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Prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rapid weight loss among judo competitors

Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Gualano, Bruno; Franchini, Emerson; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Takesian, Mariane; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
ARTIOLI, G. G., B. GUALANO, E. FRANCHINI, F. B. SCAGLIUSI, M. TAKESIAN, M. FUCHS, and A. H. LANCHA. Prevalence, Magnitude, and Methods of Rapid Weight Loss among Judo Competitors. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 436-442, 2010. Purpose: To identify the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rapid weight loss among judo competitors. Methods: Athletes (607 males and 215 females; age = 19.3 +/- 5.3 yr, weight = 70 +/- 7.5 kg, height = 170.6 +/- 9.8 cm) completed a previously validated questionnaire developed to evaluate rapid weight loss in judo athletes, which provides a score. The higher the score obtained, the more aggressive the weight loss behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency analyses. Mean scores obtained in the questionnaire were used to compare specific groups of athletes using, when appropriate, Mann-Whitney U-test or general linear model one-way ANOVA followed by Tamhane post hoc test. Results: Eighty-six percent of athletes reported that have already lost weight to compete. When heavyweights are excluded, this percentage rises to 89%. Most athletes reported reductions of up to 5% of body weight (mean +/- SD: 2.5 +/- 2.3%). The most weight ever lost was 2%-5%, whereas a great part of athletes reported reductions of 5%-10% (mean +/- SD: 6 +/- 4%). The number of reductions underwent in a season was 3 +/- 5. The reductions usually occurred within 7 +/- 7 d. Athletes began cutting weight at 12.6 +/- 6.1 yr. No significant differences were found in the score obtained by male versus female athletes as well as by athletes from different weight classes. Elite athletes scored significantly higher in the questionnaire than nonelite. Athletes who began cutting weight earlier also scored higher than those who began later. Conclusions: Rapid weight loss is highly prevalent in judo competitors. The level of aggressiveness in weight management behaviors seems to not be influenced by the gender or by the weight class...

Contabilidade estratégica: estudo de caso de informações sobre competidores em uma empresa industrial ; Strategic accounting: study of case of information on competitors in an industrial company

Balduino, João Herivelto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/08/2003 PT
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Este trabalho de pesquisa buscou identificar e catalogar as fontes de informações estratégicas competitivas relacionadas aos concorrentes, existentes dentro da empresa Metalúrgica Siemsen Ltda. As fontes de informações foram definidas com base no modelo de Ward (1992), adaptado por Riccio (2002), alinhado com a realidade da empresa. A contabilidade estratégica é conceituada como um ferramental informativo de mensuração com aplicabilidade à gestão estratégica e sua utilização reveste-se de importância para os usuários, pois contribui para ações decisórias ágeis e seguras, facilitando o alcance dos objetivos desejados pelas organizações. O presente trabalho baseia-se num estudo de caso único em uma empresa industrial e, assim, apresenta peculiaridades específicas, além de ter sido um dos primeiros trabalhos do gênero no meio acadêmico nacional. O trabalho permitiu o entendimento da estrutura conceitual que conduz à formação de um banco de dados específico de informações estratégicas dos competidores, proporcionando condições, aos interessados, de implementar e manter uma contabilidade estratégica e também constituindo-se em bases adicionais para novos estudos afins.; This research sought to identify and catalogize the existing strategic competitive information sources in relation to competitors in the company Metalúrgica Siemsen Ltda. The information sources were defined on the basis of Ward’s model (1992)...

Análise de custos de concorrentes: estudo exploratório no setor de celulose e papel; Analysis of costs of competitors: exploration study in pulp and paper industry

Casella, Bruna Maria Barbosa Xavier
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2008 PT
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26.91%
O presente trabalho teve por objetivo fundamental demonstrar a possibilidade de construir uma Análise de Custos de Concorrentes através das Demonstrações Contábeis e Financeiras. Este trabalho explorou, em um estudo entre quatro empresas do setor de Celulose e Papel, do Brasil, a possibilidade de utilizar as Demonstrações Contábeis e Financeiras como ferramenta para Análise dos Custos dos Concorrentes. Em um primeiro momento, em estudo qualitativo, foram comparados os principais elementos constantes nas DFC´s do primeiro trimestre de 2007 das empresas em análise. Finalmente, foram comparados os principais índices das empresas e suas estruturas de custos, em um estudo quantitativo com dados que compreendem do primeiro trimestre de 2000 ao segundo trimestre de 2007. Através das análises feitas foi possível concluir que é possível inferir sobre os custos dos concorrentes através de suas Demonstrações Contábeis e Financeiras.; The present study aimed to show the possibility of built a Competitors Cost Analysis through Financial Reporting. This work explored, in a study between four companies of Pulp and Paper Sector, in Brazil, the possibility of Financial Reporting usage as a tool for Competitors Cost Analysis. In a first moment...

