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Evolução das relações comerciais Brasil - Estados Unidos de 1945 a 1995: no contexto da política externa dos "interesses nacionais"; The Brazil's and United States of America commercial relationship evolution between 1945 a 1995: under the external policy and the "national interests "

Beçak, Peggy
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
Esta tese trata das relações comerciais entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos, através da perspectiva da história econômica, num recorte temporal de cinqüenta anos, que vão desde o pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial até meados dos anos noventa, período no qual se desenvolveram importantes transformações produtivas, nas relações comerciais, bem como no relacionamento político-diplomático bilateral. Também remontam a este período, a formação do marco institucional de representação dos interesses sociais e produtivos, tanto nas economias nacionais, quanto no âmbito internacional. Nosso objetivo foi traçar a evolução deste relacionamento bilateral, a partir do tema da política comercial, inserida no contexto dos interesses nacionais - expressos pelos setores produtivos domésticos -, e pela política externa, que limitam ou potencializam a evolução da política comercial e que ao mesmo tempo também são influenciados por ela. Para validar nossos argumentos, utilizamos a cronologia como fio condutor, entrelaçando as posições diplomáticas das relações internacionais, com os acontecimentos econômicos, comerciais e institucionais de representação.; This thesis is regarding Brazil's and United States of America commercial relationship under the economic history perspective...

A política de comércio exterior brasileira de 1995 a 1998 : a política comercial estratégica e o caso Embraer

Petry, Mariana Simões
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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46.29%
Este trabalho é uma análise da política comercial externa de 1995 a 1998, caracterizada, entre outros fatores, pela política comercial estratégica e o caso da Embraer. São abordadas nessa análise algumas questões como a taxa de câmbio, a institucionalidade do comércio exterior do período, os financiamentos às exportações e o apoio governamental à Embraer. Para tanto, foi utilizada a teoria do comércio exterior estratégico, que defende o uso de incentivos para o desenvolvimento de determinadas indústrias nascentes nas quais o país possui interesses estratégicos. O principal argumento desse trabalho afirma que, apesar de a taxa de câmbio valorizada ter repercutido de forma negativa no desempenho do comércio exterior do país, o governo adotou outras iniciativas e esforços para estimular as exportações brasileiras, das quais podemos citar: a remontagem do sistema institucional do comércio exterior, a retomada e revitalização dos mecanismos de financiamento como o BNDES-Exim e o Proex, o apoio às micro e pequenas empresas e o apoio à EMBRAER, configurando assim uma política comercial estratégica.; This work is a review about the brazilian foreign commercial policy from 1995 to 1998, which is characterized...

Preliminary assessment of the impact of commercial aircraft on local air quality in the U.S.

Ratliff, Gayle L. (Gayle Lois)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
This thesis examines the impact of aircraft emissions on local air quality by performing two analyses: an assessment of U.S. commercial aircraft contribution to county budgets of primary pollutants in nonattainment areas, and an assessment of the health effects caused by commercial aircraft emissions that serve as precursors to changes in ozone and ambient particulate matter (PM). Based on 148 airports located in 134 counties, this work found that for the base year 2002, the commercial aircraft contribution to county budgets of primary pollutants of CO, NOx, SOx, VOCs, PM2.5, and PM10 ranged from less than 0.01% to as high as 36.36% with an average contribution of 0.82%. The average contribution for CO was found to be 0.81%, NOx 1.73%, SOx 1.39%, VOCs 0.67%, PM2.5 0.24%, and PM0o 0.07%. In general, this research found public health detriments resulting predominantly from PM2.5 related to aircraft emissions. However, the inventories used for the health impacts analysis are not consistent with the inventories that are described above and have several known errors. Therefore the results are presented only to illustrate the methodologies rather than as a good estimate of the health impacts. Notably, ozone disbenefits occurred with the removal of aircraft emissions of NOx. Urban cores experienced increased levels of ozone resulting in a net increase in incidences of ozone-related health endpoints. There are several limitations to the work described in this thesis. In particular...

