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Effects of the 2008–09 Economic Crisis on Labor Markets in Mexico

Freije, Samuel; López-Acevedo, Gladys; Rodríguez-Oreggia, Eduardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
The 2008-09 economic crisis has had a long-lasting negative impact on the Mexican economy. This paper examines labor market dynamics in Mexico in light of the crisis. The labor market has been characterized in recent years by low relative unemployment, but high levels of informal jobs, low-growth, and almost stagnant real wages. In this context, the crisis destroyed a wide number of formal jobs, and even informal, increasing the unemployment rates to pre-crisis levels. Manufacturing was the sector that endured the largest job losses during the crisis and wages decreased for all sectors. The government of Mexico implemented a variety of programs to cope with the crises. However, these measures were too limited to counteract the large negative impact of the crisis on labor markets.

Employment and Shared Growth : Rethinking the Role of Labor Mobility for Development

Paci, Pierella; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
This edited volume brings together the papers presented at the conference, "Rethinking the Role of Jobs for Shared Growth," held in Washington, DC, in June 2006. The common theme is that of mobility in the labor market. As growth is related to sectoral shifts in economic activity, the mobility of labor plays a crucial role in ensuring sustainable growth whose benefits are shared amongst all individuals. The papers in this volume focus on selected priority issues at the frontier of research in the microeconomics of labor markets in developing countries, multi-segmented labor markets, the role of informal employment and self-employment, the effect of worker mobility on income, and the impact of firm dynamics on growth and employment. These are important parts of the puzzle and contribute to a better understanding of the role of employment in the economic development of low-income countries.

Labor Mobility in the Middle East and North Africa : Challenges and Opportunities

Brodmann, Stefanie; Pouget, Yann; Gatti, Roberta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Increased labor mobility bears large potential benefits for human development and poverty reduction through various channels including more competitive global labor markets and increased efficiency in the matching of skills supply and demand. Bank support for enhanced and better managed migration can complement broader efforts to reduce poverty and promote human development, similarly to how Bank projects on trade liberalization have helped in reducing market distortions and raise welfare. With Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries becoming increasingly eager to adopt a proactive approach to improve migration outcomes, cross-sectoral Bank teams are well positioned to respond to increasing demand for migration management systems. Labor mobility has proven to be a forceful driver of convergence in living standards. Estimates suggest that gains from the liberalization of migration could surpass welfare gains from trade liberalization. Currently, migration represents the main form of global and regional integration for MENA countries. In the future...

Labor, Employment, and Social Policies in the EU Enlargement Process : Changing Perspectives and Policy Options

Funck, Bernard; Pizzati, Lodovico
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Transition has been a wrenching process for the labor markets of Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs), and the prospect of joining the European Union gives rise to both hopes and misgivings among their population. Similarly among other member countries, a new resolve to shake off a legacy of high unemployment and to build "the most competitive economy in the world" mixes in some quarters with lingering apprehension that EU enlargement disrupts already strained labr markets. This volume contains the papers presented at the conference held in Baden, Austria, in June 2001 to investigate these questions. The content of this research work captures the thoughts and analysis of the senior policymakers, academics, and social partners who participated in this series of seminars. This digest of research work seeks to present the latest factual trends on labor issues in accession countries, reviews exisitng labor market policies and social protection mechanisms, and discusses alternative strategies for employment creation in Central and Eastern Europe.

Labor Market Institutions : A Review of the Literature

Betcherman, Gordon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
This paper reviews the findings of more than 150 studies on the impacts of four types of labor market institutions: minimum wages, employment protection regulation, unions and collective bargaining, and mandated benefits. The review places particular emphasis on results from developing countries. Impacts studied are on living standards (employment and earnings effects), productivity, and social cohesion, to the extent that this has been analyzed. Strong and opposing views are held on the costs and benefits of labor market institutions. On balance, the results of this review suggest that, in most cases, the impacts of these institutions are smaller than the heat of the debates would suggest. Efficiency effects of labor market regulations and collective bargaining are sometimes found but not always, and the effects can be in either direction and are usually modest. Distributional impacts are clearer, with two effects predominating: an equalizing effect among covered workers but groups such as youth, women, and the less skilled disproportionately outside the coverage and its benefits. While the overall conclusion is one of modest effects in most cases, this does not mean that impacts cannot be more dramatic where regulations are set or institutions operate in ways that exacerbate the labor market imperfections that they were designed to address.

