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Efeito da aplicação de composto orgânico sobre o processo de encrostamento e a recuperação de solos degradados pela erosão hídrica; Effect of the application of organic compost on the process of crust formation and the recuperation of degraded soils by water erosion

Toma, Raul Shiso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/04/2008 PT
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A geração de resíduos orgânicos juntamente com a erosão, são dois grandes problemas ambientais mundiais. São responsáveis pela redução da produtividade agrícola e pelos altos impactos ambientais. O presente projeto teve como objetivo a utilização de resíduos orgânicos gerados na agropecuária, na forma de composto orgânico, para a recuperação de áreas degradadas pela erosão hídrica. Foram avaliados os efeitos de quatro doses de composto (0, 20, 40 e 100 Mg.ha-1) na recuperação dos solos degradados por erosão. Somado a isto foi também avaliado o efeito da dose de composto sobre o processo de encrostamento superficial do solo. O projeto foi composto por dois experimentos, um com a ausência da erosão e o outro com presença de erosão (remoção de uma camada de 50 cm de solo), sendo realizados concomitantemente na mesma área. O delineamento experimental usado para cada experimento foi o inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (0, 20, 40 e 100 Mg.ha-1) e 4 repetições. Para o monitoramento da recuperação do solo e do processo de encrostamento em função das diferentes doses de composto, amostras deformadas e indeformadas de solo foram coletadas para análises físicas e químicas de rotina, para medidas da densidade do solo...

Bário (Ba), cádmio (Cd), cromo (Cr), cobre (Cu), níquel (Ni), chumbo (Pb), selênio (Se) e zinco (Zn) no ambiente canavieiro adubado com composto de lodo de esgoto; Barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, selenium and zinc in the sugarcane environment fertilized with compost of sewage sludge

Pöppl Neto, José Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/09/2013 PT
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Para o uso agrícola de composto de lodo de esgoto, há escassez de informações sobre os elementos Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se e Zn, que podem contaminar o ambiente. Os elementos Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni e Pb, metais pesados e o Se, um ametal, de modo geral, têm sido pouco avaliados, principalmente pelos baixos teores no solo e na planta. Dessa forma, com o presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar os teores de Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se e Zn no solo e na cultura da cana-açúcar em função da aplicação de composto de lodo de esgoto. O experimento foi conduzido em área comercial de produção de cana-de-açúcar, primeira cana soca cultivada em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram aplicadas quatro doses de composto de lodo (0; 14,7; 29,4 e 44,5 t ha-1, base seca), quatro de nitrogênio (0, 36,3 ; 72,6 e 110 kg ha-1) e duas de P2O5 (0, 30 kg ha-1), em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x4x2, com três repetições. Foram aplicados 77 kg ha-1 de K2O em todas as parcelas para suprir a falta desse nutriente no composto. Os teores dos metais pesados foram determinados por espectrometria de massas com plasma acoplado (ICP-MS). A aplicação dos fertilizantes minerais nitrogenado e fosfatado não resultou em incremento nos teores dos metais pesados no solo e na planta. A aplicação do composto resultou em incremento de duas vezes nos teores iniciais de Zn no solo e na planta. Para Cd...

Effect of supplementing compost with grapeseed meal on Agaricus bisporus production

Pardo-Gimenez, Arturo; Zied, Diego C.; Alvarez-Orti, Manuel; Rubio, Manuela; Pardo, Jose E.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1665-1671
ENG
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BACKGROUND: This work assesses the agronomic performance of grapeseed meal, before and after oil extraction, in nutritional compost supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. The effect of formaldehyde treatment before using this compost is also considered. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented compost, three commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls.RESULTS: In general terms, grapeseed meal performance was similar to that of commercial delayed-release nutrients, but improved the non-supplemented compost response. We highlight that grapeseed enhances performance as larger yields of harvested mushrooms were obtained with greater dry weight content; however, their protein content was lower. The best performance was displayed by fresh formaldehyde-treated grapeseed (6000 ppm) when applied to the 10 g kg(-1) compost dose.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that grapeseed meal offers a great potential to be applied on a commercial scale. The addition of grapeseed resulted in an enhanced performance as shown by the higher number of harvested mushrooms. The use of grapeseed meal (extracted or non-extracted), a low-cost ingredient with high levels of carbohydrates...

