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Mind the Neighbors : The Impact of Productivity and Location on Firm Turnover

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Thompson, Fraser
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
This paper examines the impact of firm productivity and local industrial structure on firm entry and exit in Morocco between 1985 and 2001. There is strong evidence of productivity exerting a market-cleansing role. Less productive firms are found to be more likely to exit - and locations with more productive firms attract higher rates of new firm entry. The effect of productivity operates not only in an absolute sense; a firm s relative productivity or distance to the local sector frontier matters too. First, large productivity gaps are associated with higher rates of exit, while new firms are attracted to locations with small productivity gaps. Second, local competition increases the probability of exit, although it does not encourage entry. Third, there is evidence of scale or agglomeration effects that increase firm turnover. Fourth, measures of sector diversity are not associated with lower turnover. Fifth, the geographic level at which agglomeration and competition effects are defined matters differently for exit than entry. For exit...

Do Market Pressures Induce Economic Efficiency? The Case of Slovenian Manufacturing, 1994-2001

Orazem, Peter F.; Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Using a unique longitudinal data set on all manufacturing firms in Slovenia from 1994 to 2001, this article analyzes how firm efficiency changed in response to changing competitive pressures associated with the transition to market. Results show that the period was one of atypically rapid growth of total factor productivity (TFP). The rise in firm efficiency occurs across almost all industries and firm types: large or small, state or private, domestic or foreign owned. Changes in firm ownership type have no direct impact on firm efficiency. However, increased market competition related to rising market share of private firms, new market entrants, foreign-owned firms, and international trade raises TFP across all firms in an industry, whether private or state owned. In addition, competitive pressures that sort out inefficient firms of all types and retain the most efficient, coupled with the entry of new private firms that are at least as efficient as surviving firms, prove to be the major source of TFP gains. Results strongly confirm that market competition fosters efficiency.

Kyrgyz Republic : Country Economic Memorandum - Enhancing the Prospects for Growth and Trade, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
This Country Economic Memorandum is aimed at helping the authorities in the Kyrgyz Republic identify factors explaining the apparent divergence between policies and outcomes, with a view to determining priorities for reform in the coming period. The main messages of the report are: 1) Kyrgyz policymakers should take advantage of the currently favorable nexus of a stable macro-environment, relatively strong gold production and international prices, and fast-growing neighboring markets, to address lingering policy and institutional deficiencies that limit the efficient restructuring of the economy away from its dependence on primary agriculture, mining and hydro-power. Action is needed to provide for more rapid progress with poverty reduction, and to mitigate the impact on the economy of an expected major decline in gold production by the end of the decade. Detailed quantitative analysis reveals a significant unrealized growth potential in agriculture and livestock products, agro processing and light manufacturing, based on prevailing inter-sectoral linkages in the Kyrgyz economy. 2) The prospects for successfully changing the growth pattern and trajectory, depend fundamentally on accelerated investment and export diversification. The contribution of foreign direct investments (FDI) to non-gold real sector investment has been minuscule over the past decade...

Improving Water Services Through Competition

Webb, Michael; Ehrhardt, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Water sector reforms in recent years have concentrated on involving the private sector in the operation and management of monopoly water utilities. Much effort has gone into regulation to stop utilities from abusing their monopoly power, but relatively little into considering ways to reduce that monopoly power. This Note explains how to bring competitive pressures to bear in the water industry. It shows that while it can be difficult to implement conventional product market competition, this option should not be ruled out. Better, cheaper water services can also be achieved by increasing the use of competition in purchasing inputs, relying on competitive bidding for the right to supply an area, and benchmarking rival utilities in different areas.

Georgia - Public Expenditure Review : Managing Expenditure Pressures for Sustainability and Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Economic growth has rebounded strongly in Georgia during 2010-12 and commendable fiscal consolidation has been implemented, although considerable medium-term macro-fiscal challenges remain. This public expenditure review (PER) considers possible sources of expenditure pressure that may affect the fiscal consolidation program and suggests options to manage them. This PER presents a number of options for consideration to manage fiscal consolidation, which can contribute toward greater selectivity in capital expenditures, enhanced sustainability of the road investment program, and containing medium-term social expenditure pressures. The rest of this synthesis report is in five chapters. Chapter first summarizes the macroeconomic context and assesses trade-offs associated in balancing the overall composition of public expenditures. The second and third chapters illustrate policy options and implications associated with containing social expenditure pressures and improving effectiveness of health expenditures...

