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Avaliação das oportunidades de comercialização de novas fontes de energias renováveis no Brasil.; Evaluation of the opportunities for commercialization of new renewable energy sources in Brazil.

Furtado, Marcelo de Camargo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/11/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
As energias renováveis têm lugar de destaque entre as soluções de combate ao aquecimento global, mas seu potencial ainda é subaproveitado no Brasil. Este trabalho visa apresentar argumentos político-estratégicos, socioambientais e econômico-financeiros necessários para viabilizar o desenvolvimento da comercialização de novas fontes de energias renováveis e, consequentemente, o estabelecimento de um mercado nacional maduro para estas fontes. São apresentadas justificativas socioambientais e técnicas para ampliar a produção de energia elétrica a partir de novas fontes renováveis como eólica, biomassa, solar e pequenas centrais hidroelétricas. Foi abordado o importante papel da política tarifária e o atual modelo do setor elétrico, assim como o forte impacto dos encargos e tributos sobre o preço final da energia e as questões relacionadas à revisão tarifária e seu impacto em áreas rurais e urbanizadas. Foi apresentado um cenário de participação das novas fontes de energias renováveis na matriz elétrica brasileira indicando o forte potencial de expansão destas fontes, valorizando a descentralização e diversificação da matriz para promoção da equidade e justiça e desvinculação entre o crescimento econômico e a ampliação da geração de energia. Foram apresentados vários modelos de mercado e concluiu-se que o modelo da competição no varejo é a melhor opção para a viabilização de uma comercializadora de novas fontes de energias renováveis. Foram apresentados estudos de casos em diversos países da Europa...

Energia incentivada: uma análise integrada dos aspectos regulatórios, de comercialização e de sustentabilidade.; Energy with incentive: an analysis of integrated regulatory aspects, commercialization and sustainability.

Tatemoto, Kátia Audi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma análise dos aspectos regulatórios e de comercialização sob a visão da sustentabilidade, com foco na questão de como a participação crescente das fontes consideradas incentivadas na matriz elétrica brasileira pode proporcionar benefícios energéticos e de redução nas emissões de gases de efeito estufa, contemplando possíveis aperfeiçoamentos regulatórios que possam vir a ser definidos pelas instituições do setor elétrico que detém essa competência. Destaca-se a seqüência de fatos que contribuíram para a ampliação da oferta das fontes alternativas (FA's), sublinhando: (i) a criação do Programa de Incentivo às FA's (PROINFA); (ii) o regramento para a comercialização de Energia Incentivada; (iii) o Mecanismo de Realocação de Energia (MRE); (iv) facilidades para compra de Geração Distribuída pelas distribuidoras, mitigar o risco de variação de mercado; (v) Leilões de Fontes Alternativas e (vii) Leilões de Energia de Reserva (LER). Nesse âmbito de análise, inclui-se uma aferição de risco de comercialização da Energia Incentivada e de como esse risco pode ser mitigado através de hedge contratual entre fontes incentivadas. Para avaliar e qualificar a sinergia entre energia eólica e da biomassa...

Comparação entre fatores que influenciam o produtor na comercialização de arroz dos municípios de Camaquã e Viamão

Rohr, Paula Vanessa
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
Esta pesquisa se propõe a comparar os fatores que conduzem o produtor de arroz dos municípios de Camaquã e Viamão a comercializar e/ou armazenar a safra. A comercialização dos produtos é uma das mais importantes etapas, dentre as desenvolvidas na atividade agropecuária. Nesta fase pode ser decidida a perpetuação, ou não, do empreendimento, pela obtenção de lucro ou prejuízo. No Rio Grande do Sul, o orizicultor dificilmente pode deixar de plantar, pois o arroz é praticamente a única opção para as áreas de várzea, a solução é desenvolver mecanismos de comercialização que proporcionem o maior lucro. A pesquisa baseia-se na revisão de literatura sobre o processo decisório, comercialização e armazenamento de grãos. A metodologia do trabalho envolve a aplicação de um roteiro de entrevista semi-estruturado, aplicado em 133 produtores de arroz dos municípios de Camaquã e Viamão. A pesquisa mostra que a forma de comercialização da produção de arroz é fortemente influenciada pelas particularidades de armazenagem local e nível de endividamento do produtor. Percebe-se que os principais fatores considerados na comercialização de arroz são os benefícios oferecidos pelos armazenadores, a confiabilidade...

