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Estudo da complementaridade do comércio entre o Brasil e o Japão com vistas a um acordo de livre comércio

Miyazaki, Silvio Yoshiro Mizuguchi; Hamaguchi, Nobuaki
Fonte: Centro de Economia Política; São Paulo Publicador: Centro de Economia Política; São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Complementarity of trade between Brazil and Japan with a view to a free trade agreement. Japan has signed free trade agreements as trade policy since 2002 and three countries have already signed in Latin American. Considering the intention to carry out an agreement with MERCOSUR, this article aims to analyze the complementarities between Brazil and Japan trade structure by revealed comparative advantages indexes, with World Bank data for the period between 2006 and 2008. The results show a comparative advantage in primary commodities to Brazil and in industrial products to Japan, as well as indicating sectors that may oppose to trade liberalization.

Competitividade da cadeia produtiva de arroz beneficiado do Rio Grande do Sul e do Uruguai : um estudo utilizando a matriz de análise de políticas; Competitiveness of the milled rice supply chain in Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguay : a study employing the policy analysis matrix (PAM)

Souza, Ângela Rozane Leal de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Esta tese utiliza a Matriz de Análise de Políticas (MAP) para avaliar a competitividade, as vantagens comparativas e eventuais níveis de proteção ou subsídios da cadeia do arroz beneficiado do Estado de Rio Grande do Sul (RS), na região Sul do Brasil, em comparação ao Uruguai (UR). Entende-se que a MAP é um método que poderá auxiliar na análise e definição de políticas públicas e na identificação de possíveis falhas de mercado que possam impactar nos resultados econômicos das cadeias agroindustriais, como é o caso da cadeia examinada na presente pesquisa. A cadeia do arroz é avaliada considerando-se os elos de produção, beneficiamento e transporte. Os resultados do estudo confirmam que a cadeia do arroz é competitiva, tanto no Rio Grande do Sul quanto no Uruguai, embora em maior grau neste último. Apesar de a gravação da carga tributária e dos encargos sociais e o custo de oportunidade do capital serem elevados em ambas as cadeias analisadas (RS e Uruguai), pode-se observar que tais gravações são mais elevadas no Rio Grande do Sul do que no Uruguai. Em termos gerais, a cadeia de arroz transfere uma alta carga de recursos para outros setores da economia, tanto neste Estado quanto naquele País.; This thesis has used the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) to evaluate competitiveness...

Estudo da complementaridade do comércio entre o Brasil e o Japão com vistas a um acordo de livre comércio

Miyazaki,Silvio Y. M.; Hamaguchi,Nobuaki
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Complementarity of trade between Brazil and Japan with a view to a free trade agreement. Japan has signed free trade agreements as trade policy since 2002 and three countries have already signed in Latin American. Considering the intention to carry out an agreement with Mercosur, this article aims to analyze the complementarities between Brazil and Japan trade structure by revealed comparative advantages indexes, with World Bank data for the period between 2006 and 2008. The results show a comparative advantage in primary commodities to Brazil and in industrial products to Japan, as well as indicating sectors that may oppose to trade liberalization.

What Does Regional Trade in South Asia Reveal about Future Trade Integration? Some Empirical Evidence

Pitigala, Nihal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
In 1995 the seven South Asian countries-Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka-initiated a multilateral framework for regionwide integration under the South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA). In a recent initiative, members agreed that SAPTA would begin the transformation into a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) by the beginning of 2006, with full implementation completed between 2009 and 2013. The impetus toward regional preferential trading arrangements and greater regional economic integration raises many important issues, both for the South Asian region as a whole and for the individual countries. The author uses the natural trading partners hypothesis as the empirical criterion to assess the potential success of a South Asian trading bloc. Using various definitions of the natural trading partner hypothesis-based on trade volume, geographic proximity, and the complementarity approaches-the author demonstrates that the South Asian countries can be characterized only moderately as natural trading partners. This characterization is, however, largely a consequence of previous impediments to trade among regional members. The author further demonstrates through additional statistical measures-including revealed comparative advantage indices...

Regional comparative advantage in grain production in China

Zhong, Funing; Xu, Zhigang
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 449698 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Since the end of 1996, Chinese agriculture has produced a surplus of many major products, which has led to sharp decreases in farm prices and the stagnation of farmers’ income. To deal with these problems, the Chinese government has called for a ‘strategic adjustment’ in the structures of agriculture and the rural economy. The goals of this strategic adjustment are to meet changing market demands and increase farmers’ incomes by improving efficiency in resource allocation among regions and sub-sectors, and by increasing the variety and improving the quality of farm product. A major component of the strategic adjustment is the restructuring of the grain sector, which still accounts for a lion’s share of the crops sector in general. Re-allocation of the production of each major grain crop among the regions on the basis of regional comparative advantage is likely to increase average yields and decrease average costs. Thus, improved efficiency in resource allocation will bring about increases in farmers’ incomes. Also, since competition in the world commodity market is largely based on price, any significant reduction in China’s grain production costs will improve its position in the world grain market. It is widely agreed that years of government intervention and underdeveloped infrastructure have prevented regional comparative advantages in the grain sector from being realised. For the same reasons...