Risk Sharing in Labor Markets

Bigsten, Arne; Collier, Paul; Dercon, Stefan; Fafchamps, Marcel; Gauthier, Bernard; Gunning, Jan Willem; Oduro, Abena; Oostendorp, Remco; Pattillo, Cathy; Soderbom, Mans; Teal, Francis; Zeufack, Albert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Empirical work in labor economics has focused on rent sharing as an explanation for the observed correlation between wages and profitability. The alternative explanation of risk sharing between workers and employers has not been tested. Using a unique panel data set for four African countries, Authors find strong evidence of risk sharing. Workers in effect offer insurance to employers: when firms are hit by temporary shocks, the effect on profits is cushioned by risk sharing with workers. Rent sharing is a symptom of an inefficient labor market. Risk sharing; by contrast, can be seen as an efficient response to missing markets. Authors evidence suggests that risk sharing accounts for a substantial part of the observed effect of shocks on wages.

Republic of Turkey Reform for Competitiveness Technical Assistance : Fostering Open and Efficient Markets through Effective Competition Policies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Competition in domestic markets is critical to ensure increased international competitiveness. Firms facing more intense competitive pressures are more likely to introduce new products and upgrade existing product lines. Firms usually acquire many of their inputs (such as transportation, energy, construction, and professional services) in local markets. Competition policies are defined as the set of policies and a law ensuring that competition in the marketplace is not restricted in a way that reduces economic welfare. This report reviews the current status of competition policy in Turkey, focusing on the economy-wide enforcement of competition rules and on specific regulations and government policies that affect product market competition. Economic and legal analysis is used to identify key challenges and to propose specific areas of intervention and reform. In addition, this report provides an evaluation of the potential benefits of pro-competition policies. Turkey is benchmarked against other economies that represent international best practice...

Labor Demand and Trade Reform in Latin America

Fajnzylber, Pablo; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
There are concerns that trade reform and globalization will increase the uncertainty that the average worker, especially the relatively unskilled worker, faces. The increased competitiveness of product markets and greater access to foreign inputs, the argument goes, will lead to more elastic demand for workers. This may have adverse consequences for both labor market volatility and wage dispersion. The authors argue that while the case that trade liberalization should increase own-wage elasticities may be broadly compelling for competitive import-competing industries, it is less so for imperfectly competitive, nontradable, or export industries. They test the hypothesis using establishment-level panel data from three countries with periods of liberalization. The data provide only mixed support for the idea that trade liberalization has an impact on own-wage elasticities. No consistent patterns emerge. If globalization is making the lives of workers more insecure, it is probably working through some other mechanism.

Exclusion and Discrimination in the Labor Market

Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
The frameworks developed in this paper are based on a review of the literature on processes of discrimination and the norms and attitudes that accompany them. Intended as a background paper to the World Development Report 2013 this paper will also feed into the Social Inclusion Flagship Report by the Social Development Department at the World Bank. It is divided into six sections. This section one is an introduction to the objectives and provides the context for this work. Section two is a brief discussion of the conceptual underpinnings and measurement of labor market discrimination from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Section three lays out a typology of processes of discrimination, while section four is a discussion of the mechanisms of discrimination and the ways in which candidates are screened. Section five addresses the question of how discriminated groups react to discrimination. The final section addresses some of the ways in which occupational and labor market mobility is possible for disadvantaged groups and what policy implications it could have.

Minimum Wage Policy : Lessons with a Focus on the ASEAN Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
As developing economies continue to mature and enter the next phase of reforms, labor market issues and key policy instruments such as the minimum wage increasingly come to the forefront. Increased globalization and wider competition compel countries to make labor markets more flexible so as not to hurt competitiveness. At the same time, policymakers face pressure to rethink labor market regulations (and social safety nets) to avoid disadvantaging workers, especially the most vulnerable who are more prone to employment insecurity. Evidence of the impact of minimum wage policies in the East Asian context and in Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, more specifically remains very limited. A thorough literature search identified only a few rigorous studies of the impact of minimum wages on important welfare outcomes in ASEAN countries, and some of the evidence was narrowly focused on one sector and period or from a time when the institutional setup and management of the policy was different from today. Given the relevance of the minimum wage policy in ASEAN economies...