A geografia da defesa da concorrência no Mercosul. A importância da definição do mercado relevante na análise antitruste em um bloco econômico regional; The geography of competitors' defense in Mercosul: the importance of the relevant market definition in the antitrust analysis in a regional economic group

Creuz, Luís Rodolfo Cruz e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.78%
O marco inicial da proposta de estudo é o Protocolo de Defesa da Concorrência no Mercosul Protocolo de Fortaleza, de 17/12/1996, que apesar de ter sido ratificado por alguns Estados-Parte do Mercosul, e no Brasil tendo sido ratificado por meio do Decreto nº 3.602, de 18/9/2000, pouquíssimo avanço foi identificado em muitos anos de vigência, seja por divergências políticas, seja por dificuldades de implantação, e ainda, por questões de conjuntura, em função de crises econômicas mundiais. A busca por formas de equilíbrio nas relações econômicas ao redor do globo, e seus impactos regionais na América Latina, é constante nos fóruns e organizações internacionais, inclusive envolvendo a repressão ao abuso do poder econômico e a defesa da concorrência, considerando esta um elemento importante para o desenvolvimento dos países da região. O estudo verificou a importância para análises que envolvem temas concorrenciais, por ser efetivamente a sua base e o ponto de partida, a questão da delimitação do mercado relevante. A pesquisa tratou de verificar a centralidade do tema na análise antitruste e a relevância do debate do direito da concorrência para a integração regional, focando especificamente o Mercosul e sua forma de regulação. A integração regional é um processo importante em face das desigualdades mundiais...

Toward a holistic view of warfare

Vicente, João
Fonte: Empresa da Revista Militar Publicador: Empresa da Revista Militar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
The lethality, precision, and global reach of the American way of war has changed the modern character of warfare, allowing the US to fight wars with fewer casualties and destruction, creating the general perception that conflicts are acceptable, safe, and clean. However, future emergence of a multipolar world, and the rise of US’s peer competitors with contradictory national interests, will increase the risks of conflict. Given the limited effectiveness of conventional warfare against the overwhelming conventional power of American military forces, future peer competitors will seek to dislocate its strengths. Furthermore, future trends such as the proliferation and affordability of commercial technologies, the increasing civilianization of war, and the importance of global media, will provide the leverage that asymmetric competitors can use to challenge the US outside the traditional military domain. Such changes will require professional military practitioners to have a better understanding of the nature of future warfare.

Natural Enemies and Competitors of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Colombia

BUSTILLO,ALEX E.; CÁRDENAS,REINALDO; POSADA,FRANCISCO J.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2002 EN
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26.91%
The objective of this research was to survey and record the natural enemies and competitors of the Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in the Colombian coffee region. Despite the recently introduction of CBB to Colombia, 25 natural enemies were recorded, including Beauveria bassiana. Except for this fungus, the other organisms are new records of natural enemies of CBB. This emphasizes the little knowledge about these natural control agents and competitors that can help to keep the CBB population under control. The predators were the group with higher number of natural enemies followed by the competitors, fungi, bacteria and protozoans. Only one parasitoid wasp was recorded attacking CBB adults.

Use of Multiple Competitors for Quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Plasma

Vener, Tanya; Nygren, Malin; Andersson, AnnaLena; Uhlén, Mathias; Albert, Jan; Lundeberg, Joakim
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1998 EN
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26.91%
Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma has rapidly become an important tool in basic HIV research and in the clinical care of infected individuals. Here, a quantitative HIV assay based on competitive reverse transcription-PCR with multiple competitors was developed. Four RNA competitors containing identical PCR primer binding sequences as the viral HIV-1 RNA target were constructed. One of the PCR primers was fluorescently labeled, which facilitated discrimination between the viral RNA and competitor amplicons by fragment analysis with conventional automated sequencers. The coamplification of known amounts of the RNA competitors provided the means to establish internal calibration curves for the individual reactions resulting in exclusion of tube-to-tube variations. Calibration curves were created from the peak areas, which were proportional to the starting amount of each competitor. The fluorescence detection format was expanded to provide a dynamic range of more than 5 log units. This quantitative assay allowed for reproducible analysis of samples containing as few as 40 viral copies of HIV-1 RNA per reaction. The within- and between-run coefficients of variation were <24% (range, 10 to 24) and <36% (range...

