Página 1 dos resultados de 10082 itens digitais encontrados em 0.195 segundos

Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students; El uso de bebidas energizantes en estudiantes de educación física; O uso de bebidas energéticas entre estudantes de educação física

BALLISTRERI, Martha Carmen; CORRADI-WEBSTER, Clarissa Mendonça
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.63%
This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. CONCLUSIONS: the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.; OBJETIVO: caracterizar el patrón de uso de energizantes en muestra por conveniencia de estudiantes de educación física. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Instrumento: cuestionario auto aplicable para datos sociodemográficos y caracterizar el consumo. RESULTADOS: patrón de consumo (n = 137)...

Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students

Ballistreri,Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster,Clarissa Mendonça
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.63%
This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137): 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. CONCLUSIONS: the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.

Interfuel substitution in the consumption of energy in the United States

Baughman, Martin Lynn; Joskow, Paul L.; Zerhoot, Frederick S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4535561 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.61%
The effects of alternative public policies on the consumption and prices of various forms of energy in the United States depends critically on the nature of consumer demands for fuels and the supply characteristics of these fuels. Previous work on energy demand has tended to concentrate on the demand for a particular fuel as determined by standard economic variables such as the price of the fuel, income levels, sometimes the price of alternative fuels, and other demographic characteristics of the consuming population. In this work the consumer decision making process is viewed as being composed of two steps. First, the consumer decides that he wants a particular service and, secondly, seeks to find the fuel that will provide this service most cheaply. This view leads us to concentrate on substitution possibilities among fuels for particular services rather than own-price elasticities for a particular fuel. This paper presents results for the determinants of energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector in the United States. First, a discussion of the conceptual model used for fuel choice decisions is presented. Then, empirical results are given for appliance choices in the residential sector for four selected appliances and for the "fuel-split" of aggregate energy consumption among the three fuels used in the residential and commercial sector. The own-price and cross-price elasticities are estimated and discussed. Next...

Information systems to provide leading indicators of energy sufficiency : a report to the Federal Energy Administration

MIT Energy Lab
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 11635839 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.44%
Final working paper, submitted to Office of Data Policy, Federal Energy Administration in connection with A Study of information systems to provide leading indicators of energy sufficiency, (FEA Contract no. 14-01-001-2040).

Status of Energy Efficiency in the Western Balkans : A Stocktaking Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.71%
Across the Western Balkan region, countries exhibit relatively high levels of energy intensity, a high energy savings potential among energy end-users, and heavy dependence on imported hydrocarbons. Energy markets would benefit from enhanced demand-side efforts and integrated energy efficiency measures across all sectors. Since most energy infrastructure was built during the 1960s and 1970s, inadequately maintained since the 1990s, and reaching the end of its useful lifespan, now is a crucial time to consider the way forward in the energy sector. The signing of the Energy Community Treaty in 2003 marked the beginning of systematic energy sector liberalization among Western Balkan countries, allowing them to deal with widespread energy sector problems that included, on the demand side, low energy tariffs, lack of payment discipline and, hence, little incentive for energy users to invest in energy efficiency measures. Building each component of the strong enabling environment required for increased Energy Efficiency (EE) across the Western Balkan countries will need cooperation among decision makers at multiple government levels...

The Impact of Energy Price Changes in Moldova

Baclajanschi, Iaroslav; Bouton, Lawrence; Mori, Hideki; Ostojic, Dejan; Pushak, Taras; Tiongson, Erwin R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.62%
In January 2006 the price of natural gas supplied to Moldova increased from $80 to $110 per thousand cubic meters (mcm). Prices may increase further in the near future, putting additional pressure on the economy and leading to adverse effects on the poorest households. This study examines the potential impact of higher energy prices on the economy of Moldova by simulating the likely macroeconomic consequences of recent and future price increases. Moreover, it estimates the direct impact on individual households using data drawn from the 2004 Household Budget Survey. It assesses the distributional implications of the price shock, noting how the social impact may vary depending on the intensity of energy use, geographic location, and the relative share of energy in household expenditure. The results suggest that energy price changes could dampen economic growth while putting additional strains on the current account deficit. The impact on the poorest households could be significant and protecting them may require resources in the amount of 0.7 to 1.7 percent of GDP. This study identifies possible policy responses to dampen the shock of the energy price increase and to promote the longer-term objective of reducing energy vulnerability.

