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The perception of corruption in a cross-country perspective: why are some individuals more perceptive than others?

Melgar,Natalia; Rossi,Máximo; Smith,Tom W.
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
We examine the foundations of corruption perception at the micro-level. Using micro and macro data, we focus on the incidence of personal characteristics and country effects. We extend previous researches by estimating sub-models taking into account differences in the countries of residence. Our database comes from the 2004 International Social Survey Program survey that includes more than 35 countries. Ordered probit models were estimated in order to study the impact of independent variables on the perceived level of corruption. This article argues that there are socio-demographic variables that play a relevant role in determining corruption perception (such as: gender, education, etc.). We find that country of residence matters and the model shows some relevant patters of behavior. Finally, we find a strong relationship between our ranking of countries and the Corruption Perception Index computed by Transparency International.

The Silence of Corruption : Identifying Underreporting of Business Corruption through Randomized Response Techniques

Jensen, Nathan M.; Rahman, Aminur
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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46.65%
Research on the economic consequences of corruption has been hampered by the inability to directly measure corruption. Using an innovative methodology that allows respondents to report individual experiences with corruption while minimizing self-incrimination and an objective diagnostic to evaluate lying (false responses), this paper explores the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh. The analysis shows that traditional measures of corruption underreport the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh and existing strategies to evaluate and elicit truthful responses have limited effectiveness. The authors identify the types of firms that are associated with false responses and nonresponses to survey questions on corruption.

Decentralization (Localization) and Corruption : New Cross-Country Evidence

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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46.63%
This paper attempts to improve the understanding and measurement of decentralization and its relationship with corruption in a worldwide context. This is done by presenting the conceptual underpinnings of such relationship as well as using superior and more defensible measures of both decentralization in its various dimensions as well as corruption for a sample of 182 countries. It is the first paper that treats various tiers of local governments (below the inter-mediate order of government) as the unit of comparative analysis. In contrast, previous analyses erroneously focused on subnational governments as the unit of analysis which yields invalid cross-country comparisons. By pursuing rigorous econometric analysis, the paper demonstrates that decentralization, when properly measured to mean moving government closer to people by empowering local governments, is shown to have significant negative effect on the incidence of corruption regardless of the choice of the estimation procedures or the measures of corruption used. In terms of various dimensions of decentralized local governance...

Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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46.63%
his volume provides advice on how to institutionalize performance-based accountability, especially in countries that lack good accountability systems. The volume describes how institutions of accountability may be strengthened to combat corruption. The volume is organized into two parts. The first part deals with public management reforms to ensure the integrity and improve the efficiency of government operations. It outlines an agenda for public management reforms and discusses the roles of e-government and network solutions in performance improvements. The second part of the volume provides advice on strengthening the role of representative institutions, such as organs and committees of parliament, in providing oversight of government programs. It also provides guidance on how auditing and related institutions can be used to detect fraud and corruption. The book highlights the causes of corruption and the use of both internal and external accountability institutions and mechanisms to fight it. It provides advice on how to tailor anticorruption programs to individual country circumstances and how to sequence reform efforts to ensure sustainability. This volume presents the latest thinking of leading development scholars on operationalizing such a governance framework. The focus of this volume is creating performance-based accountability and oversight when there is no bottom line. Each chapter addresses an important dimension of such a framework. The four chapters in part I are concerned with integrity and efficiency in public management. The nine chapters of part II are concerned with institutions and mechanisms to hold government to account.

The Many Faces of Corruption : Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level

Campos, J. Edgardo; Pradhan, Sanjay
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This paper explores the use of prototype road maps to identify corruption vulnerabilities, suggests corresponding warning signals, and proposes operationally useful remedial measures in each of several selected sectors and for a selected sample of cross cutting public sector functions that are particularly prone to corruption and that are critical to sector performance. Numerous technical experts have come together in this effort to develop an operationally useful approach to diagnosing and tackling corruption. The many faces of corruption is an invaluable reference for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers engaged in the business of development.

Grand Corruption in Utilities

Kenny, Charles; Søreide, Tina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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46.66%
This paper discusses mechanisms of grand corruption in private sector utility provision in developing countries. By the term "grand corruption," the authors abstract from the petty corruption that consumers experience - for example, when firms and individuals pay bribes to get water delivery or an electricity connection. The paper focuses on decisions made at the government level involving private sector management, ownership, and provision of utility services. Corruption at that level may influence the pace and nature of private sector involvement and competition in utilities, as well as the level and form of investments, subsidies, and prices. On the basis of a literature review and interviews with firms and regulating authorities in two countries, Tanzania and the Philippines, this paper discusses the levels and determinants of grand corruption in utilities. The paper concludes by discussing a research program to extend this knowledge through a cross-country survey instrument.