Do Market Pressures Induce Economic Efficiency? The Case of Slovenian Manufacturing, 1994-2001

Orazem, Peter F.; Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
The Slovenian transition represents a slow, but steady liberalization of constraints on competition. Using a unique longitudinal data set on all manufacturing firms in Slovenia over the period 1994-2001, the authors analyze how firm efficiency changed, in response to changing competitive pressures, holding constant firm attributes. Results show that the period was one of atypically rapid growth of total factor productivity (TFP), relative to levels in OECD countries, and that the rise in firm efficiency occurs across almost all industries and firm types - large or small, state or private, and domestic or foreign-owned. Changes in firm ownership type, have no impact on firm efficiency. Rather, competitive pressures that sort out inefficient firms of all types, and retain the most efficient, coupled with the entry of new private firms that are at least as efficient as surviving firms, prove to be the major source of TFP gains. Market competition from new entrants, foreign-owned firms, and international trade, also raise firm efficiency in the industry. Results strongly confirm that market competition fosters efficiency.

Republic of Turkey Reform for Competitiveness Technical Assistance : Fostering Open and Efficient Markets through Effective Competition Policies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Competition in domestic markets is critical to ensure increased international competitiveness. Firms facing more intense competitive pressures are more likely to introduce new products and upgrade existing product lines. Firms usually acquire many of their inputs (such as transportation, energy, construction, and professional services) in local markets. Competition policies are defined as the set of policies and a law ensuring that competition in the marketplace is not restricted in a way that reduces economic welfare. This report reviews the current status of competition policy in Turkey, focusing on the economy-wide enforcement of competition rules and on specific regulations and government policies that affect product market competition. Economic and legal analysis is used to identify key challenges and to propose specific areas of intervention and reform. In addition, this report provides an evaluation of the potential benefits of pro-competition policies. Turkey is benchmarked against other economies that represent international best practice...

Regulation, Productivity, and Growth : OECD Evidence

Nicoletti, Giuseppe; Scarpetta, Stefano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
The authors look at differences in the scope and depth of pro-competitive regulatory reforms and privatization policies as a possible source of cross-country dispersion in growth outcomes. They suggest that, despite extensive liberalization and privatization in the OECD area, the cross-country variation of regulatory settings has increased in recent years, lining up with the increasing dispersion in growth. The authors then investigate empirically the regulation-growth link using data that cover a large set of manufacturing and service industries in OECD countries over the past two decades and focusing on multifactor productivity (MFP), which plays a crucial role in GDP growth and accounts for a significant share of its cross-country variance. Regressing MFP on both economywide indicators of regulation and privatization and industry-level indicators of entry liberalization, the authors find evidence that reforms promoting private governance and competition (where these are viable) tend to boost productivity. In manufacturing the gains to be expected from lower entry barriers are greater the further a given country is from the technology leader. So...

International Cartel Enforcement : Lessons from the 1990s

Evenett, Simon J.; Levenstein, Margaret C.; Suslow, Valerie Y.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
The enforcement record of the 1990s shows that private international cartels are not defunct--nor do they always fall quickly under the weight of their own incentive problems. Of a sample of 40 such cartels prosecuted by the United States and the European Union in the 1990s, 24 lasted at least four years. And for the 20 cartels in this sample where sales data are available, the annual worldwide turnover in affected products exceeded $30 billion. National competition policies address harm in domestic markets, and in some cases prohibit cartels without taking strong enforcement measures. The authors propose a series of reforms to national policies and steps to enhance international cooperation that will strengthen the deterrents against international cartelization. Furthermore, the authors argue that aggressive prosecution of cartels must be complemented by vigilance in other areas of competition policy. If not, firms will respond to the enhanced deterrents to cartelization by merging or by taking other measures that lessen competitive pressures.

Kenya Medical Supplies Authority : A Case Study of the Ongoing Transition from an Ungainly Bureaucracy to a Competitive and Customer-Focused Medical Logistics Organization

Yadav, Prashant
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
The Kenya Medical Supplies Authority (KEMSA) is a state-owned health logistics service company with the core mandate to procure, warehouse and distribute healthcare commodities to public sector health facilities and other public sector customers. Since the inception of KEMSA in 2000 there have been multiple projects and initiatives to improve the performance of KEMSA. However, despite these efforts, and until recently KEMSA had struggled to effectively demonstrate any sustained improvements in performance. In the last 3-4 years, KEMSA under its new leadership has shown sustained improvements in performance, accountability and transparency. In the last year, the Government of Kenya has embarked on the devolution of health financing to the counties to ensure that services are delivered effectively and efficiently to communities. The devolution has resulted in a significant change in the way KEMSA receives monies for carrying out its activities. Of particular relevance is that the devolution has led to ordering and payment for drugs and health commodities by counties. This required KEMSA to reconfigure its business model to serve the 47 counties in Kenya as its customers. The World Bank...