Aspectos do processo de comercialização na cadeia da bovinocultura de corte no Rio Grande do Sul

Oliveira, Carolina Balbé de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23%
O presente trabalho tem por objetivo conhecer os aspectos do processo de comercialização dos animais desde o nascimento até o abate na cadeia da bovinocultura de corte do Rio Grande do Sul. Buscou-se caracterizar o processo de comercialização, conhecer as motivações do produtor rural para a escolha da forma de comercialização e mostrar que as características e os pressupostos da Economia dos Custos de Transação estão presentes e são relevantes na comercialização dos animais cotidianamente. Foi utilizada a metodologia de estudo de campo para atingir estes objetivos, com base nos Processos de Comercialização e na Teoria dos Custos de Transação. Para isso, aplicou-se um roteiro de questionários nos produtores rurais de bovinos de corte do Rio Grande do Sul, com diversas questões sobre a forma de comercialização destes. Assim, observou-se que o produtor rural opera num ambiente de mercado incerto, onde tem uma racionalidade limitada e o indivíduo que tem uma alta reputação é a opção de escolha para comercializar seus animais e até auxiliar durante a comercialização. O produtor rural é um agente da cadeia com dificuldades de organização com relação as estratégias de comercialização o que resulta numa freqüência indefinida nessas operações. De um modo geral...

Competição e conflito em redes de economia solidária : análise do projeto de implantação da Central de comercialização de Resíduos Sólidos de Porto Alegre (Brasil); Competition and conflict in an economic “solidary” network: an analysis of the reasons for the failure of a Collective Solid Waste Commercialization Center in Porto Alegre, Brazil

Carrion, Rosinha da Silva Machado
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Construído a partir dos resultados da pesquisa que investigou inovações em empreendimentos de economia solidária, este artigo analisa, à luz da teoria dos campos (BOURDIEU, 1989), as razões do fracasso do projeto que visava implantar uma central coletiva para a comercialização de resíduos sólidos (Cicrs), na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPOA). Entre os fatores que teriam contribuído para o insucesso da referida proposta - que contava com uma extensa lista de apoiadores -, destaca-se a disputa entre lideranças das duas principais correntes políticas representativas dos trabalhadores do setor de reciclagem A principal contribuição do artigo reside em problematizar o conflito de interesses e as disputas de poder, dois temas “tabus” nos estudos sobre redes de economia solidária.; The article uses Bourdieu´s Field Theory to analyze the findings of an exploratory-descriptive study, carried out in Solidary Economy “enterprises”, in order to uncover the reasons that led to the failure of a local Government project to establish a Collective Solid Waste Commercialization Center in Porto Alegre (Brazil), that had been requested by workers within the Solidary Economic Sector. Among the factors that contributed to the failure of this project...

Mercados e canais de comercialização de produtos agrícolas no Rio Grande do Sul

Pederiva, Ana Carolina
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.33%
Quanto mais desenvolvida uma economia, mais há a necessidade de um sistema de comercialização bem definido, uma vez que na medida em que ela se desenvolve as transações e trocas aumentam, fazendo surgir uma produção mais orientada para o mercado. Assim, também se sente a necessidade de agentes especializados para exercer essas atividades de comercialização. Beneficiadores, cooperativas, integradoras se tornam figuras cada vez mais presentes: se por um lado se apropriam de boa parte dos lucros, elas desempenham um papel fundamental ao possibilitar o consumo dos produtos agrícolas na época, no lugar e na forma adequada de maneira a satisfazer a necessidade dos consumidores. Apesar da importância, a comercialização de produtos agrícolas enfrenta diversas dificuldades que precisam ser superadas. Por isso a relevância do estudo da comercialização agrícola: para a consolidação de uma estratégia de superação dos obstáculos, pois quando se discute competitividade, a eficiência relevante à empresa é mais abrangente do que somente eficiência produtiva, embora esta seja importante, mas também a eficiência na comercialização de seus produtos e insumos. A adoção de um mecanismo de comercialização inapropriado fatalmente implica prejuízo à empresa...

