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Análise do impacto dos programas de transferência de renda sobre as despesas familiares com o consumo; The impact analysis of income transfer programs on household consumption expenditures

Ferrario, Marcela Nogueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi avaliar o impacto do PBF e do BPC sobre as despesas com consumo de: alimentos, frutas, carnes e peixes, aves e ovos, vegetais, cereais e oleaginosas, farinhas e massas, tubérculos e raízes, açúcar, panificados, bebidas alcoólicas, educação, higiene, saúde e materiais escolares. Para estimar esse impacto foram utilizados os microdados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares do Brasil (POF-2008/09). Foram utilizadas duas metodologias de controle: pela renda famíliar per capita (RFPC) bruta e RFPC líquida. As estimativas do impacto do PBF e do BPC sobre as despesas com consumo, utilizando dados observacionais, foram calculadas a partir de regressão múltipla e a comparação baseada no escore de propensão (propensity score matching). As estimativas do efeito médio do tratamento sobre os tratados apresentaram resultados estatisticamente significativos nas despesas com: alimentos, aves, ovos, vegetais, cereais, oleaginosas, farinha, massas, tubérculos e raízes, açúcar, entre outras. Dessa forma, observou-se que as famílias beneficiárias aumentaram a aquisição de bens prioritários, que aliviam a sua situação de extrema pobreza. No caso das famílias beneficiárias do PBF observou-se aumento nas despesas com materiais escolares...

Expenditures on Lotteries: What Do People Say and Wht They Do? a Econometric Analysis.

BRENNER, G.A.; MONTMARQUETTE, Claude; BRENNER, R.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 987844 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Underdeclarations Are Typical When Alcohol, Tobacco and Gambling Consumptions Are Questioned in Surveys. Recent Surveys on Expenditures on Lotteries Have Similar Problems: the Declared Expenditures Equal Between 60 to 65 Percent of the Revenues of the Various State-Run Lottery Entreprises. by Using the Relatively Accurate Data on the Revenue Side of This Industry One Can Deal with the Problem of Underdeclarations of Consumption Patterns in Suveys and Obtain Better Income Elasticity Estimates. the Statistical Analysis Permits to Test Specific Hypotheses on a Lottery Model Developed by Brenner, and Suggests Broader Implications Both for Future Econometric Analysis and the Confidence One Gives to Elasticity Estimates Derived From Aggregate Sectorial Data for All Consumption Expenditures.

Methods of Household Consumption Measurement Through Surveys : Experimental Results from Tanzania

Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Friedman, Jed; Gibson, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Consumption expenditure has long been the preferred measure of household living standards. However, accurate measurement is a challenge and household expenditure surveys vary widely across many dimensions, including the level of reporting, the length of the reference period, and the degree of commodity detail. These variations occur both across countries and also over time within countries. There is little current understanding of the implications of such changes for spatially and temporally consistent measurement of household consumption and poverty. A field experiment in Tanzania tests eight alternative methods to measure household consumption on a sample of 4,000 households. There are significant differences between consumption reported by the benchmark personal diary and other diary and recall formats. Under-reporting is particularly relevant in illiterate households and for urban respondents completing household diaries; recall modules measure lower consumption than a personal diary, with larger gaps among poorer households and households with more adult members. Variations in reporting accuracy by household characteristics are also discussed and differences in measured poverty as a result of survey design are explored. The study concludes with recommendations for methods of survey based consumption measurement in low-income countries.

The Impacts of Cash and In-Kind Transfers on Consumption and Labor Supply : Experimental Evidence from Rural Mexico

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Unar, Mishel; González-Cossío, Teresa
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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The authors use the unique experimental design of the Food Support Program (Programa Apoyo Alimentario) to analyze in-kind and cash transfers in the poor rural areas of southern states of Mexico. They compare the impacts of monthly in-kind and cash transfers of equivalent value (mean share 11.5 percent of pre-program consumption) on household welfare as measured by food and total consumption, adult labor supply, and poverty. The results show that approximately two years later the transfer has a large and positive impact on total and food consumption. There are no differences in the size of the effect of transfer in cash versus transfers in-kind on consumption. The transfer, irrespective of type, does not affect overall participation in labor market activities but induces beneficiary households to switch their labor allocation from agricultural to nonagricultural activities. The analysis finds that the program leads to a significant reduction in poverty. Overall, the findings suggest that the Food Support Program intervention is able to relax the binding liquidity constraints faced by poor agricultural households...

