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Defesa da concorrência e bem-estar do consumidor; Competition defense and consumer welfare

Pfeiffer, Roberto Augusto Castellanos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2010 PT
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46.49%
O objeto da tese de doutorado é a análise da relação entre a defesa da concorrência e a proteção do consumidor, duas políticas públicas que proporcionam benefícios mútuos e devem ser executadas de modo harmônico, havendo substrato normativo e teórico para incluir a preocupação com o bem-estar do consumidor como um dos objetivos da política de defesa da concorrência. No Brasil tal harmonização é uma imposição constitucional, já que a livre concorrência, a repressão ao abuso do poder econômico e a defesa do consumidor são princípios conformadores da ordem econômica. É defendida a utilização de um conceito unificado de consumidor, sendo adotada a teoria finalista, que o define como o destinatário final econômico do bem ou serviço. As duas políticas utilizam diferentes instrumentos e perspectivas na tutela do bem-estar do consumidor, o que fica claro na proteção do direito de escolha. O Código de Defesa do Consumidor oferece a isonomia como remédio para compensar a vulnerabilidade, estabelecendo regras destinadas à uma escolha consciente, sobretudo o direito à informação adequada e veraz. Já as normas de defesa da concorrência resguardam a liberdade preocupando-se em preservar a possibilidade de escolha entre mais de um fornecedor de produtos ou serviços. O exemplo mais contundente dá-se no controle de estruturas: a atuação das autoridades responsáveis pela análise dos atos de concentração é vinculada à preservação do excedente do consumidor e das condições imprescindíveis ao exercício do direito de escolha...

Análise da contribuição do sistema de crédito cooperativo no aumento da eficiência econômica do sistema financeiro brasileiro

Motta, Francisco Meller da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Um sistema financeiro eficiente é capaz de oferecer produtos e serviços adequados, especialmente crédito, com preço acessível, possibilitando a inclusão social dos cidadãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a contribuição do Sistema de Crédito Cooperativo para o aumento da eficiência econômica do Sistema Financeiro Nacional. O cooperativismo é o movimento que preconiza a colaboração e associação de pessoas com os mesmos interesses, a fim de maximizar resultados em suas atividades econômicas. Formalmente, o movimento surgiu em 1844, em Rochdale (Manchester/Inglaterra). No Brasil desde 1902, quando constituída a primeira cooperativa em Linha Imperial, atual município de Nova Petrópolis/RS, as cooperativas de crédito diferenciam-se do sistema bancário tradicional na medida em que aplicam os recursos na própria comunidade onde os captam. A evolução da legislação brasileira possibilitou a formação de grandes sistemas (SICOOB, SICREDI, UNICRED, CECRED e CONFESOL), sendo a capilaridade do segmento cooperativo um aspecto importante no aumento da eficiência do Sistema Financeiro Nacional (SFN), permitindo maior acesso as localidades e cidadãos que utilizam seus serviços. Em termos de mercado, o crédito cooperativo vem na última década apresentado crescimento superior a 20% ao ano e apesar de representar apenas 3% do crédito no Sistema Financeiro Nacional...

When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers

Brynjolfsson, Erik; Smith, Michael D.; Yu, (Jeffrey) Hu
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 113808 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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We present a framework and empirical estimates that quantify the economic impact of increased product variety made available through electronic markets. While efficiency gains from increased competition significantly enhance consumer surplus, for instance by leading to lower average selling prices, our present research shows that increased product variety made available through electronic markets can be a significantly larger source of consumer surplus gains. One reason for increased product variety on the Internet is the ability of online retailers to provide a large number of products for sale. For example, the number of book titles available at Amazon.com is over 23 times larger than the number of books on the shelves of a typical Barnes & Noble superstore and 57 times greater than the number of books stocked in a typical large independent bookstore. Our analysis indicates that the increased product variety of online bookstores enhanced consumer welfare by $731 million to $1.03 billion in the year 2000...

Rising Food Prices and Household Welfare : Evidence from Brazil in 2008

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Fruttero, Anna; Leite, Phillippe; Lucchetti, Leonardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Food price inflation in Brazil in the twelve months to June 2008 was 18 percent, while overall inflation was seven percent. Using spatially disaggregated monthly data on consumer prices and two different household surveys, we estimate the welfare consequences of these food price increases, and their distribution across households. Because Brazil is a large food producer, with a predominantly wage-earning agricultural labor force, our estimates include general equilibrium effects on market and transfer incomes, as well as the standard estimates of changes in consumer surplus. While the expenditure (or consumer surplus) effects were large, negative and markedly regressive everywhere, the market income effect was positive and progressive, particularly in rural areas. Because of this effect on the rural poor, and of the partial protection afforded by increases in two large social assistance benefits, the overall impact of higher food prices in Brazil was U-shaped, with middle-income groups suffering larger proportional losses than the very poor. Nevertheless...