Proteção e comercialização da pesquisa acadêmica no Brasil : motivações e percepções dos inventores; Protection and commercialization of academic research in Brazil : Motivation and observation from the inventors

Rodrigo Maia de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/04/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
O acesso da academia ao sistema de patentes remete ao início do século XX, quando algumas universidades dos EUA realizaram suas primeiras atividades de patenteamento. Entretanto, a observação desse processo como objeto de análise é bem mais recente e a grande maioria das pesquisas realizadas sobre o tema tem se concentrado em avaliar os aspectos institucionais das universidades e empresas, sendo raros os estudos sobre os inventores acadêmicos. A partir desse contexto, este trabalho tem o objetivo geral de ampliar a compreensão a respeito das atividades de proteção e comercialização dos resultados das pesquisas acadêmicas. Mais especificamente, a tese busca identificar se o processo de proteção e comercialização dos resultados da pesquisa conduzida pela universidade pública brasileira gera impactos sobre as tradicionais atividades acadêmicas. Nesse sentido, são discutidas as transformações internas vividas pela universidade, identificando os argumentos que ajudam a entender os eventuais impactos do processo de proteção e comercialização dos resultados da pesquisa conduzida pela universidade. A partir de dados coletados na base de patentes do Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI) e junto aos Núcleos de Inovação Tecnológica (NITs) verificou-se que enquanto a atividade de patenteamento acadêmico no Brasil era praticamente inexistente antes de 1980...

A Survey of the Barriers Associated with Academic-based Cancer Research Commercialization

Vanderford, Nathan L.; Weiss, L. Todd; Weiss, Heidi L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.33%
Commercialization within the academic setting is associated with many challenges and barriers. Previous studies investigating these challenges/barriers have, in general, broadly focused on multiple disciplines and, oftentimes, several institutions simultaneously. The goal of the study presented here was to analyze a range of barriers that may be broadly associated with commercializing academic-based cancer research. This goal was addressed via a study of the barriers associated with cancer research commercialization at the University of Kentucky (UK). To this end, a research instrument in the form of an electronic survey was developed. General demographic information was collected on study participants and two research questions were addressed: 1) What are the general barriers inhibiting cancer research commercialization at UK? and 2) Would mitigation of the barriers potentially enhance faculty engagement in commercialization activities? Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data reveal that multiple barriers likely inhibit cancer research commercialization at UK with expense, time, infrastructure, and lack of industry partnerships being among the most commonly cited factors. The potential alleviation of these factors in addition to revised University policies/procedures...

Nutritionism, Commercialization and Food Comment on “Buying Health: The Costs of Commercialism and an Alternative Philosophy”

Barnhill, Anne
Fonte: Kerman University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
In “Buying Health: the Costs of Commercialization and an Alternative Philosophy”, Larry R. Churchill and Shelley C. Churchill discuss the commercialization of health and, in particular, the commercialization of nutrition. In this commentary on their article, I draw a connection between Churchill and Churchill’s account of the commercialization of nutrition and Michael Pollan’s critique of “nutritionism”. I also offer a friendly amendment to Churchill and Churchill’s account, suggesting that the commercialization of nutrition is not a monolithic experience but it is rather widely challenged.

A Case Study of the Impediments to the Commercialization of Research at the University of Kentucky

Vanderford, Nathan L.; Marcinkowski, Elizabeth
Fonte: F1000Research Publicador: F1000Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.36%
The commercialization of university-based research occurs to varying degrees between academic institutions. Previous studies have found that multiple barriers can impede the effectiveness and efficiency by which academic research is commercialized. This case study was designed to better understand the impediments to research commercialization at the University of Kentucky via a survey and interview with three successful academic entrepreneurs. The study also garnered insight from the individuals as to how the commercialization process could be improved. Issues with commercialization infrastructure; a lack of emphasis, at the university level, on the importance of research commercialization; a void in an entrepreneurial culture on campus; inhibitory commercialization policies; and a lack of business and commercialization knowledge among faculty were highlighted as the most significant barriers. The research subjects also suggested that commercialization activity may generally increase if a number of factors were mitigated. Such insight can be communicated to the administrative leadership of the commercialization process at the University of Kentucky. Long term, improving university-based research commercialization will allow academic researchers to be more active and successful entrepreneurs such that intellectual property will progress more freely to the marketplace for the benefit of inventors...