Isolation and Subjective Welfare : Evidence from South Asia

Fafchamps, Marcel; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Using detailed geographical and household survey data from Nepal, this article investigates the relationship between isolation and subjective welfare. This is achieved by examining how distance to markets and proximity to large urban centers are associated with responses to questions about income and consumption adequacy. Results show that isolation is associated with a significant reduction in subjective assessments of income and consumption adequacy, even after controlling for consumption expenditures and other factors. The reduction in subjective welfare associated with isolation is much larger for households that are already relatively close to markets. These findings suggest that welfare assessments based on monetary income and consumption may seriously underestimate the subjective welfare cost of isolation, and hence will tend to bias downward the assessment of benefits to isolation-reducing investments such as roads and communication infrastructure.

Brazil : Measuring Poverty Using Household Consumption

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report on measuring poverty using household consumption summarizes the work undertaken as part of the Brazil Poverty Measurement Study (BRAPOV) that supported a program of analytical work and technical support via an in-depth assessment of the measurement of poverty and inequality in Brazil. The survey not only presented an opportunity for in-depth analysis, but also for collaboration between the World Bank and partners in Brazil. Emphasis thus was placed also on process as a key input for impact, while at the same time balancing this objective with the need to deliver quality and timely analytical work. Specifically, the analysis in this report builds on earlier studies on the methodologies for constructing consistent poverty profiles and poverty lines (e.g. Bidani and Ravallion, 1994, Ravallion, 1998 and Kakwani, 2003) and on the measurement of poverty in Brazil in order to construct poverty lines for the different regions of Brazil; detailed spatial price indices to capture spatial variation in the cost of living; an updated poverty profile; and micro-area maps of poverty and inequality for Brazil.

Unemployment Insurance: Efficiency Effects and Lessons for Developing Countries

Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Unemployment insurance (UI) is the most common public income support program for the unemployed in developed countries.1 In these countries, it typically offers good protection: it covers the majority of employed persons, irrespective of occupation or industry, and provides adequate smoothening of consumption patterns. For example, studies on the U.S. find that the welfare of benefit recipient households is on average only 3-8 percent lower than the welfare of otherwise identical households, and that in the absence of unemployment insurance, average consumption expenditures would fall by about 20 percent. In the last decade, UI programs have been introduced in transition countries, and their use in developing countries is on the rise as well.

The Impact of Roads on Poverty Reduction : A Case Study of Cameroon

Gachassin, Marie; Najman, Boris; Raballand, Gael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Many investments in infrastructure are built on the belief that they will ineluctably lead to poverty reduction and income generation. This has entailed massive aid-financed projects in roads in developing countries. However, the lack of robust evaluations and a comprehensive theoretical framework could raise questions about current strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using the second Cameroonian national household survey (Enquete Camerounaise Aupres des Menages II, 2001) and the Cameroon case study, this paper demonstrates that investing uniformly in tarred roads in Africa is likely to have a much lower impact on poverty than expected. Isolation from a tarred road is found to have no direct impact on consumption expenditures in Cameroon. The only impact is an indirect one in the access to labor activities. This paper reasserts the fact that access to roads is only one factor contributing to poverty reduction (and not necessarily the most important in many cases). Considering that increase in non-farming activities is the main driver for poverty reduction in rural Africa...

Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures of World Economics : A Comprehensive Report of the 2011 International Comparison Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.48%
The International Comparison Program (ICP) is a large and highly complex worldwide statistical program conducted under the charter of the United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC). The ICP is designed to provide globally comparable economic aggregates in national accounts that can be used by individual researchers, analysts, and policy makers at the national and international levels and by international organizations such as the European Union, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), United Nations, and World Bank. Over its lifetime, the ICP has become the principal source of data on the purchasing power parities (PPPs) of currencies, measures of real per capita income, and measures of real gross domestic product (GDP) and its main components from the expenditure side, including private consumption, government expenditures, and gross fixed capital formation. Indeed, since its inception in 1970, successive rounds of the ICP have produced valuable data for international economic analyses of economic growth and the catch-up and convergence of incomes among nations; productivity levels and trends; analyses of systematic patterns in national price levels and trends; construction of the Human Development Index by the United Nations; measures of regional and global inequality in incomes and consumption; and estimates of the incidence of absolute poverty using World Bank developed yardsticks such as the US$1 a day and $2 a day poverty lines.

Shocks, Stocks and Socks: Consumption Smoothing and the Replacement of Durables During an Unemployment Spell

Browning, Martin; Crossley, Thomas
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 222085 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We present theoretical and empirical results on consumption during an unemployment spell. The theory model extends the conventional intertemporal allocation model to take explicit account of the fact that households buy clothing and small durable goods (such as pillows and plates) that are indivisible, irreversible and non-collateralisable. The theoretical analysis suggests that liquidity constrained agents cut back on expenditures on these small durables during a low income spell much more than would be suggested by the income elasticities of these goods in ‘normal’ times. Conversely, non-durable expenditures flows are much smoother than would be predicted in a model without durables. Thus it seems that agents can smooth utility flows even when total expenditure (on durables and non-durables) is quite volatile. The implications of this model are compared to the implications from three other widely used models of intertemporal allocation. In the empirical section, we exploit the information in a new Canadian panel survey of 20,000 workers who separated from a job in 1993 or 1995. As well as conventional survey information, this survey includes expenditure and asset information. Administrative data from several sources are linked to this panel to provide a detailed picture of the circumstances of households in which one member is unemployed. We estimate a joint total expenditure and demand system and test whether either the level of total expenditure or the structure of demand are sensitive to differences in the Unemployment Insurance benefit rate. We find that they are for households who have no liquid assets. Of the models that we consider...

The influence of demographics and household specific price indices on consumption based inequality and welfare : a comparison of Spain and the United States

Garner, Thesia I.; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier; Sastre, Mercedes
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2002 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Previous research suggests that income inequality is lower in Spain than in the U.S. This paper studies whether this ranking remains the same when household consumption expenditures are used as a proxy for household welfare. Both inequality and social welfare, as components of economic well-being, are examined. Total household expenditures from each country’s 1990-91 consumer expenditure survey are used as the basis for the analysis. For tractability, equivalence scales depend only on the number of people in the household and not any other demographic characteristic. Household specific price indices are used to express the 1990-91 expenditure distributions at winter of 1981 and winter of 1991 prices. Decomposable measurement instruments are used both for the inequality and social welfare analyses. Bootstrap methods are used to produce confidence intervals for all estimates. When consumption expenditures are substituted for income as the measure of economic well-being, the ranking of Spain and the U.S. varies as both household size and the equivalence scale adjustment change. When focusing on household size alone, inequality and welfare comparisons are drastically different for smaller and larger households. The income inequality ranking can only be maintained for expenditure distributions when economies of scale are assumed to be small or non-existent. However...

Cash Transfers in an Epidemic Context : The Interaction of Formal and Informal Support in Rural Malawi

Strobbe, Francesco; Miller, Candace
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper investigates the short-run consumption expenditure dynamics and the interaction of public and private arrangements of ultra-poor and labor-constrained households in Malawi using an original dataset from the Mchinjii social cash transfer pilot project (one of the first experiments of social protection policies based on unconditional cash transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa). The authors exploit the unique source of exogenous variation provided by the randomized component of the program in order to isolate the effect of cash transfers on consumption expenditures as well as the net crowding out effect of cash transfers on private arrangements. They find a statistically significant reduction effect on the level of consumption expenditures for those households receiving cash transfers, thus leading to the rejection of the perfect risk sharing hypothesis. Moreover, by looking at the effects of cash transfers on private arrangements in a context characterized by imperfect enforceability of contracts and by a social fabric heavily compromised by high HIV/AIDS rates...

