits of education, make further progress to make cost-benefit more analysis. There is a need for more research on the effects of policy interventions on outcomes beyond access to a year in school and what they earn as a result, such as on what children actually learn. Such research should focus on ensuring that the interventions are attributable to outcomes. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to go through the discipline of noting the benefits and costs, even if social rates of return cannot be calculated robustly.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Duke University Employee Commuters: The Cost-Effectiveness of Reductions

Potes, Andres
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 458261 bytes; 22397 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Duke University is seeking to decrease greenhouse gas emissions from its employee commuters. I build a linear optimization model to predict Duke University and Medical Center employee commute mode share. Combining these results with a forecast of Duke employee growth, I calculate the impact on employee commuter greenhouse gas emissions of 1) existing Duke carpooling and bus subsidies, 2) a $10 per month increase in employee parking costs and 3) a $20 per month increase in employee parking costs. The cost-effectiveness of these measures in 2015 to Duke University is $309.96 per mtCO2e for existing policy, -$248.87 per mtCO2e for a $10 per month increase in parking costs and -$516.21 per mtCO2e for a $20 per month increase in parking costs. Including costs to commuters, the cost-effectiveness of these policies to society as a whole is $57.41, $84.18, and $399.82 per mtCO2e. From the perspective of Duke University, excluding costs to employee commuters, the existing policy scenario is the least cost-effective strategy for achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions from employee commuters. The parking cost increases are the least cost-effective when costs to employee commuters are included. From this combined perspective, the existing policy scenario is the most cost-effective policy.

The cost-effectiveness of providing antenatal lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese: the LIMIT randomised trial

Dodd, J.M.; Ahmed, S.; Karnon, J.; Umberger, W.; Deussen, A.R.; Tran, T.; Grivell, R.M.; Crowther, C.A.; Turnbull, D.; McPhee, A.J.; Wittert, G.; Owens, J.A.; Robinson, J.S.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity during pregnancy is common, although robust evidence about the economic implications of providing an antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention for women who are overweight or obese is lacking. We conducted a health economic evaluation in parallel with the LIMIT randomised trial. Women with a singleton pregnancy, between 10(+0)-20(+0) weeks, and BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) were randomised to Lifestyle Advice (a comprehensive antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention) or Standard Care. The economic evaluation took the perspective of the health care system and its patients, and compared costs encountered from the additional use of resources from time of randomisation until six weeks postpartum. Increments in health outcomes for both the woman and infant were considered in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Mean costs and effects in the treatment groups allocated at randomisation were compared, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and confidence intervals (95%) calculated. Bootstrapping was used to confirm the estimated confidence intervals, and to generate acceptability curves representing the probability of the intervention being cost-effective at alternative monetary equivalent values for the outcomes avoiding high infant birth weight...