Non-nutrient heavy metals in tomato plants cultivated in soil amended with biosolid and sugar-cane bagasse compost

Cintra, A. A. D.; Revoredo, M. D.; Melo, W. J.; Braz, L. T.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 259-265
ENG
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In this study, non-nutrient heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) were measured in composts during the composting process, in compost/Red-yellow Latosol mixtures, and in tomato plants. Composts were produced using sugar-cane bagasse, biosolids and cattle manure in the proportions 75-0-25, 75-12.5-12.5, 75-25-0, 50-50-0 or 0-100-0 (composts with 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% biosolids). The composts were applied to the soil, in 6 treatments and a control (mineral fertilization). Control and the 0% biosolids treatments received inorganic nitrogen and all the treatments received the same amount of N, P and K. Tomato plants were cultivated in 24-L pots, in a green house in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. The experiment had a split plot design, in randomized blocks. Cadmium, Cr, Ni and Pb concentrations were determined during the composting process (7, 27, 57, 97 and 127 days after compost mounting), in soil (0 and 164 days after mixing) and plants. The samples were subjected to digestion with HNO 3, H2O2 and HCl and the metals were determined by AAS. Negative correlations were observed between Cd, Cr and Pb in the compost and Cd, Cr and Pb plant uptake, as well as Ni in the compost and Ni concentration in the plants. The concentrations of Cd...

Amendment of an acid mine soil with compost and polyacrylate polymers enhances enzymatic activities but may change the distribution of plant species

Varennes, Amarilis; Queda, Cristina Cunha; Guiwei, Qu
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/08/2009 ENG
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Many soils derived from pyrite mines spoils are acidic, poor in organic matter and plant nutrients, contaminated with trace elements, and support only sparse vegetation. The establishment of a plant cover is essential to decrease erosion and the contamination of water bodies with acid drainage containing large concentrations of trace elements. We tested the application of compost and polyacrylate polymers to promote the growth of indigenous plant species present in the mine area. Soil treatments consisted of unamended soil (control), soil with mineral fertilizers only, soil with fertilizer plus compost, soil with fertilizer plus polyacrylate polymers, and soil with fertilizer plus both amendments. Half of the soil was grown with Briza maxima L.(greater quaking grass), Chaetopogon fasciculatus (Link) Hayek (chaetopogon), and Spergularia purpurea(Persoon) G. Don fil. (purple sandspurry),while the remainder was left bare. In the absence of plants, the greatest improvements in soil conditions were obtained by the application of both amendments,which was associated with the greatest values of protease, acid phosphatase, and β-glucosidase, whereas the activity of cellulase and microbial respiration were similar in soil amended with compost or polymer. Dehydrogenase activity was greatest in soil with compost (with or without polymer)...

Effect of incorporated or mulched compost on leaf nutrient concentrations and performance of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot

Nguyen, T.; Fuentes, S.; Marschner, P.
Fonte: Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo Publicador: Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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Compost can reduce evaporation and increase nutrient uptake by plants, but it is not clear if it can increase soil water holding capacity or stimulate leaf gas exchange, water use efficiency and yield of vines. To study these effects, compost from garden and food waste was incorporated or mulched in a vineyard at a rate of 100 m3 ha-1, three months before the measurements. The vineyard received irrigation during spring and summer. Soil water content was monitored regularly with a capacitance probe. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stem water potential and leaf area index were measured several times during the vegetation period. At harvest, yield, berry weight and quality as well as chlorophyll, N, P and K concentrations in leaves were determined. Only mulched compost increased soil water content at 10 cm depth, but the water content in the deeper layers was not affected by compost addition. Compost also did not affect transpiration rate and stomatal conductance during the vegetation period, but mulched compost increased the photosynthesis per plant at flowering, pea size and maturity periods. Compost amendment, particularly mulching, increased yield, specific berry weight, and leaf N and P concentrations, and reduced the number of chlorotic leaves at harvest. Berry quality was not affected by compost amendment. It can be concluded that mulched compost has a positive effect on grapevine yield and can be an alternative fertiliser source for vines with no adverse effect on berry quality.; T.-T. Nguyen...