Symbiotic strategies in enterprise ecology : modeling commercial aviation as an Enterprise of Enterprises

Sgouridis, Sgouris P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 351 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
We investigate the effectiveness of strategic alternatives that are designed to dampen the cyclicality manifest in the commercial aviation (CA)-related industries. In this research we introduce the conceptual framework of Enterprise of Enterprises (EoE) as an extension and special case of a System of Systems, to facilitate the design of strategic alternatives in an enterprise ecosystem characterized by loosely coupled enterprises. The constituent enterprises in an EoE exhibit managerial and operational independence and have diverse value functions that are often viewed by the enterprises as zero-sum games. We argue that this may not always be the case; for example, in the CA EoE both airline and airframe manufacturers constituents would benefit from a steadier influx of aircraft that counters the current situation that is characterized by relatively stable demand growth rate for air travel while airline profitability and aircraft ordering fluctuate intensely. A strategic alternative geared towards this EoE-wide desired state is "symbiotic". In order to identify such strategies, we use the EoE framework to analyze the CA-related industries and to specify their local value functions and the salient interfaces among them based on an extensive review of the literature on commercial aviation. We develop working hypotheses about the driving mechanisms of the cycle in the CA EoE informed by the literature on economywide and supply chain cyclicality. To test these hypotheses...

Sustainable Telecenters : A Guide for Government Policy

Wellenius, Bjorn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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For at least a decade, governments and non-profit organizations, often supported by bilateral aid, have experimented with tele-centers as means to extend access to computers, the Internet, and other information, and communication services to rural, and low-income urban areas of developing countries. Results have been mixed. This note proposes a guide for government policy on tele-centers conceived as private businesses - though with development functions - that are commercially sustainable beyond initial public support.

Quantifying the Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade : A Framework for Analysis

Maskus, Keith E.; Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.13%
There has been increasing use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in the context of multilateral, regional, and global trade. These nontariff barriers are of special concern to developing countries, which may bear additional costs in meeting mandatory standards. Many industrial and developing countries express frustration with regulations that vary across their export markets, require duplicative conformity procedures, and are continually revised to exclude imports. The authors provide a comprehensive overview of the policy debate and methodological issues surrounding product standards and technical barriers to trade. They begin with a review of the policy context driving demand for empirical analysis of standards in trade, then provide an analytical overview of the role of standards and their relationship to trade. They then review methodological approaches that have been used to analyze standards and their impact on trade. Their main interest lies in advancing techniques that are practical and may be fruitfully extended to the empirical analysis of regulations and trade. They discuss concrete steps that could be taken to move forward a practical...

Choosing confrontation : commercial policy in Britain and Germany,1929-1936

NOONAN, Eamonn M.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
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46.1%
Defence date: 3 February 1995; Examining board: Prof. Albert Carreras, European University Institute (chairman) ; Prof. John Joseph Lee, University College Cork ; Prof. Peter Hertner, European University Institute (supervisor) ; Prof. Alan Milward, London School of Economics (supervisor) ; Prof. Clemens Wurm, Humboldt-Universität, Berlin

Theory and practice of EC external trade law and policy

LEAL ARCAS, Rafael
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Both the European Community (EC) and its Member States agree that it is in their best interest to coordinate their action vis-à-vis the rest of the world in international trade agreements. Theory and Practice of EC External Trade Law and Policy looks at the intricacies of the institutional framework of EC trade law, and with special emphasis on services trade, examines the law and practice of EC external trade relations from a policy, economic, legal and an overarching European constitutional perspective. The objective of the author’s analysis is not only to find ways to nurture and preserve the unitary character of EC external trade relations in areas of shared competence between EU Member States and EU institutions, but also to understand the management of the EC’s external trade relations. The book begins with an analysis of the evolution of the EC common commercial policy, through which the author examines the checks and balances at the micro, meso and macro levels. The author then proceeds to analyse the problems faced by the EU in its external relations and the legal complexity of mixed agreements. This unique legal phenomenon is tackled from an intra-EC perspective as well as from an extra-EU perspective taking into account various implications for third parties. The major EU institutions are examined: the Commission as the negotiator of international trade agreements...