Remote sensing of future competitors: Impacts on plant defenses

Izaguirre, Miriam M.; Mazza, Carlos A.; Biondini, Mariela; Baldwin, Ian T.; Ballaré, Carlos L.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.78%
Far-red radiation (FR) reflected by green tissues is a key signal that plants use to detect the proximity of future competitors. Perception of increased levels of FR elicits a suite of responses collectively known as the shade-avoidance syndrome, which includes increased stem elongation, production of erect leaves, and reduced lateral branching. These responses improve the access to light for plants that occur in crowded populations. Responses to the proximity of competitors are known to affect the susceptibility to disease and predation in several organisms, including social animals. However, the impacts of warning signals of competition on the expression of defenses have not been explicitly investigated in plants. In the experiments reported here, we show that reflected FR induced a dramatic down-regulation of chemical defenses in wild tobacco (Nicotiana longiflora). FR altered the expression of several defense-related genes, inhibited the accumulation of herbivore-induced phenolic compounds, and augmented the performance of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Complementary studies with tomato suggested that the effects of FR on defenses are mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome B. The central implication of these results is that shade-intolerant species such as wild tobacco and tomato activate functional changes that affect their ability to cope with herbivore attack in response to phytochrome signals of future competition...

Rest in underperforming elite competitors.

Koutedakis, Y; Budgett, R; Faulmann, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1990 EN
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26.91%
This study examines the effects of 3-5 weeks of physical rest on selected physical, physiological and psychological parameters obtained from 12 Olympic but latterly underperforming competitors and their matched control subjects. Cardiorespiratory data were directly determined from their work to volitional exhaustion on either a treadmill, cycle, or rowing ergometer. Anaerobic power and capacity were evaluated through modified Wingate tests. For psychometric assessments, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used. For the Olympic competitors, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant increases (p less than 0.05) in body weight, maximum respiratory exchange ratio, maximum oxygen consumption, and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, following the rest period. There was also a significant reduction in fatigue and mood profile score, and a significant increase in vigour. No significant changes were found in the matched control subjects. The present data show that resting for 3-5 weeks assists underperforming elite competitors to improve their aerobic performance.

Biological characteristics of young swimmers, tennis players and non-competitors.

Bloomfield, J.; Blanksby, B. A.; Beard, D. F.; Ackland, T. R.; Elliott, B. C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1984 EN
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26.91%
One hundred and twelve finalists in the State Swimming Championships aged between seven and twelve years and 65 ranked tennis players of similar age were selected on the basis of their sporting performances. A third group comprised children of similar socio-economic status who only took part in casual sport. The tests which were used in the study were those considered to be important for successful athletic performance. A multifactorial analysis of variance and post-hoc t-tests were applied to the data to determine if any statistical differences were apparent between the three groups. The results demonstrated that no size, body shape, flexibility, strength or lung function differences were evident between the competitors and non-competitors, but that the swimmers and tennis players were superior to the non-competitors in cardiovascular endurance.

Diversity of larger consumers enhances interference competition effects on smaller competitors

Nascimento, Francisco J. A.; Karlson, Agnes M. L.; Näslund, Johan; Elmgren, Ragnar
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
Competition between large and small species for the same food is common in a number of ecosystems including aquatic ones. How diversity of larger consumers affects the access of smaller competitors to a limiting resource is not well understood. We tested experimentally how species richness (0–3 spp.) of benthic deposit-feeding macrofauna changes meiofaunal ostracods’ incorporation of fresh organic matter from a stable-isotope-labeled cyanobacterial bloom, using fauna from the species-poor Baltic Sea. Presence of macrofauna mostly decreased meiofaunal incorporation of bloom material, depending on the macrofauna species present. As expected, the species identity of macrofauna influenced the incorporation of organic matter by meiofauna. Interestingly, our results show that, in addition, species richness of the macrofauna significantly reduced meiofauna incorporation of freshly settled nitrogen and carbon. With more than one macrofauna species, the reduction was always greater than expected from the single-species treatments. Field data from the Baltic Sea showed a negative correlation between macrofauna diversity and meiofaunal ostracod abundance, as expected from the experimental results. We argue that this is caused by interference competition...

Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

Koropanovski, Nenad; Berjan, Bobana; Bozic, Predrag R.; Pazin, Nemanja; Sanader, Aleksandra; Jovanovic, Srecko; Jaric, Slobodan
Fonte: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach Publicador: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/12/2011 EN
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27.16%
Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility (“T”- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically...

Patchy Distributions of Competitors Affect the Growth of a Clonal Plant When the Competitor Density Is High

Xue, Wei; Huang, Lin; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Environments are patchy in not only abiotic factors but also biotic ones. Many studies have examined effects of spatial heterogeneity in abiotic factors such as light, water and nutrients on the growth of clonal plants, but few have tested those in biotic factors. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine how patchy distributions of competitors affect the growth of a rhizomatous wetland plant Bolboschoenus planiculmis and whether such effects depend on the density of the competitors. We grew one ramet of B. planiculmis in the center of each of the experimental boxes without competitors (Schoenoplectus triqueter), with a homogeneous distribution of the competitors of low or high density, and with a patchy distribution of the competitors of low or high density. The presence of competitors markedly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets, number of tubers and rhizome length) of the B. planiculmis clones. When the density of the competitors was low, the growth of B. planiculmis did not differ significantly between the competitor patches and competitor-free patches. However, when the density of the competitors was high, the growth of B. planiculmis was significantly higher in the competitor-free patches than in the competitor patches. Therefore...

Differential Gene Expression in Pycnoporus coccineus during Interspecific Mycelial Interactions with Different Competitors

Arfi, Yonathan; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
Fungi compete against each other for environmental resources. These interspecific combative interactions encompass a wide range of mechanisms. In this study, we highlight the ability of the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus coccineus to quickly overgrow or replace a wide range of competitor fungi, including the gray-mold fungus Botrytis cinerea and the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms deployed by P. coccineus to compete against other fungi and to assess whether common pathways are used to interact with different competitors, differential gene expression in P. coccineus during cocultivation was assessed by transcriptome sequencing and confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of a set of 15 representative genes. Compared with the pure culture, 1,343 transcripts were differentially expressed in the interaction with C. puteana and 4,253 were differentially expressed in the interaction with B. cinerea, but only 197 transcripts were overexpressed in both interactions. Overall, the results suggest that a broad array of functions is necessary for P. coccineus to replace its competitors and that different responses are elicited by the two competitors, although a portion of the mechanism is common to both. However...

Bottom of the Heap: Having Heavier Competitors Accelerates Early-Life Telomere Loss in the European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation...

Conspecifics as informers and competitors: an experimental study in foraging bumble-bees

Baude, Mathilde; Danchin, Étienne; Mugabo, Marianne; Dajoz, Isabelle
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
Conspecifics are usually considered competitors negatively affecting food intake rates. However, their presence can also inform about resource quality by providing inadvertent social information. Few studies have investigated whether foragers perceive conspecifics as informers or competitors. Here, we experimentally tested whether variation in the density of demonstrators (‘none’, ‘low’ and ‘high’), whose location indicated flower profitability, affected decision-making of bumble-bees Bombus terrestris. Bumble-bees foraged on either ‘simple’ (two colours) or ‘complex’ (four colours) artificial floral communities. We found that conspecifics at low density may be used as sources of information in first flower choices, whereas they appeared as competitors over the whole foraging sequence. Low conspecific densities improved foragers' first-visit success rate in the simple environment, and decreased time to first landing, especially in the complex environment. High conspecific densities did not affect these behavioural parameters, but reduced flower constancy in both floral communities, which may alter the efficiency of pollinating visits. These results suggest that the balance of the costs and benefits of conspecific presence varies with foraging experience...

Transcriptional and antagonistic responses of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to phylogenetically different bacterial competitors