Sustainable Energy for All 2013-2014 : Global Tracking Framework

World Bank; International Energy Agency
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
In declaring 2012 the international year of sustainable energy for all, the United Nations (UN) general assembly (2011) established at the personal initiative of the UN secretary general- three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030. Those goals are to ensure universal access to modern energy services (including electricity and clean, modern cooking solutions), to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and to double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. Some 70 countries have formally embraced the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative, while numerous corporations and agencies have pledged tens of billions of dollars to achieve its objectives. As 2012 drew to a close, the UN general assembly announced a decade of sustainable energy for all stretching from 2014 to 2024. Sustaining momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives will require a means of charting global progress over the years leading to 2030. Construction of the necessary framework has been coordinated by the World Bank and Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the International Energy Agency (IEA)...

Haiti: Strategy to Alleviate the Pressure of Fuel Demand on National Woodfuel Resource

World Bank; Ministry of Environment, Republic of Haiti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
Haiti suffers from a serious deterioration of its natural environment and, in particular, from a heavy pressure on its natural resources. The reasons for this deterioration are multiple (poverty level, demographic pressure, agricultural techniques and insecurity regarding land tenure) and, therefore, go beyond the strict scope of energy. However, the wood-fuel consumption is one of the main factors of this deterioration. On a national scale, about 70 percent of the energy needs are met using firewood and charcoal. Although the local wood-fuel resources have been overexploited for more than 20 years, the price of wood-fuels does not reflect this scarcity phenomenon which constitutes a serious ecological threat at the countrywide level. The household energy sector remains, by far, the main consumer of wood-fuels, in as much as it absorbs 70 percent of the overall supply. However, this sector is characterized by very low efficiency in terms of use outputs.

Income and Energy Consumption in Mexican Households

Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo; Yepez-Garcia, Rigoberto Ariel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
The analysis of household energy consumption patterns is critical for evaluating public mechanisms, such as subsidies and social tariffs that aim to provide lower income earners with better access to energy sources. This paper focuses on Mexican households to analyze the relations between their levels of income, consumption of different forms of energy, and the role played by different household characteristics. Using microdata from the Mexican Income Expenditure Surveys, the paper first relate income and energy expenditure to determine the shape of this relation. It then applies OLS and Tobit models to determine how income levels affect energy consumption in relation to other covariates. The results show a positive relation for income deciles and energy consumption and some household characteristics -- pointing to differentiated mechanisms for improving energy use.

Price Elasticity of Nonresidential Demand for Energy in South Eastern Europe

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.67%
Recent volatility in international energy prices has revealed South Eastern Europe as one of the most vulnerable regions to such external shocks. Under the current global economic downturn, in addition, the region s energy-intensive industries are faced with the challenge of the weakening demand for their outputs. This paper casts light on the relationship between the price and the demand for energy. Based on firm level data, it is shown that the price elasticity of industrial energy demand is about -0.4 on average. There are a number of data issues to interpret the results correctly. But Albania and Macedonia are systematically found to have a relatively elastic demand for energy on the order of -0.7 to -0.8. In these countries, therefore, price adjustments would be one of the effective policy options to balance demand with supply during the period of energy crisis. In other countries, the demand response would be much weaker; pricing cannot be the only solution. Other policy measures, such as facilitation of firm energy efficiency and improvements in the quality of infrastructure services...

Doubling the Rate of Improvement of Energy Efficiency

Sinton, Jonathan; Sarkar, Ashok; Jaques, Ivan; Bushueva, Irina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
Over the 20-year period between 1990 and 2010, strong demo¬graphic and economic growth around the world caused global primary energy consumption to grow at a compound annual rate of 2 percent annually. Even so, falling energy intensity (the amount of energy used to produce a unit of economic output) meant that global energy demand in 2010 was more than 20 percent lower than it otherwise would have been. The energy intensity of the global economy fell during the period from 10.2 to 7.9 megajoules per U.S. dollar (2005 dollars at PPP). The reduction was driven by cumulative improvements in energy efficiency, partially offset by growth in activity, resulting in energy savings of nearly 2,300 exajoules over the 20-year period. Doubling the rate of improvement of global energy efficiency is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Launched in the UN General Assembly in September 2012 and co-chaired by the president of the World Bank Group and the UN Secretary-General...