The effects of the Lisbon Treaty on the principles and objectives of the Common Commercial Policy

DIMOPOULOS, Angelos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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66.14%
The Lisbon Treaty brings significant changes to the orientation of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP), affecting the principles and objectives that guide the exercise of EU competence in this field. Building upon the EC Treaty (TEC), it strengthens the role of uniformity and the commitment of the EU towards gradual liberalization, incorporating in fact a standstill obligation of the EU to retain the existing level of liberalization. More importantly, the Lisbon Treaty signals the integration of the CCP into EU external relations, providing common objectives and principles that allow for a re-evaluation of the objective of liberalization and the pursuance of other trade and non-trade goals, guaranteeing at the same time unity and consistency in the exercise of Union powers.

EU preferential trade agreements : commerce, foreign policy and development aspects

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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46.11%
This e-book compiles the written contributions prepared by the speakers of an EUI conference titled ‘Global Europe: The New Generation of EU Preferential Trade Agreements’. The conference took place on May 14-15, 2012, on the EUI premises in San Domenico di Fiesole. It was organized by the EUI Working Group on EU External Relations Law, under the auspices of Professor Marise Cremona and Professor Petros Mavroidis, with generous support provided by the EUI’s Global Governance Programme and the Academy of European Law. The e-book is divided into four parts. In the introductory part, David Kleimann provides a perspective on the European Commission’s efforts to implement the ‘Global Europe’ strategy and outlines the domestic and external challenges that EU leaders face in this process. Part II is devoted to crosscutting issues that generally apply to contemporary PTAs. Against the background of the most recent wave of regional and inter-regional economic integration, Petros Mavroidis argues that the relevance of the WTO for international trade liberalization and rule making is fading. Patrick Messerlin, secondly, considers the various domestic motives for the negotiation of PTAs and identifies the actors that play important roles in the political economy processes associated with the negotiation and conclusion of PTAs. Jean-Pierre Chauffour and David Kleimann...

Maritime shipping container security and the Defense Transportation System: problems and policy in the 21st century

Jankowski, William M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 49 p. : ill. (some col.), map
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The Defense Transportation System (DTS), led by the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), depends on the commercial maritime industry to provide movement of supplies and equipment around the world. The maritime shipping container is a critical asset in providing for this logistical support to the war fighter abroad. These 20- or 40-foot containers have become the backbone of the maritime industry, and will continue to proliferate as global commerce continues to expand. While the growth in the use of maritime shipping containers in the 21st century has accelerated the nation's economic trade substantially, it may also have become a significant problem. Containers are an indispensable but vulnerable link in the chain of global trade; approximately 90 percent of the world's cargo moves by container. Because of DoD's dependency on the maritime industry and these containers, it will and must continue to ride the wave of commercial practices, specifically in pursuit of better security throughout the maritime industry. In the wake of September 11, 2001, and with the new threats of WMD, the maritime shipping container may become a weapons delivery system. This thesis documented the need for security improvements for the maritime shipping container in protecting global commerce and DoD cargo shipments. Comprehensive reviews of government reports...

The potential impact of the government's Buy commercial policy on small business.

Woods, Willie E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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56.27%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis examines the Federal Government's decision to shift from almost total reliance on Government Specifications and Standards to a greater reliance on commercial off-the-shelf products and commercial specifications and / standards. The policy is analyzed from a Department of Defense perspective, with special emphasis placed upon the impact that the policy will have on competition, pricing, quality and the small business community. The conclusion is that the "Buy Commercial" policy will have a positive effect on competition and pri,cing without sacrificing any of the essentials of quality. The effects on the small business community overall will be positive, in that more smali firms will be encouraged to compete for Government contracts. For those small businesses however, that are heavily involved in producing products to meet Government specifications and standards the policy may spell financial disaster unless the Federal Government renders special consideration and assistance to them.; http://archive.org/details/potentialimpacto00wood

The Political Impact of the EU's International Trade: EU trade power, policy and influence

CARATELLI, Irene
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
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46.22%
Defense date: 18/01/2010; Examining Board: Marise Cremona (EUI, Law Department), Christopher Hill (University of Cambridge), Erik Jones (Johns Hopkins, Bologna), Pascal Vennesson (EUI/RSCAS) (Supervisor); The aim of the PhD Thesis is to ascertain whether the EU is able to exert a political influence through its international trade agreements. Since the Union has always been considered as an economic giant and a political dwarf at the global level, the objective is to evaluate whether the EU external trade may be considered as a useful tool to address the gap between its economic and political relevance. If the EU is effectively able to wiled a political influence through trade also beyond the neighbourhood area, where it uses the membership card chip, the EU might have a greater global role. The conceptual analysis of the Thesis is based on the distinction between the EU trade Power (i.e. Resources, Institutions and Values), EU trade Policy activity and its final Influence in order to disentangle the 'levers' from the 'leverage' exercised by the EU through its external trade policy. The potential for political influence of the EU ultimately relies on the ability to change the norms, beliefs, rules and regulations in EU partner countries...