Agronomic and sustainability outcomes from compost application in South Australian citrus orchards

Crisp, P.; Baker, G.; Wheeler, S.
Fonte: International Society for Horticultural Science Publicador: International Society for Horticultural Science
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2014 EN
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SARDI has undertaken trials with compost mulch, grape marc and animal manure at sites on three citrus orchards in South Australia for a number of years. The trials were established to evaluate the potential of soil amendments as part of an integrated management program for Kelly’s citrus thrips (KCT). Experimental sites were designed to obtain best possible data for pest management within budget limitations, subsequently, the agronomic and environmental data were in some cases restricted to one site and selected representative treatments. A range of data were collected, including fruit yields, and fruit, soil, leaf, and water quality measures and biological changes, and the potential for water savings assessed. The field trials involved application of various rates of compost to crops, ranging from 40-200 m3 ha-1 for compost mulch, 100-200 m3 ha-1 for grape marc, and 10-40 m3 ha-1 for animal manure. The recycled green waste and composted animal manure have provided significant pest management and agronomic benefits through suppression of KCT and improved yield and fruit size. There were considerable economic net benefits from every type of trial application to citrus at both sites over the four year period assessed. For example, for every dollar invested in an application of 40 m3 ha-1 compost mulch at Loxton North...

Using compost from urban solid waste to prevent erosion in road embankments

Osorio, Francisco; de O??a, Juan
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Gourp, LLC Publicador: Taylor & Francis Gourp, LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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This paper describes how compost, a by-product generated by solid waste treatment plants, can be usefully applied to road embankments to prevent erosion. Our study analyzed this process in terms of the following variables: (1) location and orientation; (2) embankment slope; (3) soil and compost characteristics; (4) compost dosage; (5) vegetation species; (6) plot dimensions; and (7) planting method. The results ob- tained focus on the vegetation survival rate, plant growth and germination; colonization of other species; cover crop for plots; and erosion estimation. It was found that when greater quantities of compost were added to embankments, soil loss was decreased. The addition of this material also produced a marked increase in plant growth, the survival rate of manually planted vegetation, the colonization of other species, as well as the cover crop. However, we observed that compost seemed to hinder the germination of hydroseeded species, whereas colonizing plants germinated more quickly. The side slope was not found to be a significant factor for manually planted species, but turned out to be crucial for hydroseeded varieties.

Assessing the effects of using compost???sludge mixtures to reduce erosion in road embankments

de O??a, Juan; Osorio, Francisco; Garc??a, Pedro A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Recent research shows the benefits derived from applying compost and sludge to road embankments to enhance the cover crop and reduce soil loss due to erosion, particularly in arid environments. Following this line of research, the study described in this paper analyzes and compares the use of sludge and compost for the purposes mentioned. In the first phase of this study, compost or sludge was applied separately to road embankments, and in the second phase both were applied simultaneously. This paper discusses the results obtained in each case. Our study was conducted on a total of 32 plots, located along a road embankment. The 32 plots, each with an area of 20m2, were divided into two groups of 16. One group was placed on a 2:1 side slope, and the other was on a 3:2 side slope. Each group received four different compost dosages (0, 40, 60 and 80 t/ha) and four sludge dosages (0, 60, 80 and 100 t/ha). Four plant species were selected to be planted in each plot. Our study analyzes the survival rate of the plants, their growth rate and germination, colonization of the plots by other species, cover crop per plot, and soil loss, all in relation to the compost and sludge dosage as well as the side slope type. The results obtained show that when only sludge or compost was applied to the plot...