Measurements of Poverty in Indonesia : 1996, 1999, and Beyond

Pradhan, Menno; Suryahadi, Asep; Sumarto, Sudarno; Pritchett, Lant
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Indonesia's economic crisis has caused a consumption expenditures deterioration in the welfare of Indonesians. Focusing on only one dimension of individual, and family welfare - consumption expenditures - the authors analyze two issues associated with the measurement of poverty. The first issue is how to produce regionally consistent poverty lines - that is, how to define a level of spending for each region that produces the same material standard of living. Without comparable data on prices, there is a problem of circularity. Choosing the reference population is important for defining the price level by which to deflate money expenditures to reach the same welfare level, but one needs to know the price level to define the reference population as a group with the same real expenditures. To address the problem of circularity, the authors use an iterative approach to defining poverty, one that produces consistent results across regions. They then use those poverty lines to examine the common "poverty profiles" (by location, sector, and so on). The second issue is more conceptual: how to expand the narrow measure of poverty, based on spending for consumption, with extensions that expand how welfare is measured, and allow more consistent comparisons of different individuals' welfare levels.

Quantifying Vulnerability to Poverty : A Proposed Measure, Applied to Indonesia

Pritchett, Lant; Suryahadi, Asep; Sumarto, Sudarno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Vulnerability is an important aspect of households' experience of poverty. Many households, while not currently in poverty, recognize that they are vulnerable to events - a bad harvest, a lost job, an illness, and unexpected expense, an economic downturn - that could easily push them into poverty. Most operational measures define poverty as some function of the shortfall of current income, or consumption expenditures from a poverty line, and hence measure poverty only at a single point in time. The authors propose a simple expansion of those measures to quantify vulnerability to poverty. They define vulnerability as a probability, the risk that a household will experience at least one episode of poverty in the near future. A household is defined as vulnerable if it has 50-50 odds, or worse of falling into poverty. Using those definitions, they calculate the "vulnerability of poverty line" (VPL) as the level of expenditures below which a household is vulnerable to poverty. The VPL allows the calculation of a "headcount vulnerability rate" (the proportion of households vulnerable to poverty), a direct analogue of the "headcount poverty rate". The authors implement this approach using two sets of panel data from Indonesia. First they show that if the poverty line is set so that the headcount poverty rate is twenty percent...

Does Migration Reshape Expenditures in Rural Households? Evidence from Mexico

Taylor, J. Edward; Mora, Jorge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Migration reshapes rural economies in ways that may go beyond the contribution of migrant remittances to household income. Consumption and investment expenditures by migrant-sending households may transmit some of the impacts of migration to others inside and outside the rural economy, and they also may shape the potential effects of migration within the source household. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify the impact of migrant remittances on expenditures in migrant-sending households following one of two approaches. The first asks how migrant remittances are spent. It has the advantage of being simple but the significant disadvantage of ignoring the fungibility of income from migrant and nonmigrant sources. Remittances almost certainly have indirect effects on expenditures by way of their contribution to households' total budgets. The second uses a regression approach that considers remittances as an explanatory variable, in addition to total income and other controls, in a household expenditure demand system. It has the advantage of enabling one to test whether remittances affect expenditures in ways that are independent of their contribution to total income. But it does not take into account other ways, besides remittances...

Bulgaria : Living Conditions Before and After EU Accession

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.34%
This report provides estimates of the level poverty and changes in living conditions between 2003 and 2007 in the new European Union (EU) member state Bulgaria. This report fills key gaps in the understanding of the state of welfare in Bulgaria and its future trends. It provides an assessment of changes in living standards since 2003, a period of sustained robust growth and intensive reform efforts leading to successful EU accession, and the current profile of the poor. The report quantifies the level of deprivation and the gains in poverty reduction and overall welfare improvements in different segments of Bulgaria's population. The study aims to support policy discourse on poverty reduction and strengthening of social protection by providing a robust assessment of living conditions among various individual, household, geographic, and socioeconomic groups and of the actual and likely future effectiveness of current poverty reduction policies. The report is organized as follows. Section two examines welfare trends between 2003 and 2007...