Mauritania : Anti-Corruption Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report provides analytic support to the National Anti-corruption Strategy (NACS) formulation, offers lessons from international experience on governance and anti-corruption (GAC) policy, and generally supports the Government and its development partners to better understand the phenomenon of corruption in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on the definition and measurement of corruption and the Mauritanian political economy. Chapter 3 focuses on corruption in public procurement. Chapter 4 concentrates on corruption in the courts of law. Chapter 5 deals with the extractive industries. Chapter 6 focuses on corruption from the perspective of the private sector, based on the results of the recent Investment Climate Assessment (ICA). On the basis of the analysis conducted in this report, the single most important message concerns the need for maintaining momentum and pressing ahead with the finalization of ongoing anti-corruption strategic thinking and legislation, and the implementation of already approved GAC laws and measures. Looking forward...

Philippines : Combating Corruption in the Philippines

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.67%
This report collects and presents available information about corruption issues facing the Philippines, ongoing anticorruption efforts in and outside the government, and suggested elements for a national anticorruption strategy, drawing on global experience. The report proposes a nine-point approach to fighting corruption in the Philippines. 1) Reducing opportunities for corruption by policy reforms and deregulations; 2) reforming campaign finance; 3) increasing public oversight; 4) reforming budget processes; 5) improving meritocracy in the civil service; 6) targeting selected departments and agencies; 7) enhancing sanctions against corruption; 8) developing partnerships with the private sector; and 9) supporting judicial reform. These initiatives, which are already underway as isolated elements, must be unified under one concerted program, a strong leadership and management structure, and a strong partnership with the private sector, civil society, donors, the congress, and judiciary.

Changing Norms is Key to Fighting Everyday Corruption

Panth, Sabina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.64%
One of the biggest impediments to anticorruption efforts is the fact that corrupt practices have become so institutionalized in everyday society that citizens view them as fixed and incontestable. To break down such an entrenched mind-set, the public s ignorance of their rights, cynicism, fear of reprisal, and mentality of submission to the status quo must first be defeated. Perhaps most important, the efficacy challenge needs to be addressed. Citizens generally must believe that they can actually do something about corruption in order to summon the courage to act upon that belief. Based on CommGAP s interactions with the global anticorruption community as well as earlier research, we were able to collate 18 representative instances (case studies) from around the world, with real-life examples of citizens coming together to speak up against corruption and social norms vis-à-vis corruption or to change public services affected by corrupt practices. This report is a one-step-up analysis of the collated case studies...

Qiiis custodiet ipsos custodes: can lessons from domestic and overseas experience assist in the implementation of the Law Enforcement Integrity Commissioner Act?

Marwood, Damian
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
Law Enforcement corruption is existent throughout the world. Whilst the extent of corruption within any one society is difficult to study, Transparency International annually provide a Corruption Perception Index; a study that surveys the extent of corruption, as perceived by the individuals of the home country. Results from the survey suggest that lower levels of corruption can often be associated lower populated, democratic nations. Regardless of the extent of corruption within these countries, the types of corruption and the factors that contribute to corruption are remarkably similar. Corruption of authority, kickbacks, opportunistic theft, shakedowns, protection of illegal activities, fixing, direct criminal activities, internal payoffs and flaking are types of corruption experienced in all countries studied in this report. While countries such as Australia rank significantly lower on the Corruption Perception Index than countries such as South Africa, the existence of such corruption is still apparent. Factors contributing to corruption such as low wages, promotion prospects, police culture, weak legislation, high community contact, political pressure, poor recruitment standards and inadequate training have all been cited as contributors to corruption from each of the studied countries. Whilst some countries such as Singapore...