Regulating Transgenic "Pharm" Plants: Pre-Commercialization Review and Post-Commercialization Monitoring

Quisel, John D.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
This manuscript presents an analysis of the regulation of transgenic plants that are engineered to express pharmaceutical or industrial products (referred to throughout as “pharm†plants). Pharm plants promise to facilitate the inexpensive production of a variety of specialty products. However, critics have questioned the adequacy of regulatory measures that are intended to safeguard the food supply and the environment. Many pharm plants express unusual products that have not previously entered the food supply, and in many instances the products are intended to have pharmacological effects in humans. The commingling of such plants with food crops could have adverse effects on the safety of the food supply. The current regulatory system relies on processes that are intended to contain the pharm plants, preventing the commingling of pharm plants or their transgenes with food crops or wild plants. A review of the literature on transgene spread, much of it garnered from field experience with the widely commercialized transgenic herbicide- and pest-resistant plants, illustrates the inadequacy of such containment methods. More effective, self-perpetuating biological containment systems exist, but at present there is no effort to gather the environmental and food safety information that would provide a rational basis for determining the appropriate level of containment. By requiring a pre-commercialization review of the environmental and food safety hazards for each new pharm plant...

Do Venture Capitalists Affect Commercialization Strategies at Start-ups?

Hsu, David
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 92232 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
I empirically study the effect of venture capital (VC) on product development and commercialization strategy of start-up organizations. In doing so, I segment entrant commercialization strategies into two camps according to competitive effect: to “cooperate” is to license-out technology or be acquired, while to “compete” is to develop technology independently. Building on the work of Gans, Hsu, and Stern (2000) on the drivers of entrant commercialization strategy, this paper examines the direct and indirect effects of VC on product development and competition. I start with two important determinants of start-up commercialization strategy: (1) the entrant’s relative investment cost of acquiring and controlling complementary assets needed to successfully commercialize its innovation, and (2) the entrant’s ability to effectively protect its intellectual property. I then test a novel sample of 118 technology-based projects divided almost evenly between two mechanisms of entrepreneurial finance. These two mechanisms differ in institutional detail in ways that allow a quasi-experiment of the effect of VC on start-up commercialization strategy. The U.S. Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program provides a grant to R&D without taking equity in a start-up or changing the corporate governance of project development. In contrast...

Beating the system : accelerating commercialization of new materials

Musso, Christopher Scott, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 249 p.; 20613184 bytes; 20644203 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
Over the past century, materials have faced notoriously long delays between invention and commercialization. These delays make private investment very difficult, and can prevent good materials from reaching markets. A systematic exploration of the commercial histories of major commodity thermoplastics was performed, which showed that these delays were attributable to technical deficiencies in materials and obstacles in the application value chains. Contrary to popular wisdom, material costs, competitive materials, and serendipity were much smaller factors in commercialization delay. The factors that led to insertion of plastics into applications were different from the factors that led to post-insertion growth. The major plastics showed a characteristic pattern of commercialization. First, they entered simple, small applications in which they solved new problems. They then progressed to achieve insertion in a single major application, which they continue to dominate today. Having established themselves with this application, they found insertion in a wide range of large applications. The commercialization pattern can be explained in large part by the concept of switching costs. As knowledge of a material increases, switching costs are reduced; as value chain complexity increases...

Produ????o de semente de soja na regi??o de Alto Gra??as - MT; Soybean seed production in the Alto Gar??as - MT

GOULART, Daniel de Brito
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
The aim of efficiency in the production and commercialization of soybean seed is what keeps a company in the competitive seed market. The crop of a harvest was planned two years before, when the seed fields were installed. So, the planning of the whole process of seed production, from the installation of the fields, going through the crop production, processing, storage and commercialization, until the final result, that it is the crop of the grains originated from these commercial seeds, all those are part of the sophisticated system of seed production, where the efficiency aim in all of the processes determines the profitability and the permanence of the company in business. This way the aim of the present study was to analyze the indexes of efficiency in production and commercialization of soybean seed at Sementes Arco-??ris company, located in the district of Alto Gar??as -MT. The variables used were utilization of fields, moisture at harvesting, physiologic quality during the storage, approval of lots for the commercialization and commercialization efficiency. The results showed that: 1- The good utilization of fields is variable according to cultivar and crop year, obtaining an average of 32.9%; 2- Seed drying is necessary for most of the production...