Producción de Compost a Partir de Residuos Sólidos de una Planta de Celulosa

Porras Hidalgo, Sebastián Alejandro
Fonte: Universidad de Chile; CyberDocs Publicador: Universidad de Chile; CyberDocs
Tipo: Tesis
ES
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A partir de las nuevas políticas de gestión de residuos de la Planta Santa Fe de Celulosa de la Compañía Manufacturera de Papeles y Cartones (CMPC), ubicada en la Octava región de Chile en la ciudad de Nacimiento, y debido al eventual término de la vida útil del área de desechos controlados (ADC) que esta posee, se realizó un estudio con el objeto de producir compost a partir de tres diferentes desechos sólidos que esta genera. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue utilizar estos residuos para evaluar el potencial uso de estos RISes como compost, según la Norma Chilena (NCh) 2880 del año 2005 “Compost-clasificación y requisitos”, la cual clasifica el compost como tipo A o B dependiendo de su calidad; el compost tipo B presenta algunas restricciones en su uso. Particularmente, se estudió el proceso de compostaje, producido a través de la biodegradación aeróbica, de Lodos de la planta de tratamientos de efluentes primarios y secundarios, Corteza de Eucalipto proveniente de la descortezadora y una mezcla de Dregs/Grits (7:3) ambos proveniente de la planta química recuperadora de licor blanco utilizado en el proceso de digestión de la madera. El trabajo realizado consistió en el montaje de tres experimentos con el fin de comparar las características finales de los residuos compostados. En el primer experimento se evaluó la mezcla de los residuos en distintas proporciones...

Efectos del té de compost aplicado al suelo sobre el crecimiento de la vid cv. Crimson seedless

Kurte Neira, Ivo
Fonte: Universidad de Chile Publicador: Universidad de Chile
Tipo: Tesis
ES
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Memoria para optar al título profesional de Ingeniero Agrónomo; Se determinó los efectos del té de compost aplicado al suelo en el crecimiento de uva de mesa var. Crimson Seedless en la parcela Santa Josefina de la Sociedad Agrícola Correa e hijos en la localidad de Roma, comuna de San Fernando, VI Región del Libertador Bernardo O`Higgins. Se realizaron dos ensayos. El ensayo I compuesto por seis tratamientos, correspondiente a uno de EMB o Té de Compost (Compost + Promesol Ca + Exuroot), otro solo con compost, el tercero y cuarto con Promesol Ca y Exuroot respectivamente, otro solo con fertilizante y un testigo con solo aplicación de agua. Se midió con una frecuencia de 15 días en las plantas: largo de brote, diámetro de brote y masa seca parte aérea y radical en un periodo de 153 días. El ensayo II compuesto por dos tratamientos, un testigo con solo agua y fertilizantes y el otro se le aplicó EMB (Compost + Promesol Ca + Exuroot ). Se midió en las plantas el diámetro de bayas. Para las condiciones estudiadas, en el ensayo I las plantas de vid respondieron con un mayor crecimiento de la parte aérea cuando se les aplicó té de compost y compost, y la masa radical fue también mayor cuando se aplicó té de compost. En el ensayo II los mayores diámetros de baya se encontraron en las plantas que se aplicó té de compost.; Effects were determined of the compost tea in the floor to the table-grape var. Crimson Seedless grown in the Santa Josefina plot from Sociedad Agricola Correa e hijos in Roma...