Constitutional design, legislative procedures and agenda control in presidential systems : an empirical analysis of four Central American countries in comparative perspective

AJENJO FRESNO, Natalia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper; application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The thesis covers issues of constitutional design, legislative procedures and agenda control in presidential systems, with specific empirical application to four Central American cases in a comparative perspective. The results relate to the critical view that presidential systems are inherently prone to institutional deadlock, deriving from their rigid constitutional design. My findings suggest that constitutional rules only determine broad parameters of variation, and that greater attention should be paid to the endogenous procedural design of the legislative process of policy approval in the explanation of institutional performance and inter-branch dynamics. The work is comparative and bridges quantitative and qualitative analysis. The data employed are original and allow for an innovative connection between theory-driven hypotheses on the incentives for majority political actors to circumvent ordinary procedures and play strategically employing procedural choices and political outcomes, by assessing the patterns of legislative production. The hypotheses are generated with attention to the degree of aggregation of interests in the decision-making process, as a measure of the representativeness of the decision-making process and hence as a general characteristic of the everyday democratic process. In fact...

Beyond Oil : Kazakhstan's Path to Greater Prosperity through Diversifying, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Kazakhstan aspires to become one of the world s 30 most developed economies by 2050. The focus is on laying the basis for the accelerated diversification of the economy through industrialization and infrastructure development, including enhancing human capital to drive innovation and economic efficiency. This country economic memorandum report adopts an analytical framework that looks into options that will be explored to help authorities think about diversification across three sectors: diversification of products and services; diversification of economic partners; and diversification of endowments. Five chapters structure this report, outlining the weaknesses and strengths of the Kazakh economy that will need to be addressed for increased prosperity. Chapter 1 discusses Kazakhstan s natural resources and how important it is to focus on the policies that matter for development and diversification. Chapter 2 focuses on export concentration and assesses whether resource dependence leads to macroeconomic volatility...

Beyond Oil : Kazakhstan's Path to Greater Prosperity through Diversifying, Volume 1. Overview

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Kazakhstan aspires to become one of the world s 30 most developed economies by 2050. The focus is on laying the basis for the accelerated diversification of the economy through industrialization and infrastructure development, including enhancing human capital to drive innovation and economic efficiency. This country economic memorandum report adopts an analytical framework that looks into options that will be explored to help authorities think about diversification across three sectors: diversification of products and services; diversification of economic partners; and diversification of endowments. Five chapters structure this report, outlining the weaknesses and strengths of the Kazakh economy that will need to be addressed for increased prosperity. Chapter 1 discusses Kazakhstan s natural resources and how important it is to focus on the policies that matter for development and diversification. Chapter 2 focuses on export concentration and assesses whether resource dependence leads to macroeconomic volatility...

Shifting Comparative Advantages : Implications for Growth Strategy

Coulibaly, Souleymane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
The future development of the Tajik economy will be shaped by its comparative advantage on world markets. Exploiting comparative advantage enables an economy to reap gains from trade. Tajikistan's most important comparative advantage is its hydropower potential, which is far larger than the economy's domestic requirements. Yet, high capital costs of building hydropower plants and the unstable geopolitical situation in the transit region to reach South Asian export markets are constraining the realization of this potential. In the short term, the sector, which provides the greatest opportunity for Tajikistan to diversify its exports, appears to be agro-industry and, to a lesser extent, clothing. For both sectors, the main export market is likely to be the regional market. Tajikistan also has a comparative advantage in labor exports, which it has successfully exploited since the mid-2000s. To harness the full potential for labor exports will require improving the skills base of migrant workers and, in particular...

Cafta : Challenges and Opportunities in the Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Sectors; Cafta : desafios y oportunidades en los en los sectores agricola y agro-industrial

Monge-González, Ricardo; Loría-Sagot, Miguel; González-Vega, Claudio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
A Central America Free Trade Area (CAFTA) has been under negotiation since January 2003. A World Bank report, Opportunities and Challenges for the Agricultural and Agroindustrial Sectors of Central America from a Free Trade Agreement with the United States of America, examines how a FTA between the US and CA countries might affect the agricultural and agroindustrial sectors of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Two main questions are addressed: (i) how to guarantee better US market access for CA's agricultural and agro-industrial exports, and (ii) how to promote greater openness to imports from the US of food products that are "sensitive" in each CAdomestic market. The authors analyze the structure of agricultural and agro-industrial exports and patterns of revealed comparative advantages in Central America (CA), and tariff and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) these exports face in the US. The report suggests that the CAFTA negotiations consider (i) lessons from Mexico's entry into NAFTA...