Republic of Armenia : Accumulation, Competition, and Connectivity

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
By 2013, the Armenian economy has left behind most of the hangover from the global financial crisis and a look at medium- to long-term growth drivers is therefore in order. The central tenet of this report is that the government's job creation agenda requires a different growth model than the one followed before the global crisis. Reaching the goals of the government's strategy will require a combination of four factors: first, higher investment and better financial intermediation between savers and investors. Second, better utilization of the labor force, including the largely untapped resource of Armenians abroad. Third, stronger competitive pressures in the markets for goods and services, which will improve incentives for companies to innovate, adopt new technologies, and become more efficient. Fourth, enhanced connections of the landlocked Armenian economy with world markets, including through land, air, and through internet and communication technologies. This report's theoretical framework emphasizes structural reforms to drive growth. This report is structured as follows: chapter one is macroeconomic developments and outlook; chapter two focuses on saving...

Guatemala : Investment Climate Assessment, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Guatemala has achieved substantial progress in improving its investment climate since 2004. Despite these achievements, Guatemala continues to face significant challenges. Guatemala's overall ease of doing business ranking is still relatively low-114th out of 178 countries, and it falls well behind the rankings of comparator countries such as El Salvador (69), Nicaragua (93), and Panama (65). Economic growth in Guatemala over the past 25 years has been very modest, even by Latin American standards. Productivity and export growth has been disappointing. The Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) brings new opportunities as well as competitive pressures. To be competitive, Guatemala needs to aggressively tackle reforms in three main areas: infrastructure, governance, and access to finance. Reforms in these areas, as well as other targeted initiatives, will better position Guatemala to take advantage of CAFTA. The Government should also build on what has been working in trade promotion. Road, port, and airport quality could all be improved...

Chinese Trade Reforms, Market Access and Foreign Competition : The Patterns of French Exporters

Bas, Maria; Bombarda, Pamela
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
A unilateral trade reform generates two opposite effects: market access expansion and strengthening of competitive pressures in the liberalized market. Using detailed trade and firm-level data from France, we investigate how French firms' product scope and export sales changed after Chinese liberalization vis-à-vis Asian liberalization. Our findings suggest that lower Chinese import tariffs account on average for 7 percent of the new products exported by French firms, and for 18 percent of additional French export sales. These results are robust when accounting for foreign competition faced by French firms in the liberalized market.

Chinese Trade Reforms, Market Access and Foreign Competition : The Patterns of French Exporters

Bas, Maria; Bombarda, Pamela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
A unilateral trade reform generates two opposite effects: market access expansion and strengthening of competitive pressures in the liberalized market. Using detailed trade and firm-level data from France, the authors investigate how French firms' product scope and export sales changed after Chinese liberalization vis-a-vis Asian liberalization. The findings suggest that lower Chinese import tariffs account on average for 7 percent of the new products exported by French firms, and for 18 percent of additional French export sales. These results are robust when accounting for foreign competition faced by French firms in the liberalized market.

Serbia - Right-Sizing the Government Wage Bill

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Serbia's public sector wage bill constitutes a significant share of total government expenditure. At present, it is significantly higher than in most neighboring European Union (EU) member countries. This is largely due to higher average levels of compensation, rather than higher levels of staffing. While wage spending has fallen recently this is not the occasion to be sanguine about the Government's wage and employment policies. There are two reasons. First, continuing control over the wage bill is a key part of the Government's overall deficit reduction strategy. Given the Government's reluctance to raise taxes and the difficulty it confronts in reducing other major categories of expenditures (particularly pensions), restraining the wage bill is critical to fiscal sustainability. In connection with its standby arrangement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the government is committed to enacting fiscal responsibility legislation which would cap wage bill spending at eight percent of gross domestic product (GDP) over the medium term. To date...

Bosnia and Herzegovina : Country Economic Memorandum; Bosna i Hercegovina - Ekonomski memorandum za BiH

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) takes stock of economic developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) since the end of the 1995 war, and, discusses potential sources of high, sustained growth that BH could exploit, as European Union integration advances. The report formulates policy recommendations that would help maximize the potential of the country's economy to achieve higher real GDP growth, and increased job generation. In doing so, the CEM focuses on four priority policy areas: macroeconomic management, international trade policy, business environment and enterprise reform, and, labor market policies. The report conveys the need to significantly build human capital, strengthen the institutional framework, particularly focusing on social sectors, and, develop infrastructure. Despite the country's recent macroeconomic stability, there are still uneven structural policies, and a largely unfinished agenda. The single most important macroeconomic imbalance is the persistent current account deficit. The analysis presented in this report suggests that it is the result of low domestic savings rates, rather than high investment. The rate of investment is not above the average for transition economies, whereas the share of domestic savings that can finance it is particularly low. The need for higher domestic savings raises the question of the adequacy of BH's current fiscal policy stance to serve economic growth. In the area of trade...

Belarus : Window of Opportunity to Enhance Competitiveness and Sustain Economic Growth, A Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) for the Republic of Belarus, Volume 2, Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) for the Republic of Belarus takes stock of the growth trends in the country's economy since 1996, reviews the evidence of the accumulated challenges and risks within the existing growth patterns, and provides recommendations aimed at strengthening growth sustainability. In sum, while economic growth in the last nine years has been impressive, the report argues that maintaining the current growth strategy would lead to a gradual erosion of economic competitiveness. The government should make significant policy adjustments by reorienting its policies toward ensuring a better business environment, and a smaller sized government. Current international and domestic environment are favorable for supporting a policy shift toward the acceleration of structural reforms. At the moment, the government is well equipped to mitigate the potential costs of these reforms, because the policy settings are largely determined by the growing economy, the positive trends in both the enterprise and the household sectors, favorable developments in the global economy, low debt, and the strong administrative capacity of the state. This situation could change: various pressures might become stronger, and then these same reforms would become politically more costly...

Travel Channel Meets Discovery Channel or How Tourism Can Encourage Better Export Performance and Diversification in Nepal

Reis, José Guilherme; Varela, Gonzalo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Entering and successfully surviving in export markets is a costly process for firms. The process involves learning about the existence of foreign demand, "discovering" production costs of exportable goods, building up reputation, succeeding in product branding to reduce competitive pressures and to be constantly upgrading quality standards to better serve demanding international clients, and remaining competitive vis-à-vis other players in the global marketplace. This paper argues that tourism can help alleviate some of these costs by providing a relatively inexpensive platform for cost-discovery and by acting as a low-cost "in-house" trade fair, accessible to all domestic producers. The analysis combines product-level data on world and Nepal's exports (both for goods that are related and unrelated to tourism) with Nepalese data on tourist inflows and expenditures and macro indicators on relative prices. For tourism-related goods, the analysis reveals a positive association between tourist inflows from given destinations and their expenditures...

Heterogeneity of Isomorphic Pressures: Intertwining the Resource-Based View and the Neoinstitutional Approach

Popadiuk,Silvio; Rivera,Edward Rivera; Bataglia,Walter
Fonte: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração Publicador: ANPAD - Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
The purpose of this research is to establish a conceptual framework that contributes to explaining sustained competitive advantage, forming an analytical framework that brings the resource-based view and organizational analysis' neoinstitutional approaches closer together. A detailed epistemological articulation has been undertaken to advance the understanding of strategy and competitive advantage in organizations, aggregating contribution to the literature with the proposal of a theoretical model that steadily articulates elements from organizational institutionalism and the resource-based view. Hence, the major contribution is to associate the resource-based view and organizational analysis' neoinstitutional theory as a means to reformulate the notion of institutional isomorphism, and have a potential new explanation for organizational diversity and the existence of organizations that are more capable of generating (or maximize) value than others. In its formulation, the similarity among organizations in their fields provides the baseline for organizational performance. Thus, it is from this baseline level that organizations would then be able to differentiate themselves and generate sustainable competitive advantage through active and selective response to different institutional pressures.

Inteligência competitiva nos departamentos de manutenção industrial no Brasil; Competitive intelligence at Brazilian industrial maintenance departments

Quinello, Robson; Nicoletti, José Roberto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
As atividades de manutenção industrial, geralmente, eram consideradas como um mal necessário às organizações. Esta imagem necessita mudar no Brasil, pois o setor faz parte da cadeia de valores das empresas, é responsável pela manutenção da confiabilidade e disponibilidade dos equipamentos e é o gerador de parte expressiva dos custos das empresas. Essa responsabilidade aumenta num país onde a capacidade produtiva está no limite, exigindo esforços extras e onde as crescentes pressões por reduções dos custos e restrições técnicas e humanas, nas organizações, pedem mudanças de paradigmas. O presente estudo teve por finalidade mapear os principais canais de captação da informação utilizados pelos profissionais da manutenção industrial brasileira, demonstrando que o uso sistemático da Inteligência Competitiva pode trazer saltos tecnológicos e ganho de vantagem competitiva. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa exploratória, utilizando como instrumentos de pesquisa o método Delphi, entrevistas com profissionais da área e delineamento experimental de sistematização da I.C- Inteligência Competitiva em um departamento-piloto do setor automotivo. Os resultados mostraram a utilização de fontes formais e informais em diferentes freqüências de acesso e a fragilidade destes departamentos no uso não-sistemático de I.C...