Effect of solid waste compost on microbiological and physical properties of a burnt forest soil in field experiments

Guerrero Maestre, Cesar; Gómez, I.; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Moral, R.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.; Hernández Fernández Muñoz, María Teresa
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 259768 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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5 pages, 4 tables.; The restoration of soil microbial activities is a basic step in the reclamation of burnt soils. For this reason, the ability of municipal solid waste compost to accelerate the re-establishment of bacterial and fungal populations, as well as to re-establish physical properties in a burnt soil, was evaluated in a field experiment. Four treatments were performed by adding different doses of compost (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 kg compost m–2 soil) to a burnt Calcic Rodoxeralf soil, and the changes in microbial populations, salt content, aggregate stability and bulk density were evaluated for 1 year. Initially, the addition of compost had a negative effect on soil microbial populations, but 3 months after compost addition, the number of viable fungal propagules increased in all the amended soils. This positive effect lasted until the end of the experiment. From 30 days onwards, all the amended soils showed a greater total number of bacterial cell forming units than the unamended burnt soil. Organic amendment increased the percentage of 2- to 4-mm aggregates, although the effect on the stability of the 0.2- to 2-mm aggregates and on bulk density was less noticeable.; Peer reviewed

Influence of olive mill wastewater in composting and impact of the compost on a Swiss chard crop and soil properties

Paredes, C.; Cegarra Rosique, Juan; Bernal Calderón, M. Pilar; Roig, Asunción
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 259768 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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8 pages, 3 figures, 4 tables.; The suitability of olive mill wastewater (OMW) for composting was studied by the addition of this liquid waste to a mixture of cotton gin waste and sewage sludge, and its composting was compared with that of another pile of similar composition, but without olive mill wastewater. Both piles were composted by the Rutgers static pile system in a pilot plant. To study the effects of both composts on plant yield and soil properties, a plot experiment was carried out with Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla). Five treatments were applied: mineral fertiliser and two doses (30 and 60 tonnes ha−1) of both composts. The olive mill wastewater addition produced a compost with lower organic matter and nitrate concentrations, higher electrical conductivity, and a stabilised and humified organic matter similar to that of the compost produced without olive mill wastewater. The olive mill wastewater compost application to soil did not injure plants, producing a similar plant yield to both compost without olive mill wastewater and inorganic fertiliser. Also, the accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metals in plants cultivated with organic or mineral fertilisers did not reveal significant differences. The olive mill wastewater compost application to soil also improved the chemical and physicochemical properties of the soil.; This research was carried out in the EU framework contract No. EVWA-CT 92-0006.; Peer reviewed

Carbon mineralisation and plant growth in soil amended with compost samples at different degrees of maturity

García-Gómez, A.; Bernal Calderón, M. Pilar; Roig, Asunción
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
ENG
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The carbon and nitrogen mineralisation of a composting mixture of brewing yeast and lemon tree prunings was studied, at different degrees of stabilisation of this matrix, within an incubation experiment in soil. Meanwhile, a growth test in pots with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was carried out using the selected soil and equal amounts of the composting mixture taken at different maturation steps, in order to evaluate the additions of these organic amendments in terms of fertilising value. Samples of the composting mixture, when poorly transformed through the biostabilisation process, showed high CO2-C releases in the soil, due to the microbial attack on easily degradable organic fractions still present in the mixture, with 24.7% mineralisation of the initial total organic carbon (TOC) after a 70 day incubation. On the other hand, mature compost was the most stable matrix, with only 5.4% of TOC mineralised after 70 days. Furthermore, amendments with the initial composting mixture led to negative net N-mineralisation during 56 days of incubation with soil. Only slight negative values of the net N-mineralisation were detected with fully stabilised compost. Nevertheless, pot experiments with ryegrass revealed that mature compost may promote N mineralisation to certain extents. Moreover...