Balancing Union and Member State Interests: Opinion 1/2008, choice of legal base and the common commercial policy under the Treaty of Lisbon

CREMONA, Marise
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
In Opinion 1/2008 on agreements amending the EC's schedules of commitments under the GATS, the Court of Justice interpreted the “Nice version” of art.133 EC and, in particular, the special provision in art.133(6) for joint EC and Member State participation in commercial policy agreements relating to certain service sectors. This contribution analyses the Court's approach to competence and choice of legal base in the context of art.133(6), and argues that in rejecting the classic “centre of gravity” test, this Opinion demonstrates the limitations of that approach in the case of international agreements, particularly where competence boundaries are at issue. It examines the implications of Opinion 1/2008 for the interpretation of art.207 TFEU and the mechanisms included in that new provision for the protection of Member State interests while the EU pursues its interest in establishing a comprehensive, coherent and effective external commercial policy.

Balancing Union and Member State Interests: Opinion 1/2008, Choice of Legal Base and the Common Commercial Policy Under the Treaty of Lisbon

CREMONA, Marise
Fonte: Sweet Maxwell Ltd Publicador: Sweet Maxwell Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
In Opinion 1/2008 on agreements amending the EC's schedules of commitments under the CATS, the Court of Justice interpreted the Nice version of art. 133 EC and, in particular, the special provision in art. 133(6) for joint EC and Member State participation in commercial policy agreements relating to certain service sectors. This contribution analyses the Court's approach to competence and choice of legal base in the context of art. 133(6), and argues that in rejecting the classic centre of gravity test, this Opinion demonstrates the limitations of that approach in the case of international agreements, particularly where competence boundaries are at issue. It examines the implications of Opinion 1/2008 for the interpretation of art.207 TFEU and the mechanisms included in that new provision for the protection of Member State interests while the EU pursues its interest in establishing a comprehensive, coherent and effective external commercial policy.

A Firm's-Eye View of Commercial Policy and Fiscal Reforms in Cameroon

Gauthier, Bernard; Soloaga, Isidro; Tybout, James
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.17%
After decades of high trade restrictions, fiscal distortions, and currency overvaluation, Cameroon implemented important commercial and fiscal policy reforms in 1994. Almost simultaneously, a major devaluation cut the international price of Cameroon's currency in half. This article examines the effects of those reforms on the incentive structure faced by manufacturing firms. Did the reforms create a coherent new set of signals? Did they reduce dispersion in tax burdens? Was the net effect to stimulate the production of tradable goods? The results of applying a cost function decomposition to detailed firm-level panel data suggest that the reforms created clear new signals for manufacturers, as effective protection rates fell by 80 to 120 percentage points. In contrast, neither the tax reforms nor the devaluation had a major systematic effect on profit margins. The devaluation did shift relative prices dramatically in favor of exportable goods, causing exporters to grow relatively rapidly.

A Firm's-Eye View of Policy and Fiscal Reforms in Cameroon

Gauthier, Bernard; Soloaga, Isidro; Tybout, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
After decades of heavy trade restrictions, fiscal distortions, and currency overvaluation, Cameroon implemented important commercial and fiscal policy reforms. Almost simultaneously, a major CFA devaluation cut the international price of Cameroon's currency in half. The authors examine the effects of these reforms on the incentive structure that manufacturing firms face. Did they create a coherent set of new signals? Was the net effect to stimulate the production of tradable goods? Was the dispersion of tax burdens lessened? They address each of these questions using a cost function decomposition applied to detailed firm-level panel data. They observe that Cameroon's reforms appear to have sent clear new signals to manufacturers, as the effective rate of protection fell by between 80 and 120 percentage points. Unlike trade liberalization, neither tax reforms nor the CFA devaluation had a major systemic effect on profit margins. But the CFA devaluation did twist relative prices dramatically in favor of exportable goods, so export-oriented firms exhibited rapid output growth.