Deterring Corruption and Improving Governance in Road Construction and Maintenance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.8%
This sourcebook is part of a broader program on governance and corruption in the transport sector. The Sourcebook is meant as a resource to sector practitioners to assess the extent and risks of corruption in the sector and to improve governance in ways that reduce corruption. As this is an emerging field, the sourcebook is not intended to be a manual, nor a set of directives but rather to organize and illustrate approaches and tools which sector practitioners may find useful. This sourcebook is in seven sections. Section two provides an overview of governance and corruption, and the framework used to evaluate governance and corruption risks in transport. Section three describes a 'generic' transport sector structure and several tools for evaluating governance at the sector level. The next four sections describe how to detect corruption, and improve governance in: sector policy and planning (section four); capital works (section five); government engineering and construction units (section six); and public-private partnerships (section seven).

Anti-Corruption Diagnostic for Argentina : An Overview of Three Reports and General Recommendations, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In mid-1999, the World Bank initiated diagnostic studies of three topics relevant to improving public sector transparency in Argentina. The topics proposed for study--procurement, the detection and investigation of corrupt acts, and the role of public information--were seen to be critical to any Argentine Government program to combat corruption. The three resulting papers (to be attached as Annexes) are synthesized in the present overview which provides a number of specific recommendations for imprvements and a suggested course of action for the future. The research focused almost exclusively on the federal government, but holds lessons for the other levels (provincial and municipal) as well. The report describes the situation prior to the assumption of office by President Fernando de la Rua (December 10, 1999). President De la Rua has begun an anti-corruption program, which is addressing many of the problems identified here. This report does not and cannot assess these new efforts. The attached consultants' reports should be read with that understanding.

Does Corruption Impact on Firms' Ability to Conduct Business in Mauritania? Evidence from Investment Climate Survey Data

Francisco, Manuela; Pontara, Nicola
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
This paper seeks to understand whether Mauritanian firms deem corruption as an obstacle to operate and grow, to identify the profile of firms that are more likely to make informal payments, and to quantify the size of these payments. The results of the analysis show that perceptions of corruption can be potentially misleading. Corruption is not considered to be one of the most taxing factors impeding the growth of firms in Mauritania. Yet, its cost to firms is significant and greater than in the comparator group countries. This means that corruption is internalized by firms and considered an accepted practice. Alternatively, firms may fear reporting corruption practices for fear of retaliation. Econometric evidence on the propensity and intensity of bribes suggests that medium-size firms suffer the most from corruption in Mauritania. Larger firms are more established and connected, do not fear exiting the market, and are less likely to be harassed. Smaller firms are less visible and may be able to escape the control of public officials by operating largely in the informal sector. Medium-size firms are the most likely to pay bribes and to pay the highest amounts as a percentage of their total annual sales...

Combating Corruption in the Philippines : An Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The war against corruption in the Philippines has taken a fresh turn with the inauguration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001, and the subsequent installation of the new government. Addressing corruption was one of the new administration's announced priorities, but a detailed anticorruption strategy and detailed action plan have yet to emerge. As this report notes, the deterioration of the governance environment in 2000 seems to have taken a heavy toll on investor confidence . The report also notes that several new initiatives were born during 2000-01 as the need for combating corruption was felt more widely and urgently. This need for concrete and visible actions to combat corruption still exists, maybe to a greater degree now than in the past. Chapter 1 discusses the 9-point approach to fighting corruption in the Philippines as proposed by the World Bank in November 1999 which comprises policy reforms and deregulation, reforming campaign finance, increasing public oversight, reforming the budget process...

Fighting Corruption in East Asia : Solutions from the Private Sector

Arvis, Jean-Francois; Berenbeim, Ronald E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
The critical need for private sector involvement in the fight against corruption is now an accepted fact, particularly in East Asia, where there is a buoyant private sector and where corruption has often been equated with cronyism. Cutting off corruption's supply side is a vital step in limiting the economic damage inflicted by corrupt practices. Despite the importance of private sector efforts in this regard, little attention has been paid to company anticorruption programs and to trying to learn from company experience. This book, which is based on research cosponsored by the World Bank and the Conference Board, provides detailed documentation of the efforts of Western and Asian companies to develop good standards of business conduct in their East Asian operations. It provides evidence that a common set of principles for resisting corruption can be established notwithstanding the rich cultural diversity and ownership structure of firms based in that region.