From Lab to market: Strategies and issues in the commercialization of nanotechnology in China

Shapira, Philip; Wang, Jue
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Nanotechnology is expected by many to be one of the next drivers of technology-based business and economic growth. China has emerged as a global player in nanotechnology development, and now ranks second (after the United States) in nanotechnology scientific publications produced annually. The study of nanotechnology offers a lens to examine China’s capabilities to move closer to the frontier of technology-led economic development, explore the evolving Chinese innovation system, and assess the effectiveness of policy strategies to modernize and add-value to research and industry in China. Supported by new policy initiatives and funding, hundreds of institutions and thousands of researchers in China are engaged in nanotechnology R&D. Yet, although Chinese nanotechnology research has scale, the pathways from laboratory research to successful commercialization remain problematic. Chinese performance in nanotechnology patenting and product development is weak relative to its research strength, suggesting a significant gap between the research base and industrial development. Drawing on bibliometric research and field interviews with Chinese nanotechnology policymakers, researchers and business representatives, we analyze this gap, explore the factors contributing to it and assess future commercialization trajectories.

The Defense small business innovation research and small business technology transfer programs: implementation of the commercialization pilot program and related reforms

Hettinger, Kevin R.; Gonzalez, Mario
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 94 p. ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Joint Applied Project; In Section 252 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 2006, "Research and Developments Efforts for purposes of Small Business Research," Congress adopted four wide-ranging reforms to the Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs in order to increase the effectiveness of SBIR and STTR for both the DoD and the defense industry. First, Section 252 directed closer alignment between RandD and acquisition goals of SBIR and STTR. Second, Section 252 authorized and funded creation by the Defense (DoD) and the military services of the Commercialization Pilot Program (CPP) to facilitate transition of SBIR technologies into the acquisition process. Congress conditioned the use of CPP funds on detailed evaluative reporting to Congress. Third, Congress codified into statutory law President George W. Bush's Executive Order 13329, Encouraging Innovation in Manufacturing, which incentivized manufacturing technologies through the SBIR and STTR programs. Fourth, Congress clarified the authority to conduct testing and evaluation of SBIR and STTR technologies in SBIR and STTR Phases II and III. The implementation requirements were specified in the text of Section 252 and the Congressional Guidance Letter issued by the House and the Senate Small Business Committees. This study analyzes the implementation of Section 252 by the Secretaries of Defense...

Commercialization of Publicly Funded Research and Development in Russia : Scaling up the Emergence of Spinoff Companies

Gutierrez, Juan Julio; Correa, Paulo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
This paper explores fundamental issues affecting technology commercialization of publicly funded research and development (R&D) in the Russian Federation. Despite substantial R&D investments, Russia has experienced a decline in scientific output and employment. Nevertheless, the innovation system remains strong in several technological fields. This paper develops an analytical framework to discuss conditions for technology commercialization, which hinge on the innovation system research base, governance of research institutions, alignment between specialization and sector prioritization, availability and performance of scientists and engineers, intellectual property (IP) regime for publicly funded discoveries, and early stage finance. The paper identifies areas for policy and regulatory improvement to incentivize research institutes and scientists to undertake research with market potential. These include: stronger results-based management that rewards commercialization efforts and focuses not only on high-technology sectors...

Zambia : Smallholder Agricultural Commercialization Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
This report focuses on the potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization in Zambia. The paper discusses the framework for Zambia's smallholder commercialization strategy, the current state of smallholder agriculture in Zambia, key issues, support from agribusiness to smallholders, and development of potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization. The paper concludes with three strategy areas: how to strengthen existing market mechanisms, reform of sectoral policies, and investments in public infrastructure.

The commercialization of pork products of specific qualities

Carvalho, Marieta
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
In recent years it has been found that consumers tend to give priority to quality rather than quantity in their choice of foodstuffs, thus creating a desire for specific products of a denominated geographical origin. This market could provide a very important boost to rural development, above all in poorer areas, by way of, on one hand, improvement of the farmers' income and, on the other hand, the stabilization of the rural population in these areas. Protected geographical denominations can constitute an important instrument in the defence of the protected products and for the development of the rural world, by guaranteeing equality of conditions of competition between the producers of the products which benefit from these descriptions. In addition, they bring to these products a greater credibility in the eyes of the consumers, as well as help to preserve the local identity of the regions of the Community (Regulation CEE No. 2081/92 of the Counsel of 14 July 1992). With this paper we propose: (i) to make a brief character description of the "salpicão" and "chouriça" sausages from Vinhais, having as our reference the Dispatch No. 139/96 published in the "Diário da Republica" (official Portuguese governmental bulletin) No. 301...

Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property

Patino, Robert M
Fonte: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Publicador: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23%
The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization...