Página 1 dos resultados de 2728 itens digitais encontrados em 0.023 segundos

Comparative analysis for reactive energy measurement methodologies, under non-sinusoidal conditions in three-phase four-wire circuits

Fazio Jr., Alírio; Sampaio, Leonardo P.; De Brito, Moacyr A.G.; E Melo, Guilherme A.; Canesin, Carlos A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 494-501
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
This paper presents some methodologies for reactive energy measurement, considering three modern power theories that are suitable for three-phase four-wire non-sinusoidal and unbalanced circuits. The theories were applied in some profiles collected in electrical distribution systems which have real characteristics for voltages and currents measured by commercial reactive energy meters. The experimental results are presented in order to analyze the accuracy of the methodologies, considering the standard IEEE 1459-2010 as a reference. Finally, for additional comparisons, the theories will be confronted with the modern Yokogawa WT3000 energy meter and three samples of a commercial energy meter through an experimental setup. © 2011 IEEE.

Interfuel substitution in the consumption of energy in the United States

Baughman, Martin Lynn; Joskow, Paul L.; Zerhoot, Frederick S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4535561 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The effects of alternative public policies on the consumption and prices of various forms of energy in the United States depends critically on the nature of consumer demands for fuels and the supply characteristics of these fuels. Previous work on energy demand has tended to concentrate on the demand for a particular fuel as determined by standard economic variables such as the price of the fuel, income levels, sometimes the price of alternative fuels, and other demographic characteristics of the consuming population. In this work the consumer decision making process is viewed as being composed of two steps. First, the consumer decides that he wants a particular service and, secondly, seeks to find the fuel that will provide this service most cheaply. This view leads us to concentrate on substitution possibilities among fuels for particular services rather than own-price elasticities for a particular fuel. This paper presents results for the determinants of energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector in the United States. First, a discussion of the conceptual model used for fuel choice decisions is presented. Then, empirical results are given for appliance choices in the residential sector for four selected appliances and for the "fuel-split" of aggregate energy consumption among the three fuels used in the residential and commercial sector. The own-price and cross-price elasticities are estimated and discussed. Next...

Energy conservation: a case study for a large manufacturing plant

Felton, Lewis Allen; Glicksman, Leon R.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4079287 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The methods of formulating, implementing, and evaluating a conservation program in a commercial building or light industrial plant are examined in this paper. The results of one case study are also presented. In commercial and light industrial applications, most energy is consumed to maintain proper environmental conditions; light levels, heat levels, and fresh air levels. Most buildings today expend too much energy on these services. A co-ordinated program to maintain environmental conditions at levels pointed out in this report could save as mu h as 20% each year in energy consumption. This report presents a method that can be used by many commercial and light industrial concerns to establish a conservation program. Guidelines are presented that can be used to examine environmental conditions and determine how they must be changed. A system of program analysis is also presented. Results of this study show that saving 20% is possible, but motivation of the company and workforce will be a problem. The report also concludes that new buildings can be made more energy efficient if energy conservation is kept in mind during building design.

Government support for the commercialization of new energy technologies : an analysis and exploration of the issues

Policy Study Group, MIT Energy Lab
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 8000634 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the "commercialization" of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The "commercial demonstration" is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focussed on R&D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R,D&D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue or "prices versus gaps" is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misaligment or social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political...

Energy Demand Models for Policy Formulation : A Comparative Study of Energy Demand Models

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early 1970s, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources, and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sector representations produce more realistic projections compared with the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases...

Public Procurement of Energy Efficiency Services : Lessons from International Experience

Singh, Jas; Limaye, Dilip R.; Henderson, Brian; Shi, Xiaoyu
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
This book explores energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) as a means of overcoming some of the more difficult hurdles in promoting energy efficiency in public facilities. ESPCs represent a very attractive solution to many of the problems that are unique to public agencies, since they involve outsourcing a full project cycle to a service provider. From the detailed audit through implementation and savings verification, ESPCs can relieve public agencies of bureaucratic hassles, while service providers can secure the off-budget project financing and be paid from the actual energy savings, thus internalizing project performance risks. ESPC bidding also allows public agencies to select from a range of technical solutions, maximizing the benefit to the agency. Global experience suggests that ESPCs have been more effective at realizing efficiency gains than many other policy measures and programs, since the service providers have a vested interest in ensuring that a project is actually implemented. Many of the country governments interviewed for the study also saw enormous potential in bundling, financing, and implementing energy efficiency projects on a larger scale in the public sector, a method that increases the rate of efficiency gains and creates further benefits through economies of scale.