Distributional Impact Analysis of the Energy Price Reform in Turkey

Zhang, Fan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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A pricing reform in Turkey increased the residential electricity tariff by more than 50 percent in 2008. The reform, aimed at encouraging energy efficiency and private investment, sparked considerable policy debate about its potential impact on household welfare. This paper estimates a short-run residential electricity demand function for evaluating the distributional consequences of the tariff reform. The model allows heterogeneity in household price sensitivities and is estimated using a national sample of 18,671 Turkish households. The model also addresses the common problem of missing data in survey research. The study reveals a highly skewed distribution of price elasticities in the population, with rich households three times more responsive in adjusting consumption to price changes than the poor. This is most likely because the poor are close to their minimum electricity consumption levels and have fewer coping options. In addition, the welfare loss of the poorest quintile -- measured by the consumer surplus change as a percentage of income -- is 2.9 times of that of the wealthiest.

Infrastructure and Public Utilities Privatization in Developing Countries

Auriol, Emmanuelle; Picard, Pierre M.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Should governments in developing countries promote private ownership and deregulated prices in noncompetitive sectors? Or should they run publicly owned firms and regulate prices at the expense of rents to insiders? A theoretical model is used to answer these normative questions. The analysis focuses on the tradeoff between fiscal benefits and consumer surplus during privatization of noncompetitive sectors. Privatization transfers control rights to private interests and eliminates public subsidies, yielding benefits to taxpayers at the cost of increased prices for consumers. In developing countries, where budget constraints are tight, privatization and price liberalization may be optimal for low profitability industries but suboptimal for more profitable industries. And once a market has room for more than one firm, governments may prefer to regulate the industry. Without a credible regulatory agency, regulation is achieved through public ownership.

Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) Economic Evaluation of Low Volume Roads

Archondo-Callao, Rodrigo S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This note presents the Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) that performs an economic evaluation of road investments, and maintenance options, customized to the characteristics of low-volume roads, such as: high uncertainty of the assessment of traffic, road condition, and future maintenance of unpaved roads; periods with pass disruptions; levels of service, and corresponding road user costs defined not only through roughness; high potential to influence economic development; and, beneficiaries, other than motorized road users. The model computes benefits accruing to normal, generated, and diverted traffic, as a function of a reduction in vehicle operating, and time costs, and, adopts the consumer surplus approach, which measures the benefits of road users, and consumers of reduced transport costs. RED addresses, among others, the following additional concerns: reduce input requirements for low-volume roads; consider the higher uncertainty, related to input requirements; compute internally the traffic generated due to decreased transport costs...

Low Volume Rural Roads

Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The objective of this note is to advise on an appropriate economic appraisal methodology that should be used for the assessment of Low Volume Rural Roads - that is roads upon which less than 200 motorized vehicles per day travel. Section 1 of this note sets out the reasons that Low Volume Rural Roads require a slightly different consideration from other transport projects. Section 2 discusses the approaches to economic evaluation that can be used for low volume rural roads, whilst Section 3 presents the manner that the consumer surplus method can be extended to account for the characteristics of low volume rural roads. Section 4 contains a summary of the main points of the note.

Rain, Agriculture, and Tariffs

Bastos, Paulo; Straume, Odd Rune; Urrego, Jaime A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper examines whether and how rainfall shocks affect tariff setting in the agricultural sector. In a model of strategic trade policy, the authors show that the impact of a negative rainfall shock on optimal import tariffs is generally ambiguous, depending on the weight placed by the domestic policy maker on tariff revenue, profits and the consumer surplus. The more weight placed on domestic profits, the more likely it is that the policy maker will respond to a rainfall shortage by reducing import tariffs. These findings are robust to alternative assumptions about market structure and the timing of the game. Using detailed panel data on applied tariffs and rainfall for 70 nations, the authors find robust evidence that rainfall shortages generally induce policy makers to set lower tariffs on agricultural imports.