Arab Republic of Egypt - Toward Agricultural Competitiveness in the 21st Century : An Agricultural Export-Oriented Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The report proposes key elements for an agricultural export-oriented strategy in Egypt, that would build on the achievements of the agricultural strategy during the 1990s. Substantial improvements in the country's macroeconomic environment, following policy reforms - though necessary - have not been sufficient to improve agricultural export performance. Overall, while Egyptian agricultural production increased during the 90s, agricultural exports remained low, and, the fact that both Egyptian production, and world market trends are substantially less volatile, is a first indicator of the potential to increase agricultural exports. The proposed agricultural export strategy starts with an analysis of the agricultural export potential in the country, which includes a review on the overall agricultural export performance; an analysis of the incentive framework in agriculture, including estimates of the current nominal, and effective protection rates of key imports, and exports, and, the estimated effects of alternative agricultural...

Afghanistan Diagnostics Trade Integration Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Trade enables countries to import ideas and technologies, realize comparative advantages and economies of scale, and foster competition and innovation, which in turn increases productivity and achieves higher sustainable employment and economic growth. Countries open to international trade tend to provide more opportunities to their people, and grow faster. Afghanistan could derive far more benefit from its international trade opportunities than it does at present. This Diagnostics Trade Integration Study (DTIS) report is intended to identify concrete policy actions in three areas of endeavor: lowering the transaction costs of trade, increasing Afghanistan's competitiveness in world markets, and providing an analytical foundation for Afghanistan's national trade strategy. The study examines how to do this, looking not only at trade performance and policy, but also at three sectors with great export potential: agriculture, gemstones and carpets, as well as the investment climate, customs as a driver of trade facilitation...

How Many Dimensions Do We Trade In? Product Space Geometry and Latent Comparative Advantage

Arvis, Jean-François
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
This paper proposes a new quantitative implementation of Balassa's idea that export composition and revealed comparative advantage inform the relationship between endowments in domestic factors of production and exports. It proposes that the export composition of countries is close to a low-dimensional manifold or "Product Space" within the space of export composition, which has as many dimensions as product lines. The Product Space corresponds to a few latent endowments explaining the structure of the trade matrix. The model uses non-linear techniques to identify the product space from the 2010 export matrix of 128 countries and 61 products, and to estimate the latent factors of endowments by country. It formalizes a concept of latent comparative advantage, which has practical country specific applications, relevant for "trade competitiveness" policies. Compared with classical revealed comparative advantage, the model assesses how well countries are matching their potential implied by the latent variables...

Strengthening China's and India's Trade and Investment Ties to the Middle East and North Africa

Pigato, Miria
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
The spectacular economic rise of China and India over the past two decades has accelerated their trade with Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Their demands for oil, gas, and other natural resources have been driving new relationships with MENA countries based not only on energy but also on trade, investment, and political ties. Indeed, Dubai has become the center of a new Silk Road, the intersection where people, capital, and ideas meet. And while the financial crisis that hit global markets in 2008 has placed downward pressure on growth, these new relationships are likely to deepen in the coming years. The report's main messages are as follows: a) demand for energy from China and India is expected to increase substantially in the future, thus greatly benefiting oil producing countries in the MENA region; b) the oil exporters in the Gulf have laid big bets on economic diversification and knowledge enterprises, bets they might win, but with lots of risk along the way. Oil price volatility may threaten the sustainability of the recent expansion; and c) the growth of China and India offers new market opportunities for the countries in MENA. Besides energy...

Tiger Economies Under Threat : A Comparative Analysis of Malaysia's Industrial Prospects and Policy Options

Yusuf, Shahid; Nabeshima, Kaoru
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The Southeast Asian Tigers feel threatened. Even though their growth rates have remained above the average for the world and also above the average for developing countries, their economic performance falls short of that in the first half of the 1990s. The underlying worry is that it presages the beginning of a downward trend, the harbingers of which are lower rates of investment, persistently low rates of total factor productivity, and low levels of innovativeness. The Southeast Asian Tigers' worries motivate three questions, which this book attempts to answer. First, are the Tigers rightly threatened by a creeping economic sclerosis or what some observers are calling the middle-income trap? Second, if the threat is real, what are the underlying causes? Third, are there ways of neutralizing the problems and at least maintaining if not raising the growth rates of the recent past? This book will respond to these questions by means of a comparative analysis of the Tiger economies that is centered on Malaysia. This analysis draws on a comprehensive set of techniques and indicators to assess competitive pressures...