Azerbaijan : Enterprise Restructuring and Labor Redeployment, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
The main objective of this report is, first, to examine changes in the welfare and labor market status of workers in Azerbaijan, with concentration on large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) already displaced or which may be displaced because of enterprise restructuring and privatization. This includes identifying: a) dominant patterns in labor market behavior, b) changes in worker socioeconomic status in the wake of redundancy; and c) assistance received under enterprise social programs and other government social safety nets. Second, the study also explores patterns of job creation and job destruction, and the dynamics of labor demand, including any barriers to firm entry and growth. The study focuses largely on identifying informational and institutional gaps in elaborating a general labor redeployment program suitable for conditions in Azerbaijan. Suggestions for the introduction of labor redeployment activities and enterprise social plans are provided that would enable authorities to design relevant mitigating measures. The report concludes that findings indicate labor market interventions have great potential to improve labor market performance; however, whether or not this potential is realized depends on a number of factors, and numerous variables can intervene to affect the final outcome of their implementation. These include external factors such as stable macroeconomic conditions...

Tunisia : Employment Strategy, Volume 2. Annexes; Republique Tunisienne - Strategie d'emploi

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
In spite of the Government's commitment to social development, with employment resting at the heart of Tunisia's Tenth Development Plan, the recent economic slowdown however, hampers expectations on meeting the employment goals of the Plan. Output growth would have to increase significantly in light of unchanged employment elasticity, to create enough jobs to absorb the increasing labor force. However, the Tunisian private sector has not played a dynamic role in terms of job creation: small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs), are mainly concentrated in the traditional manufacturing sectors, with low value-added; enterprise restructuring has not occurred, mainly due to an economic growth that has not led to enough reallocation of resources, despite the unexploited productivity gains in respect to reallocation of labor to high productivity sector; and, the high unemployment rates among educated youth, reflect gaps between skills in demand by employers, and skills offered by job seekers. Within this context...

What Makes Cities More Competitive? Spatial Determinants of Entrepreneurship in India

Ghani, Ejaz; Kerr, William R.; O'Connell, Stephen D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Policy makers in both developed and developing countries want to make cities more competitive, attract entreprepreneurs, boost economic growth, and promote job creation. The authors examine the spatial location of entrepreneurs in India in manufacturing and services sectors, as well as in the formal and informal sectors, in 630 districts spread across 35 states/union territories. They quantify entrepreneurship as young firms that are less than three years old, and define entry measures through employment in these new establishments. They develop metrics that unite the incumbent industrial structures of districts with the extent to which industries interact through the traditional agglomeration channels. The two most consistent factors that predict overall entrepreneurship for a district are its education and the quality of local physical infrastructure. These patterns are true for manufacturing and services. These relationships are much stronger in India than those found for the United States. The authors also find strong evidence of agglomeration economies in India's manufacturing sector. This influence is through both traditional Marshallian economies like a suitable labor force and proximity to customers and through the Chinitz effect that emphasizes small suppliers. India's footprints in structural transformation...

Local Economic Structure and Growth

Almeida, Rita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
The author tests how the local economic structure-measured by a region's sector specialization, competition, and diversity-affects the technological growth of manufacturing sectors. Most of the empirical literature on this topic assumes that in the long run more productive regions will attract more workers and use employment growth as a measure of local productivity growth. However, this approach is based on strong assumptions about national labor markets. The author shows that when these assumptions are relaxed, regional adjusted wage growth is a better measure of regional productivity growth than employment growth. She compares the two measures using data for Portugal between 1985 and 1994. With the regional adjusted wage growth, the author finds evidence of Marshall-Arrow-Romer (MAR) externalities in some sectors and no evidence of Jacobs or Porter externalities in most of the manufacturing sectors. These results are at odds with her findings for employment-based regressions, which show that concentration and region size have a negative and significant effect in most of the manufacturing sectors. These employment-based results are in line with most of the existing literature, which suggests that using employment growth to proxy for productivity growth leads to misleading results.

The Russian Labor Market : Moving from Crisis to Recovery

World Bank
Fonte: Moscow: Izdatelstvo Ves Mir and the World Bank Publicador: Moscow: Izdatelstvo Ves Mir and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This report suggests measures to help Russia develop a formal, competitive labor market over the medium term. The study addresses four major questions: (1) How well has Russia been able to redress the misallocation of labor inherited from its socialist past? (2) Do wages increasingly reflect market forces? (3) Are labor market institutions consistent with those required in a market economy? (4) How well has Russia been able to reduce explicit protection offered by firms and create an effective safety net? The report addresses each question in a separate chapter and also highlights key issues and policy options in each area. The development of a well functioning labor market will contribute to Russia's ability to integrate with the global economy, particularly as it faces the opportunity and challenges that will come with World Trade Organization accession.