Efecto del compost urbano en un suelo con alta capacidad de fijación de fosfato

Iglesias-Jiménez, Emeterio; Espino Mesa, M.; Pérez García, V.; Hernández-Moreno, J.M.
Fonte: Asociación Nacional de Químicos de España Publicador: Asociación Nacional de Químicos de España
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 1652586 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
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Se estudia el efecto de un compost urbano, obtenido a partir de la fracción orgánica de residuos sólidos urbanos, sobre el grado de disponibilidad de P en un suelo de naturaleza ferralítica con características ándicas acusadas y con alta capacidad de retención de fosfato (Al+Fe activos: 4.8% determinado en oxalato-ácido amónico pH=3, delta P = 87% según método de Blakemore). Para ello se realizó un ensayo en invernadero con un cultivo test (Lolium perenne L.) y 5 dosis de compost (10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 t ha-1). La concentración de P en planta, el P exportado por el cultivo y la concentración de P lábil en el suelo se incrementan en el tiempo de forma proporcional a la dosis aplicada. Además se reduce la capacidad de retención de P del suelo por aplicación del compost (reducción estadísticamente significativa a partir de la dosis equivalente a 40 t ha-1), que está correlacionada con el incremento de carbono orgánico total en el suelo. Este hecho podría atribuirse a la posible existencia de un bloqueo del Al(Fe) activo por compuestos de tipo “húmico” del compost debido a un efecto competitivo en la adsorción por superficies oxídicas entre el fosfato en solución y estos ligandos orgánicos de naturaleza húmica.; Asociación Nacional de Químicos de España

Nitrogen availability from a mature urban compost determined by the 15N isotope dilution method

Iglesias-Jiménez, Emeterio
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 73402 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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Final full-text version (definitively accepted version) of the paper published by Elsevier Sci. Ltd.; Land application of city refuse compost (CRC), produced from aerobic-thermophilic composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, is an attractive alternative for the disposal of these wastes, currently land-filled or incinerated. Knowledge of the availability of N in compost is particularly important, given the current concern about groundwater contamination by NO3--N. In this work we assessed the capacity of a CRC with a high degree of maturity to supply N to a barley crop over 2 months in a controlled-phytotron experiment. The CRC was applied at a rate equivalent to 60 t ha-1, after incubation of the material (fraction < 2mm) for 3 months at 24 ºC (40-45 % moisture). The soil (Eutric Cambisol) was labelled with 15N as (15NH4)2SO4 with 9.614 atom % 15N excess. Available-N from CRC dilutes the isotopic 15N/14N ratio of the labelled soil in an important way; atom % 15N excess in the plant material (aerial part) after 2 months was approximately 50% in the compost treatment with respect to the non-amended soil (0.625 and 1.201 atom % 15N excess, respectively). Accordingly, CRC should not be considered as a poor-release N material when it has a high degree of maturity...

Sustainability assessment of municipal compost use in horticulture using a life cycle approach

Martínez Blanco, Julia
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG; ENG
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Davant del ràpid col·lapse dels abocadors, així com els alts impactes relacionats amb l'abocament dels residus biodegradables, i al baix contingut en matèria orgànica dels sòls mediterranis, el compostatge es presenta com una opció rellevant per tancar els cicles de la matèria orgànica i els nutrients. No obstant això, dades específiques, reals i quantitatives sobre tecnologies i aplicació de compost i considerant diferents perspectives d'anàlisi, són necessàries. Les eines de cicle de vida són metodologies per a construir el perfil ambiental, social i econòmic de productes al llarg de totes les etapes del seu cicle de vida. Aquesta tesi presenta una visió holística del compost, incloent totes les etapes del seu cicle de vida i avaluant el comportament ambiental, la viabilitat agrícola, així com les perspectives del consumidor, el territori i la sostenibilitat. A més, es proposen millores metodològiques per als diferents anàlisi de la producció de compost i la seva aplicació. Dades reals de dues formes de compostatge, domèstic i a escala industrial, i de camps hortícoles es van recollir dins el marc de la tesi. Aquestes dades han estat utilitzades en l'avaluació ambiental i agrícola de la producció i aplicació de compost...

Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste technologies, organic waste, and compost application to crops

Quirós Vargas, Roberto
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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L'augment en la generació de residus sòlids municipals (RSM), principalment degut al creixement de la població i als nous patrons de consum, és un assumpte important per a la Unió Europea (UE) i per la majoria de països d'arreu del món. Polítiques sostenibles per a la gestió dels RSM han estat components claus en les directives de la UE (Directives 1999/31/EC and 2008/98/EC). Aquesta tesis doctoral te com a objectiu estudiar les tecnologies per al tractament dels RSM i avaluar els impactes ambientals derivats de l'ús de la matèria orgànica (compost) com a fertilitzant en cultius. Els estudis s'han basat en la anàlisis del cicle de vida utilitzant les metodologies CML i ReCipe. El capítol 2, fa referencia a l'avaluació ambiental de l'autoclavatge de residus, tecnologia que fins al moment ha estat principalment utilitzada per a l'esterilització de residus sanitaris. Els resultats de l'avaluació ambiental dels processos autoclave, separació i tractament biològic varen ser comparats amb els escenaris d'incineració i abocador. Els resultats mostraren, que els sistemes que consideraven la digestió anaeròbica, tenien els menors impactes per les categories d'eutrofització i escalfament global. En canvi, la incineració obtingué els millors resultats per la resta de categories d'impacte ambiental estudiades. Per altra banda...

Utilización de azufre micronizado en la corrección del pH de compost de residuos de poda

Barbaro,L.A.; Karlanian,M.A.; Morisigue,D.
Fonte: Agriscientia Publicador: Agriscientia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 ES
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Los compost actualmente son muy utilizados como componentes de sustratos, aunque en algunos casos presentan pH alcalinos y causan problemas nutricionales. Por ello se recomienda hacer una corrección previa a su utilización o luego de elaborar el sustrato. Algunas alternativas para bajar el pH es mezclando el compost con materiales ácidos o mediante la adición de azufre, sulfato ferroso u otros compuestos azufrados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue corregir el pH de un compost de residuos de poda con azufre micronizado y hallar la dosis adecuada para el pH deseado. Se conformaron siete tratamientos, incorporando al compost de poda diferentes dosis de azufre micronizado: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 y 8 g/litro. Al compost de cada tratamiento se le midió el pH semanalmente y una vez estabilizados se analizó la conductividad eléctrica, concentración de nitrato, calcio, magnesio, potasio y sodio. Para un pH entre 5,3 y 6,2 se necesitaron 2 a 3 g de azufre/litro. El pH del compost disminuyó con el incremento de la dosis de azufre, y la CE aumentó. El azufre micronizado es una alternativa viable para corregir el pH del compost de restos de poda a los valores deseados.

Extracción secuencial y caracterización fisicoquímica de ácidos húmicos en diferentes compost y el efecto sobre trigo

Rodríguez Torres,María Dolores; Venegas González,José; Angoa P,M. V.; Montañez Soto,José Luis
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 ES
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Las características fisicoquímicas de las sustancias húmicas contenidas en el compost, son responsables de las propiedades del suelo y de la respuesta de los cultivos a sus aplicaciones. La extracción de sustancias húmicas con una sola agitación deja cantidades considerables de compuestos en el sustrato, por lo que las extracciones secuenciales con diferentes reactivos, separan las sustancias húmicas residuales, que resulta en una estimación real de calidad del compost en el manejo agrícola. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: a) extraer secuencialmente las sustancias húmicas de cuatro compost de seis meses de humificación con tres soluciones; b) determinar los grupos funcionales carboxílicos, fenólicos y oxidrílicos de ácidos húmicos contenidos en el compost; c) determinar los parámetros fisicoquímicos C/N, CIC, pH, ΔpH y E4/E6; y d) evaluar los efectos agronómicos de sustancias húmicas sobre el crecimiento del trigo. Se emplearon compost de 6 meses de humificación de rastrojo de maíz, paja de trigo, residuos de frutas y estiércol de bovino; se realizó la extracción secuencial con NaOH 0.5M, Na4P2O7 0.1M y NaF 0.1M y se evaluaron sus propiedades fisicoquímicas. Se obtuvieron rendimientos de 21.73% para rastrojo de maíz...