Consumption, Health, Gender, and Poverty

Case, Anne; Deaton, Angus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Standard methods of measuring poverty assume that an individual is poor if he or she lives in a family whose income or consumption lies below an appropriate poverty line. Such methods provide only limited insight into male and female poverty separately. Nevertheless, there are reasons why household resources are linked to the gender composition of the household: women's earnings are often lower than men's; families in some countries control their fertility through differential stopping rules; and women live longer than men. It is also possible to link family expenditure patterns to the gender composition of the household, something the authors illustrate using data from India and South Africa. Such a procedure provides useful information on who gets what, but cannot tell us how total resources are allocated between males and females. More can be gleaned from data on consumption by individual household members, and for many goods, collecting such information is good survey practice in any case. Even so, it will be some time before such information can be used routinely to produce estimates of poverty by gender. A more promising approach is likely to come within a broader definition of poverty that includes health (and possibly education) as well as income. The authors discuss recent work on collecting self-reported measures of nonfatal health and argue that such measures are already useful for assessing the relative health status of males and females. The evidence is consistent with non-elderly women generally having poorer health than non-elderly men. The authors emphasize the importance of simultaneously measuring poverty in multiple dimensions. The different components of well-being are correlated...

Risk Sharing Opportunities and Macroeconomic Factors in Latin American and Caribbean Countries : A Consumption Insurance Assessment

Ventura, Luigi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This paper evaluates the degree of consumption insurance enjoyed by Latin American and Caribbean countries, with respect to various reference areas, by estimating a parameter expressing the sensitivity of a country's consumption growth to a measure of idiosyncratic shocks to income. The paper surveys common econometric implementations of "consumption insurance tests." The author proposes some econometric procedures in order to detect the actual presence of international risk sharing, as well as to assess the relative impact of idiosyncratic versus aggregate shocks. The evidence suggests that Latin American and Caribbean economies have been hit by non-diversifiable income shocks, that idiosyncratic risk is relatively more important than aggregate risk, and that some countries in the region appear to enjoy a certain amount of international risk diversification. The paper also identifies some macroeconomic factors that may be responsible for a higher or lower degree of risk pooling (such as international openness...

Determinants of Choice of Migration Destination

Fafchamps, Marcel; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Internal migration plays an important role in moderating regional differences in well-being. This paper analyzes migrants' choice of destination, using Census and Living Standard Surveys data from Nepal. The paper examines how the choice of a migration destination is influenced by income differentials, distance, population density, social proximity, and amenities. The study finds population density and social proximity to have a strong significant effect: migrants move primarily to high population density areas where many people share their language and ethnic background. Better access to amenities is significant as well. Differentials in expected income and consumption expenditures across districts are found to be relatively less important in determining migration destination choice as their effects are smaller in magnitude than those of other determinants. The results of the study suggest that an improvement in amenities (such as the availability of paved roads) at the origin could slow down out-migration substantially.

Inequalities in health care use and expenditures: empirical data from eight developing countries and countries in transition

Makinen,M; Waters,H; Rauch,M; Almagambetova,N; Bitran,R; Gilson,L; McIntyre,D; Pannarunothai,S; Prieto,A.L; Ubilla,G; Ram,S
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper summarizes eight country studies of inequality in the health sector. The analyses use household data to examine the distribution of service use and health expenditures. Each study divides the population into "income" quintiles, estimated using consumption expenditures. The studies measure inequality in the use of and spending on health services. Richer groups are found to have a higher probability of obtaining care when sick, to be more likely to be seen by a doctor, and to have a higher probability of receiving medicines when they are ill, than the poorer groups. The richer also spend more in absolute terms on care. In several instances there are unexpected findings. There is no consistent pattern in the use of private providers. Richer households do not devote a consistently higher percentage of their consumption expenditures to health care. The analyses indicate that intuition concerning inequalities could result in misguided decisions. It would thus be worthwhile to measure inequality to inform policy-making. Additional research could be performed using a common methodology for the collection of data and applying more sophisticated analytical techniques. These analyses could be used to measure the impact of health policy changes on inequality