Export Profiles of Small Landlocked Countries : A Case Study Focusing on their Implications for Lesotho

Ng, Francis; Yeats, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
World Bank demographic and country characteristic statistics identify 16 small landlocked countries that are similar to Lesotho. The authors attempt to determine what useful policy information can be derived from the recent trade performance of these "comparators." Among questions they pose are whether the trade profiles of the comparators suggest potentially promising export ventures for Lesotho, do they indicate directions for a geographic diversification of trade, or do they suggest products in which Lesotho might acquire a comparative advantage. The authors also use U.S. partner country statistics to evaluate Lesotho's export performance in this major market. The U.S. data indicate Lesotho lost competitive export shares for about three-quarters of its major clothing products during the late 1990s. The data show these losses were primarily to the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries in the Caribbean. Lesotho was competing on basically equal terms and did not fare well. But it is generally held that the most efficient clothing exporters are in the Far East and not Latin America. Lesotho's difficulties in competing with the latter have worrisome implications for its ability to compete with East Asian exporters when the Multifiber Arrangement is phased out. The comparative advantage profiles of the landlocked comparator countries suggest Lesotho's options for a greatly needed export diversification may be wider than is assumed. One or more of the comparator countries developed a comparative advantage in 110 four-digit SITC (non-clothing) manufactures which are generally labor-intensive in production. Many of these goods should also be suitable for production and export by Lesotho. International production sharing often involves the importation and further assembly of components in developing countries. This activity can significantly broaden the range of new products in which a country can diversify. Statistics show many landlocked comparator countries have moved into component assembly operations...

Civilian applications and policy implications of commercial unmanned aerial vehicles

Sprague, Kara Lynn, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 52 leaves; 902303 bytes; 1188213 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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46.22%
As UAV capabilities continue to improve the technology will spill out of the military sector and into commercial and civil applications. Already, UAVs have demonstrated commercial marketability in such diverse areas as scientific and environmental research, cross-seas shipping, communications relays, emergency management, border monitoring, agriculture, and aerial photography. Small-scale tactical UAVs in particular have an enormous potential to fulfill a number of roles within urban centers, transforming the way civil safety institutions carry out their jobs. A lack of established flight regulations is currently the greatest barrier to the standardized use of these vehicles. While the United States is currently the world's leader in UAV manufacturing, this position is tenuous given strong competitive threats from a variety of foreign countries who are already ahead in establishing a standardized regulatory environment for UAVs. As part of a larger research effort focused on the design, implementation, and demonstration of highly maneuverable rotorcraft UAVs, the primary objective of this work is to examine how UAVs might gain access to and function safely in civil and commercial markets. Despite the wide variety of existing UAVs in terms of size...

An International Comparison of the Economics of Building Integrated PV in different Resource, Pricing and Policy Environments: The Cases of the U.S., Japan and South Korea

Byrne, John; Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Boo, Kyung-Jin; Wang, Young-Doo; Alleng, Gerard
Fonte: Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Publicador: Center for Energy and Environmental Policy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 46098 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
In recent years, the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy (CEEP), working with affiliated academic and research institutions in the U.S. and East Asia, has investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using dispatchable photovoltaic (DPV) systems in distributed peak-shaving (PS) applications. In each case, modest amounts of battery storage are used in conjunction with a PV array to achieve firm peak shaving for commercial building operators. Recent investigations have added emergency power as a second function of DPV-PS systems installed on commercial buildings. This paper reports on CEEP’s latest studies carried out in the US, Japan and South Korea which offer a cross-national review of the performance of dual-function DPV systems designed to serve peak shaving and emergency power needs of the commercial buildings sector. The market assessment results for each country are derived from PV Planner, a spreadsheet analytical tool developed at CEEP to run simulations of building integrated PV applications under different resource, pricing and policy environments. The analyses in all three countries rely on electricity load data from actual buildings, resource data for specific national locations...