Roads Economic Decision Model for the Economic Evaluation of Low Volume Roads : Software User Guide and Case Studies

Archondo-Callao, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This manual presents the Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) developed to improve the decision-making process for the development and maintenance of low-volume rural roads. The model performs an economic evaluation of road investments options using the consumer surplus approach and is customized to the characteristics and needs of low-volume roads such as the high uncertainty of the assessment of the model inputs, particularly the traffic and condition of unpaved roads, the importance of vehicle speeds for model validation, the need for a comprehensive analysis of generated and induced traffic, and the need to clearly define all accrued benefits. RED computes benefits for normal, generated, induced, and diverted traffic, and takes into account changes in road length, condition, geometry, type, accidents, and days per year when the passage of vehicles is further disrupted by a highly deteriorated road condition (wet season). Users can add to the analysis other benefits, such as non-motorized traffic, social services and environmental impacts...

Potential impacts on accessibility and consumer surplus of improvements of the European railway system

ROTOLI FRANCESCO; CHRISTIDIS Panayotis; VANNACCI LORENZO; LÓPEZ RUIZ HÉCTOR GUILLERMO; NAVAJAS CAWOOD Elena; IBANEZ RIVAS JUAN
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
ENG
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It is widely accepted that "transport infrastructure endowment influences competiveness of a Region; the provision of investment in transport infrastructure entails positive effects on productivity and growth, even if on the other side, heavy infrastructures (as railway lines) could affect negatively on the environment" (5th Cohesion Report, 2010). This article aims to explore the potential impact of improvements of the passenger rail network in order to evaluate how these could potentially increase accessibility and consumer surplus in EU regions; it summarizes the results of the model simulations carried out with a combination of the TRANSTOOLS rail network and the assignment module of Traffic Analyst. Four different scenarios are tested: two scenarios simulating increases of all speeds to 90 km/h and 200 km/h, one scenario assuming a decrease to 45 km/h and the last one hypothesizing to increase train frequencies by 20%. The post-processing analysis is carried out with utilities developed in Matlab, while the results for each zone (at NUTS3 level) are also reported in easy-to-read ArcGIS maps. The outcomes provide insight into how the demand for passenger rail transport would react and where the higher benefits and costs, in terms of accessibility and consumer surplus gains...

Should Zambia Produce Biodiesel from Soybeans? Some Insights from an Empirical Analysis

de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of entire petroleum despite the availability of a surplus of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia, a country in Sub-Saharan Africa, has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. But, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been fully investigated yet. Using an empirical model this study analyzes the economics of meeting the biodiesel mandate through soybean feedstock. The study finds that meeting the biodiesel mandate with biodiesel from soybeans would reduce social welfare because the country's soybean imports would cost more than the expected reduction in petroleum imports. However, if Zambia increases its domestic soybean supply along with its capacity to convert soybean to biodiesel, as well as oil yield, soybean based biodiesel is likely to be welfare-beneficial, even if biodiesel prices are above diesel prices. The study also finds that under current market prices and transportation costs and constraints...

A New Slant on Slopes : Measuring the Benefits of Increased Electricity Access in Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH
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The objective of this paper is to shed some light on the benefits of improved access to electricity supply, specifically the benefits referred to as, 'consumer's surplus', which is the difference between what customers are willing to pay for the utilities associated with electricity access and the price that they actually pay. The paper leads to several important policy messages for the preparation of investments aiming to increase energy access in developing countries: consumer surplus as the measure for estimating benefits of enlarged access by households to public electricity supply needs to be used with caution; make sure that benefits of increased access to electricity are measured both in terms of gains in consumer surplus and gains in real income from electrification; plan electricity access expansion taking into account that reinforced electricity access may increase consumption of electricity modestly; plan electrification along with accompanying measures to ease access to electricity consuming appliances; and strengthen public data on energy consumption. The paper leads to specific conclusions relative to: the methodology to calculate benefits of increased electricity access; demand patterns for lighting purposes; demand patterns for entertainment and information purposes...

A Primer on Consumer Surplus and Demand : Common Questions and Answers

Peskin, Henry M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Measuring consumer's surplus is an increasingly popular approach to quantifying the monetary benefits of energy projects at the World Bank. This paper provides a brief primer on the concept and addresses some concerns and criticisms for this method. The contents include: consumer demand - this paper assumes that the benefit measured by consumer's surplus is a satisfactory measure of the benefit of policy that brings about lower energy prices and considers key challenges in this approach; estimating the demand curve; are two points adequate for estimating the demand curve - a large gain in consumer's surplus is an expected outcome of the large fall in energy costs due to electrification; whose demand curve is it anyway; does willingness-to-pay overestimate ability-to-pay; why is consumer's surplus so large; aren't the estimates affected by subsidies and taxation; and why not simply ask consumers about their benefits from electrification.