Global Economic Crisis and Vertical Specialization in Developing Countries

Pitigala, Nihal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
The world has witnessed an impressive increase in trade over the past four decades. World merchandise trade increased from US$217 billion in 1962 to US$22.8 trillion in 2006. While industrialized countries accounted for the vast majority of this growth, between 1985 and 2006, developing countries' total trade increased from US$1.1 trillion to US$8.4 trillion, growing at an average annual rate of 9.8 percent, outpacing the world trade growth of 8.7 percent over this period. As the current economic and financial crisis unfolds, the world is now witnessing a dramatic and unexpectedly rapid contraction of trade, far beyond what would be expected in a typical Keynesian-style contraction (Baldwin, 2009). Developing countries are expected to be adversely affected as the volume of world trade is expected to decline by more than 2 percent in 2009, the first such decline since 1982 (World Bank, 2009). The emergence of vertical specialization has allowed a large number of developing countries to exploit their comparative advantages at a much finer level of specialization in global production chains...

Russian Federation - Export Diversification through Competition and Innovation : A Policy Agenda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Russia's exports became further dominated by petroleum and natural gas over the last decade. The sector experienced double-digit annual export growth in the last decade and represented almost 65 percent of Russia's exports value in 2009 a product of higher commodity prices and higher export volumes. Export growth rates of the non-oil and gas sector were also notable. Such industries as machinery, electronics, transportation equipment and chemicals reached a combined growth rate in export value of 10 percent in the last decade. This more positive comparison, however, hides relevant structural limitations in Russia's trade performance. Moreover, Russia's revealed comparative advantage seems concentrated in the 'periphery' of the product-space map, which may limit the potential for export diversification. This includes industries such as raw materials (26 products) and forestry (11 products) out of a total of 97 identified products. (At the center of the product-space are industries such as metallurgy, vehicles...

Integração económica regional: que perspectivas para Timor - Leste (a ASEAN e o grupo ACP)

Coelho, Teresa Margarida Sobral Bento
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2003 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Mestrado em Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional; O interesse pela Integração Económica Regional renasceu, nas últimas décadas, um pouco por todo o Mundo, a par da crescente liberalização económica a que vimos assistindo. Para os países menos desenvolvidos, essencialmente para as pequenas economias- normalmente caracterizadas por um mercado interno muito limitado, carência de recursos técnico-financeiros, sectores industriais incipientes, monoexportação-, a adesão a blocos económicos regionais (com a cooperação intra-Estados) afigura-se como uma via fundamental para o desenvolvimento, e para a progressiva integração na economia mundial. Presa aos efeitos estáticos de criação e desvio de comércio, a teoria geral das uniões aduaneiras é, contudo, incapaz de justificar as vantagens destes agrupamentos, entre países que, normalmente, dependem mais do comércio externo do que da sua própria produção interna, mas desenvolvem as trocas comerciais essencialmente com países extra-regionais. O que propomos fazer neste trabalho, é uma análise das vantagens e custos que um processo de integração regional pode ter para um pequeno país em desenvolvimento "acabado de nascer" -Timor-Leste -, nesta era marcada pela globalização dos mercados. Assim...

As duas vias do princípio das vantagens comparativas de David Ricardo e o padrão-ouro: um ensaio crítico

Gontijo,Cláudio
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
This article critically resumes Ricardo's principle of comparative advantages pointing out internal coherence problems that have been neglected by the specialized literature. First, long-lasting disequilibria observed in the balance of trade seem incompatible with the idea that these disequilibria are caused by technical advances that change relative prices. Second, comparative advantages do not seem to work in an economy with a universally accepted commodity-money. Finally, the contradiction between the gold standard mechanisms, ruled by Smith's "Law of Reflux", and the quantitative theory of money, which is a necessary condition for the "second way" of the theory of comparative advantages.

Hub-Periphery Development Pattern and Inclusive Growth; Case Study of Guangdong Province

Luo, Xubei; Zhu, Nong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The hub-periphery development pattern of the Guangdong economy, to some extent, is a miniature of that of the Chinese economy. The Pearl River Delta, drawing from its first-nature comparative advantages in factor endowments and proximity to Hong Kong SAR, China, and Macau SAR, China, and the second-nature advantages as first-movers in the reforms in attracting and retaining domestic and foreign resources, has developed into a regional economic center. This paper examines the pattern of inter- and intra-provincial migration and that of the concentration of production, to explore the challenges and opportunities for the success of “double transfer.” The paper suggests a four-prong approach, to improve the business environment, support the realization of latent comparative advantages, increase the skill level of the labor force to support the upgrade of the production structure, and protect the vulnerable, to support the inclusive growth of the economy in Guangdong in a sustainable manner.