The Rise of China and Labor Market Adjustments in Latin America

Artuc, Erhan; Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
This paper assesses the impact of the rise of China on the trade of Latin American and Caribbean economies. The study proposes an index to measure the impact on trade, which suggests sizable effects, especially in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Mexico, and Paraguay. The paper uses the index and a model of labor mobility, to calculate the impact of China's growth on labor markets in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. The resulting evidence suggests that the rise of China has had positive effects on agriculture and mining in Argentina and Brazil, which offset negative impacts on manufacturing industries, thus leaving total employment and real wages virtually unchanged in the long run. In contrast, the estimated impacts of China's rise on Mexico imply that the sizable shock to manufacturing was not offset by the positive shocks on mining and agriculture, reducing employment in the long run. The paper also discusses the effect of China on the degree of informality in these three economies and contrasts short-run and long-run effects on employment and wages across industries.

Trade Policy Reform and Poverty Alleviation

Hoekman, Bernard; Michalopoulos, Constantine; Schiff, Maurice; Tarr, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
In this paper, developed as part of the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Sourcebook, the authors examine how to implement trade liberalization as part of a strategy for alleviating poverty in developing countries. They discuss trade policy instruments, institutions, complementary policies, sector issues, adjustment policies, and safety nets in an integrated approach to trade policy as a tool for poverty alleviation. The authors examine the patterns or models of trade policy that have been successful in alleviating poverty. They discuss the role of tariffs, nontariff barriers, contingent protection (such as safeguards and antidumping), special import regimes (such as duty drawback), export taxes, export subsidies, and trade-related institutions (such as standards, marketing, export finance, customs clearance, and regional trade arrangements). The authors also discuss policies that complement successful trade reform, including macroeconomic stability, a competitive exchange rate, flexible labor markets...

'Green' Growth, 'Green' Jobs and Labor Markets

Bowen, Alex
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
The term 'green jobs' can refer to employment in a narrowly defined set of industries providing environmental services. But it is more useful for the policy-maker to focus on the broader issue of the employment consequences of policies to correct environmental externalities such as anthropogenic climate change. Most of the literature focuses on direct employment created, with more cursory treatment of indirect and induced job creation, especially that arising from macroeconomic effects of policies. The potential adverse impacts of green growth policies on labor productivity and the costs of employment tend to be overlooked. More attention also needs to be paid in this literature to how labor markets work in different types of economy. There may be wedges between the shadow wage and the actual wage, particularly in developing countries with segmented labor markets and after adverse aggregate demand shocks, warranting a bigger and longer-lasting boost to green projects with high labor content. In these circumstances...

Labor Markets in Low and Middle-Income Countries : Trends and Implications for Social Protection and Labor Policies

Cho, Yoonyoung; Margolis, David N.; Newhouse, David; Robalino, David A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
This paper reviews labor market trends throughout the developing world, identifies issues and policy priorities across groups of countries, and derives implications for the World Bank's new social protection and labor strategy. Five key issues are identified: a high and growing share of the labor force that is self?employed or working in household enterprises, exposure to income shocks with limited access to risk management systems, low female participation rates, high youth unemployment rates, and the need to manage migration flows and remittances. The paper then details a three pronged agenda based on providing incentives and conditions for work, improving the efficiency of job creation, and managing risks / facilitating labor market transitions. This suggests that the Bank should emphasize self?employment and entrepreneurship promotion, provision of skills and development opportunities, and facilitation of labor market transitions into and between jobs, while protecting workers from shocks and paying particular attention to youth.

Are European labor markets as awful as all that?

Freeman, Richard B.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
“The standard explanation of why advanced Europe has generated less work per adult than the US is that something is seriously amiss with EU labor markets. The theme of this piece is simple. Compared to an ideal competitive market, EU labor markets fall seriously short, but compared to labor markets in the US and to other markets in advanced capitalist countries, EU labor markets do not live up to their awful press. The variety of labor market institutions among EU countries, moreover, reveals a much richer picture of performance and diversity than the blanket condemnation of inflexibility suggests. I make my case in four propositions, with supporting evidence. My comparisons are with the actual labor market in the US and with other real world markets, not with the economists’ dream ideal competitive markets. I review briefly the evidence that labor markets in the EU have performed worse on the quantity side of the market but better on the price or wage side of the market than the US labor market, then consider the extent to which differences in outcomes are attributable to differences in the performance of labor markets.”