Institutional Review of Energy Efficiency in Turkey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.55%
Energy efficiency (EE) is critical to help Turkey continue its trajectory of economic growth in a sustainable manner. The Government of Turkey recognizes this and has placed EE as a key component of its energy strategy and National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. Over the past 5-10 years, it has made considerable advances in establishing a strong policy and legal framework, creating a robust institutional set-up and developing programs to support EE implementation. Institutionally, the General Directorate of Electric Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) had been mandated with EE policy making, implementation and promotion since 1981, and an Energy Efficiency Coordination Board (EECB) was established under the 2007 EE Law to coordinate various EE policies, programs and other efforts. In November 2011, EIE was converted into the General Directorate for Renewable Energy (GDRE) and absorbed within the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). The World Bank conducted an EE institutional review in consultation with the Turkish Government with the objective to enhance their ability to more effectively manage EE policies and programs and thus contribute to helping meet its stated national EE targets. The review consisted of a detailed assessment of the current institutional set-up...

Adapting to Higher Energy Costs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.67%
This report presents findings from 208 focus group discussions held across 8 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia between 2013-2014 that examined households experiences with and attitudes to energy tariff reforms. Over the past five years, the World Bank has provided guidance to more than 14 countries in the region on implementing energy subsidy reforms. This work complements a large body of research on the poverty impacts of these reforms. Specifically, it gives voice to poor and middle-income citizens, and presents their perspectives and concerns with regard to rising tariffs and reforms in the energy sector overall. The report argues that by gaining a deeper understanding of the narratives that people attach to energy issues, governments can design better mitigation policies to address the reforms adverse impacts; better communication campaigns to convey the rationale of reforms to the public; and institute stronger accountability measures to help citizens protect their rights as consumers. This report examines poverty and social impacts of energy tariff reforms in the ECA region from citizens perspectives. It aims to complement previously collected quantitative data on distributional impacts of reforms...

The Socioeconomic Impacts of Energy Reform in Tunisia

Cuesta, José; El-Lahga, Abdel Rahmen; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.65%
Tunisian social development policy making has always counted on energy subsidies to play a pivotal role. Due to the increasingly unsustainable budget implications, a new strategy has begun to reform the subsidy system in the energy sector while striking a balance between improving fiscal and equity considerations without increasing social tensions. This paper presents an analysis of the fiscal and distributive consequences of the changes to the subsidy setup announced by the government at the end of 2014. The results show that raising electricity prices for consumers and removing subsidies for other energy sources would lead to a short-term increase in the poverty rate of 2.5 percentage points. In addition, compensation mechanisms that could be readily implemented (such as universal coverage or building on the existing health cards system) will not bring substantive counterweight to the increased poverty, even if all savings of reforms could be perfectly channeled as cash transfers. The analysis suggests that bold reforms of energy subsidies need to be accompanied by equally bold improvements to the targeting schemes of public spending if poverty and disparities are to be substantively reduced.

West Bank and Gaza Energy Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.67%
This report examines the energy sector in the West Bank and Gaza. It finds that from the perspective of its energy sector, West Bank and Gaza is in an unusual position in at least three respects: 1) Because of political and logistical factors, nearly all of these supplies at present come from Israel; 2) A second unusual challenge faced by West Bank and Gaza is its fragmentation into two distinct geographical zones with divergent economic characteristics and 3) A third unusual challenge is the constraints imposed by Israeli policies and actions on the ability of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to operate and develop its energy systems. This Review addresses the question of how the energy sector can make an effective contribution to the economic recovery and long-term growth of West Bank and Gaza in this situation. It does so by examining the broad regional and strategic dimensions relating to the sector that form the basis of a sustainable investment and institutional development program. This Review is structured in three parts. The first part is this Executive Summary that presents the recommendations of the Review...

Energy consumption of building 39; Energy consumption of building thirty-nine

Hopeman, Lisa Maria
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 32 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.63%
The MIT community has embarked on an initiative to the reduce energy consumption and in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol. This thesis seeks to further expand our understanding of how the MIT campus consumes energy and with that knowledge be able to recommend methods of reducing energy consumption by minimizing and even eliminating careless energy use. The largest energy consuming building per square foot, Building 39, was selected and analyzed in detail. This thesis proves the unnecessarily high airflows and irresponsible fan use are the source of Building 39's wasteful consumption of energy. Research revealed that the recirculating fans drew the most energy and were continuously running on full power. If the fans were turned down during off peak times the consumption of electricity could be decreased by as much as approximately 26% and save the Institute $250,000 a year in electrical costs.; by Lisa Maria Hopeman.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 32).