Garbeva, Paolina; Silby, Mark W; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Levy, Stuart B; Boer, Wietse de
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
The ability of soil bacteria to successfully compete with a range of other microbial species is crucial for their growth and survival in the nutrient-limited soil environment. In the present work, we studied the behavior and transcriptional responses of soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf0-1 on nutrient-poor agar to confrontation with strains of three phylogenetically different bacterial genera, that is, Bacillus, Brevundimonas and Pedobacter. Competition for nutrients was apparent as all three bacterial genera had a negative effect on the density of P. fluorescens Pf0-1; this effect was most strong during the interaction with Bacillus. Microarray-based analyses indicated strong differences in the transcriptional responses of Pf0-1 to the different competitors. There was higher similarity in the gene expression response of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 to the Gram-negative bacteria as compared with the Gram-positive strain. The Gram-negative strains did also trigger the production of an unknown broad-spectrum antibiotic in Pf0-1. More detailed analysis indicated that expression of specific Pf0-1 genes involved in signal transduction and secondary metabolite production was strongly affected by the competitors' identity, suggesting that Pf0-1 can distinguish among different competitors and fine-tune its competitive strategies. The results presented here demonstrate that P. fluorescens Pf0-1 shows a species-specific transcriptional and metabolic response to bacterial competitors and provide new leads in the identification of specific cues in bacteria–bacteria interactions and of novel competitive strategies...

Ravens, Corvus corax, differentiate between knowledgeable and ignorant competitors

Bugnyar, Thomas; Heinrich, Bernd
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Human social behaviour is influenced by attributing mental states to others. It is debated whether and to what extent such skills might occur in non-human animals. We here test for the possibility of ravens attributing knowledge about the location of food to potential competitors. In our experiments, we capitalize on the mutually antagonistic interactions that occur in these birds between those individuals that store food versus those that try to pilfer these caches. Since ravens' pilfer success depends on memory of observed caches, we manipulated the view of birds at caching, thereby designing competitors who were either knowledgeable or ignorant of cache location and then tested the responses of both storers and pilferers to those competitors at recovery. We show that ravens modify their cache protection and pilfer tactics not simply in response to the immediate behaviour of competitors, but also in relation to whether or not they previously had the opportunity of observing caching. Our results suggest that the birds not only recall whom they had seen during caching, but also know that obstacles can obstruct the view of others and that this affects pilfering.

Poder compensatório: coordenação horizontal na defesa da concorrência

Azevedo, Paulo Furquim de; Almeida, Sílvia Fagá de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Agreements among competitors to negotiate prices are challenged by antitrust authorities as per se illegal. Implicitly competition policy assigns negligible probability to such arrangements to yield net social benefits. This statement implies that countervailing power - related to the collective action of competitors in order to counteract the market power of a supplier or consumer - has a secondary role on competition policy. This paper argues that under particular conditions agreements among competitors in order to negotiate prices may increase social welfare. As a consequence, this type of arrangement should not be charged as per se illegal, inasmuch as they may create countervailing power and mitigate the effects of pre-existent market power. The analysis suggests that economic theory should be more intensely used in antitrust analysis, mainly when there are conflicting results with the established court decisions.; Condutas comerciais uniformes com o propósito de estabelecer preços são condenadas por sua mera existência. Implicitamente, a política de defesa da concorrência atribui probabilidade desprezível de esse tipo de arranjo gerar benefícios sociais líquidos. Como consequência, o conceito de 'poder compensatório'...

Influencia del número de competidores en la preferencia de estímulos publicitarios; Influence of the Number of Competitors on Preference of Advertising Stimuli

Perez-Acosta, Andrés M.; Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá - Colombia
Fonte: Revista Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho Publicador: Revista Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/12/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.91%
Se llevó a cabo un experimento en el que se puso a prueba la variable de número de competidores sobre la preferencia de estímulos publicitarios. Según un modelo asociacionista cognoscitivo desarrollado por el autor, a mayor número de estímulos competidores (publicidad de otras marcas) menor es la probabilidad tanto de recuerdo como de preferencia. Se examinó la preferencia de tres marcas novedosas (BUCK, BHUK y BOUK) de un producto ficticio (“bebida para el aprendizaje”) luego de ser publicitadas en un contexto de cero competidores (grupo experimental 1), un competidor (grupo experimental 2) y dos competidores (grupo experimental 3). Los datos de preferencia fueron corregidos con un sesgo a priori, cuyo valor se calculó a partir de los resultados del grupo control, el cual no fue preexpuesto a ningún estímulo publicitario. Los resultados sustentan parcialmente las predicciones del modelo, especialmente los obtenidos con los grupos experimentales 1 y 2, además del comportamiento de la marca BUCK a lo largo de los tres grupos.; An experiment was carried out to test the influence of number of competitors on the preference of advertising stimuli. According to a cognitive-associacionist model developed by the author, to greater number of competing stimuli (advertising of other brands) smaller is the probability of recall and preference for a brand-stimulus. The preference for three novel brands (BUCK...