Economics of Tobacco Toolkit, Tool 3 : Economic Analysis of Tobacco Demand

Wilkins, Nick; Yurekli, Ayda; Hu, Teh-wei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.58%
The tobacco epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon with significantly destructive effects on developing, transitional, and industrialized nations. The first scientific evidence on the health consequences of tobacco consumption-specifically, smoking-was discovered in industrialized nations. As a result, the economic analysis of tobacco control issues began and was developed in these countries. This tool attempts to explain the process of analysis of demand for tobacco products as simply as possible. It includes discussions of basic economic and analysis principles (written for non-specialists such as policy makers and analysts) and more advanced technical points (intended for use by the economists and econometricians who will undertake the actual demand analysis). Consumption of tobacco products includes both smoked categories (e.g., cigarettes, hand-rolled tobacco, pipe tobacco, cigars, bidis, kreteks, etc.) and smokeless types (such as snuff and chewing tobacco). In industrialized countries, cigarettes disproportionately influence tobacco epidemics. This tool discusses and presents...

Infrastructure and Public Utilities Privatization in Developing Countries

Auriol, Emmanuelle; Picard, Pierre M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
The paper analyzes governments' tradeoff between fiscal benefits and consumer surplus in privatization reforms of noncompetitive industries in developing countries. Under privatization, the control rights are transferred to private interests so that public subsidies decline. This benefit for tax-payers comes at the cost of price increases for consumers. In developing countries, tight budget constraints imply that privatization may be optimal for low profitability segments. For highly profitable public utilities, the combination of allocative inefficiency and critical budgetary conditions may favor public ownership. Finally, once a market segment gives room for more than one firm, governments prefer to regulate the industry. In the absence of a credible regulatory agency, regulation is achieved through public ownership.

License Prices for Financially Constrained Firms

Burguet, Roberto; McAfee, R. Preston
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo Formato: 243845 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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36 pages, 1 figure.-- Trabajo publicado como artículo en Journal of Regulatory Economics 36(2): 178-198 (2009).-- http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11149-009-9092-5; It is often alleged that high auction prices inhibit service deployment. We investigate this claim under the extreme case of financially constrained bidders. If demand is just slightly elastic, auctions maximize consumer surplus if consumer surplus is a convex function of quantity (a common assumption), or if consumer surplus is concave and the proportion of expenditure spent on deployment is greater than one over the elasticity of demand. The latter condition appears to be true for most of the large telecom auctions in the US and Europe. Thus, even if high auction prices inhibit service deployment, auctions appear to be optimal from the consumers' point of view.; Burguet acknowledges partial financial support from CREA and the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, project SEJ2005-01427.; Peer reviewed

Consumer Surplus Under Uncertainty: An Application to Dam-Reservoir Projects

Quirk, James
Fonte: American Geophysical Union Publicador: American Geophysical Union
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/1985
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The use of cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the net welfare payoffs from water projects has now been an established practice for many years. One of the interesting aspects of such cost-benefit studies is that water projects involve an uncertain flow of costs and benefits, arising from the stochastic nature of streamflows. Hence a basic problem for the cost-benefit analyst is that of incorporating this uncertainty into his measures of costs and benefits. In the present paper we examine the problem of computing an appropriate consumer surplus measure to evaluate water project benefits under uncertainty. Detailed treatment is given to the case in which a complete set of contingent claim markets exists in the economy as well as to the case of a spot market economy. The consumer surplus measure applicable to the contingent claim economy is a simple generalization of the measure that applies to a world of certainty, but in the case of a spot market economy there is an unobserved component of consumer benefits that limits the applicability of the usual consumer surplus measure.

At the origins of increased productivity growth in services. Productivity, social savings and the consumer surplus of the film industry, 1900-1938

Bakker, Gerben
Fonte: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2004 EN; EN
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This paper estimates and compares the benefits cinema technology generated to society in Britain, France and the US between 1900 and 1938. It is shown how cinema industrialised live entertainment, by standardisation, automation and making it tradable. The economic impact is measured in three ways: TFP-growth, social savings in 1938 and the consumer surplus enjoyed in 1938. Preliminary findings suggest that the entertainment industry accounted for 1.5 to 1.7 percent of national TFP-growth and for 0.9 to 1.6 percent of real GDP-growth in the three countries. Social savings were highest in the US (c. 2.5 billion dollars and three million workers) and relatively modest in Britain and France, possibly because of the relative abundance of skilled live-entertainment workers. Comparative social savings at entertainment PPP-ratios inflate British social savings to above the US level. Converging exchange rates and PPP price ratios suggest rapid international market integration. The paper’s methodology and findings may give insight in technological change in other service industries that were also industrialised.