The Economics of Energy (and Electricity) Demand

Platchkov, Laura M.; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics Publicador: Faculty of Economics
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.58%
Economic drivers, technologies and demand side management are keys in understanding the long-term trends of both energy and more specifically electricity consumption. This paper discusses some of the important economics foundations of energy demand in general, and electricity in particular. First, we look at the macro-economic context of energy. This reveals how energy and electricity consumption are subject to the same drivers - income and price - over long periods. However, energy demand (and carbon emissions) falls and energy prices rises in one country may have little effect at the world level. Next, we examine the features of energy service expenditures. Despite similarities over time, specific sectors are distinct from one another in terms of consumption profiles, and new sources of electricity demand may substantially change total demand and the way it is consumed. This leads us to a closer look at the micro-economic context of energy demand, and the tension between technically possible energy savings one one side, and the economics and behavioural dimensions on the other side. We conclude by highlighting the various unknowns and uncertainties that characterise the future of energy demand.

O uso de bebidas energéticas entre estudantes de educação física; El uso de bebidas energizantes en estudiantes de educación física; Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students

Ballistreri, Martha Carmen; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2008 ENG; POR; SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.63%
Este estudo descritivo transversal objetivou caracterizar o padrão de consumo de bebidas energéticas em uma amostra de estudantes de educação física através de questionário auto-aplicável (dados sócio-demográficos e caracterização do consumo). Variáveis associadas ao consumo (p; OBJETIVO: caracterizar el patrón de uso de energizantes en muestra por conveniencia de estudiantes de educación física. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Instrumento: cuestionario auto aplicable para datos sociodemográficos y caracterizar el consumo. RESULTADOS: patrón de consumo (n = 137), 2,2 % una vez en la vida; 9,5 % por lo menos una vez en últimos 12 meses; 38 % por lo menos una vez en último mes; 39,4 % seis veces o más en último mes; 10,9 % veinte veces o más en último mes. Ocasiones de consumo: discotecas (75,2%), fiestas (48,9%); bares (38,7%); antes práctica deportes (14,6%), después práctica deportes (5,8%); al estudiar (4,4%). Razones del uso: 54% mejorar sabor alcohol; 27,7% divertirse toda la noche; 13,9% mejorar desempeño deportivo; 9,5% estimularse; 8,8% gustar bebida; 6,6% curiosidad, 4,4% estudiar. Quienes ya consumieron: 87,6 % combinó con alcohol, con vodka (88,3%); 25,9 % consume más alcohol combinándolo. CONCLUSIONES: el consumo de energizantes no sólo se encuentra asociado al deporte sino al alcohol.; This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption). Variables associated with consumption: gender...

A techno-economic study of energy efficiency technologies for supermarkets in South Africa

Pather-Elias,Simisha; Davis,Stephen; Cohen,Brett
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.43%
The food retail sector is energy intensive, consuming large amounts of electricity for refrigeration, air-conditioning and cooking. Retailers are aiming to reduce their electricity consumption in supermarkets and thus their carbon footprint using energy efficiency technologies. This paper reports on a techno-economic analysis of energy efficient technologies to recommend to the food retail sector for use in supermarkets. The targets and needs of food retail companies were surveyed and thereafter, the retailers were divided into three categories. Category 1 retailer had the highest targets for electricity and carbon reduction and was willing to take on more risk. Category 2 retailer had intermediate targets and would only use developed technologies, while category 3 retailer would only invest in developed technologies if they were proven to show significant long term saving with short pay back periods. The analysis showed that closed refrigerators had the highest electricity/carbon savings and the highest profit (NPV), followed by heat reclamation from refrigeration. Both these technologies were recommended for category 1 retailers. A combination of heat reclamation, energy efficient lights, fridge curtains, electronic controls for refrigerators and POS power management systems were recommended for category 3 retailers. A combination of the two recommendations was identified for category 2 retailers. Behavioural changes of all staff were identified as important for energy efficiency technologies to work at optimum levels.

Comparing performance of MLP and RBF neural network models for predicting South Africa's energy consumption

Oludolapo,Olanrewaju A; Jimoh,Adisa A; Kholopane,Pule A
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.63%
In view of the close association between energy and economic growth, South Africa's aspirations for higher growth, more energy is required; formulating a long-term economic development plan and implementing an energy strategy for a country /industry necessitates establishing the correct relationship between energy and the economy. As insufficient energy or a lack thereof is reported to be a major cause of social and economic poverty, it is very important to select a model to forecast the consumption of energy reasonably accurately. This study presents techniques based on the development of multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) of artificial neural network (ANN) models, for calculating the energy consumption of South Africa's industrial sector between 1993 and 2000. The approach examines the energy consumption in relation to the gross domestic product. The results indicate a strong agreement between model predictions and observed values, since the mean absolute percentage error is below 5%. When performance indices are compared, the RBF-based model is a more accurate predictor than the MLP model.