A Trio of Perspectives on Corruption : Bias, Speed Money and “Grand Theft Infrastructure”

Kenny, Charles; Klein, Michael; Sztajerowska, Monika
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.76%
A number of recent survey articles express hope that new data from enterprise surveys would shed new light on corruption complementing the corruption perception index by Transparency International. The paper explores this using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey data globally and not just the data on Eastern Europe and Central Asia that have been used before. The authors find that in general the Enterprise Survey data provide aggregate views on corruption that are similar to the corruption perception index. However, massive differences exist for key countries, such as China and India. This suggests that idiosyncratic, country-specific biases are at work in one or both data sources. The authors use the Enterprise Survey data and relate them to measures of bureaucratic complexity from the World Bank's Doing Business data, finding that more red tape is associated with higher corruption. The data are also consistent with the view that bribe payments reduce the burden of red tape. Finally, the paper looks at corruption in infrastructure. It has been suggested that the natural monopoly characteristics of infrastructure provide the lever to extract bribes. However...

Good-Practice Note : Governance and Anti-Corruption Innovations in the Malawi Social Action Fund Project

Aklilu, Petros; Agarwal, Sanjay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
The World Bank supported three phases Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) project was first approved in 1996. Malawi, with a population of 13 million, is a low income country with one of the lowest per capita incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malawi continues to face a variety of social, economic, political and administrative challenges including high inflation, low salaries/pensions of public officials, chronic resource shortages, dearth of public goods and services, unethical individual behavior, and kinship and nepotism. As a result of these factors, corruption remains a major problem in Malawi. In response to these challenges, Malawi has introduced a number of initiatives aimed at promoting good governance and fighting endemic corruption. In May 2004, President Bingu Wa Mutharika, immediately after taking office adopted a zero tolerance stance on corruption. This was subsequently formalized into a declaration on zero tolerance on corruption in February 2007. MASAF projects' commendable work in identifying governance and accountability risks and integrating mitigation measures into proposed project activities.

Removing Impediments to Sustainable Economic Development : The Case of Corruption

López Claros, Augusto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
This paper examines causes and consequences of corruption within the process of economic development. It starts by reviewing some of the factors that, over the past couple of decades, have transformed corruption from a subject on the sidelines of economic research to a central preoccupation of policy makers and donors in many countries. Drawing on a vast treasure trove of experiences and insights accumulated during the postwar period and reflected in a growing body of academic research, the paper analyzes many of the institutional mechanisms that sustain corruption and the impact of corruption on development. This paper argues that many forms of corruption stem from the distributional attributes of the state in its role as the economy's central agent of resource allocation. What is the impact of corruption on public finances and on the characteristics and performance of the private sector? What distortions does corruption introduce in the allocation of resources and in the relationships among economic agents in the marketplace? The paper also addresses the question of what can be done about corruption and discusses the role of economic policies in developing the right sorts of incentives and institutions to reduce the incidence of corruption. Particular attention is paid to business regulation...

La perception de la corruption : une autre perception

Broda, Philippe
Fonte: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM) Publicador: Centre de recherche en éthique de l'UdeM (CRÉUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
Lorsqu’elle est traitée dans la littérature académique, la perception de la corruption est généralement mise en rapport avec la réalité du phénomène. La question est alors de savoir dans quelle mesure un tel rapprochement est pertinent. Cet article se propose d’aborder la notion de perception de la corruption dans une autre optique. L’intention est de la comprendre, non comme une impression, mais comme une position de principe. De ce point de vue, il s’agira d’examiner comment les diverses formes de corruption sont jugées par la population. La logique économique se trouvera ainsi en relation avec la dimension éthique.; Perception of corruption is generally related to the reality of the phenomenon in academic literature. One of the questions that emerges is to what extent this relationship is relevant. This article addresses the notion of perception of corruption from another point of view. The objective is to understand the latter as a position of principle rather than as an impression. We shall therefore examine how different types of corruption are judged by the population. Economic reasoning will be then confronted with ethical considerations.

The perception of corruption in a cross-country perspective: why are some individuals more perceptive than others?

Melgar, Natalia; Rossi, Máximo; Smith, Tom W.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
We examine the foundations of corruption perception at the micro-level. Using micro and macro data, we focus on the incidence of personal characteristics and country effects. We extend previous researches by estimating sub-models taking into account differences in the countries of residence. Our database comes from the 2004 International Social Survey Program survey that includes more than 35 countries. Ordered probit models were estimated in order to study the impact of independent variables on the perceived level of corruption. This article argues that there are socio-demographic variables that play a relevant role in determining corruption perception (such as: gender, education, etc.). We find that country of residence matters and the model shows some relevant patters of behavior. Finally, we find a strong relationship between our ranking of countries and the Corruption Perception Index computed by Transparency International.