Expenditure of Low-Income Households on Energy : Evidence from Africa and Asia

Bacon, Robert; Bhattacharya, Soma; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
Patterns of household energy use and expenditure have been the subject of a large number of studies. Household expenditures on energy-particularly, how much the poor spend-have policy implications for several reasons. First, policies to mitigate or cope with energy price shocks are increasingly focusing on targeted support to low-income households as a way of limiting the fiscal cost of such policies while offering protection to the most vulnerable members of society. Second, for governments looking to reform energy price subsidies, the effects on household welfare- especially effects on poor households-of price increases resulting from subsidy reduction/removal is an important policy consideration. But subsidies for liquid fuels targeting the poor are difficult to design and implement effectively, because liquid fuels tend to be used more by the rich than by the poor, and are also easy to transport (and hence to divert to non-poor users). For this reason, there is a growing recognition of the need to move away from price subsidies for liquid fuels to alternative forms of targeted assistance to compensate the poor for the adverse effects of higher fuel prices. Third...

Strengthening the Non-Conventional and Rural Energy Development Program in the Philippines : A Policy Framework and Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.01%
As articulated in the new energy plan for 1999-2008, the key sector objectives for the Philippines energy sector remain security of energy supply, affordable prices, and an energy infrastructure compatible with broader social and environmental objectives. Ths report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 briefly lays out the social, environmental, and economic justifications for developing non-renewable energy resources (NRE) against the backdrop of privatization and reform of the energy sector. It reviews the experience with NRE from the 1970s to the present, highlighting some important lessons learned from both successful and failed initiatives. Chapter 2 reviews the commercial status and current and expected costs internationally of NRE technologies of potential usefulness. It distinguishes between immediate and long-term potential, small- and large-scale systems, and rural and urban applications, as well as reviewing the status of several off-grid and grid-connected technologies. Chapter 3 examines how existing and impending policies...

Pakistan : Household Use of Commercial Energy

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
This study aimed to examine the impact of changing availability of different energy sources and their price levels on household energy choice, consumption, and expenditures. Knowledge of household expenditures and energy consumption patterns is an essential building block for further work on possible policies in the energy sector and associated poverty and social impact analysis. To this end, the four most recent household expenditure surveys-conducted in 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2001-were analyzed in detail. The survey periods included those with low fuel prices (1999) and a time of rising world oil prices (2001). No household expenditure surveys are available from the last two years, when the increase in fuel prices has far outstripped general inflation. Nevertheless, between 1994 and 2001, prices of electricity, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) rose more rapidly than the consumer price index (CPI), potentially offering insights into how households might react to, and manage, sharply rising energy prices. The household survey analysis was supplemented by focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005. Participants were asked questions about reasons for energy choice...

Egypt : Improve Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Egypt has an overall low efficiency in using energy resources to create economic wealth. Egypt is among the most energy intensive economies in the Middle East North Africa region as well as in the world. The Egyptian energy intensity is almost twice as high as in some neighboring countries like Morocco and Tunisia and four times as high as industrialized countries like Japan and Germany. On the sector level, most industrial processes, equipment and consumer appliances in Egypt have 20 percent or higher energy consumption than the best international practices. Therefore, Egypt has a great opportunity to improve the efficiency of its energy resource utilization across all segments of economic activities. The objective of this report is to take stock of the past/ongoing energy efficiency initiatives and activities and to recommend a set of the principal strategic actions which could be undertaken by the Government of Egypt to promote and sustain energy efficiency improvements. The first part of the report presents the following topics: a brief general overview of energy use in Egypt; an analysis of the current institutional framework for energy efficiency; a review of the past...

Financing Municipal Energy Efficiency Projects

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Improving the energy efficiency (EE) of municipally owned buildings, such as schools and hospitals, and municipal infrastructure, such as public lighting, water supply, and district heating, offers budgetary savings on energy bills and a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic benefits. But relatively few municipal EE projects have been developed and implemented successfully. The challenges that limit EE investments in municipal buildings and facilities can be grouped into three broad areas: (i) a lack of awareness and incentives; (ii) insufficient implementation capacity; and (iii) limited access to financing. All three sets of challenges need to be addressed to scale up successful implementation of municipal EE projects. This Guidance Note focuses on the key issues faced by municipalities in accessing financing for EE investments, particularly for projects in the following four areas: indoor lighting, building retrofits, public lighting, and municipal utilities. The guidance note discusses the following potential financing mechanisms that can be used by municipalities to finance EE measures: budget financing...

Improving Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
About one-third of global energy is consumed in residential, public, and commercial buildings (collectively referred to as buildings), where it is used for space heating, cooling, ventilating, lighting, cooking, water heating, refrigerating, and operating electric and mechanical devices. Global energy use in buildings is expected to grow as cities in developing countries continue to modernize and per capita income levels continue to increase. Because of their high energy consumption, residential, public, and commercial buildings also offer unparalleled opportunities for energy savings. According to the International Energy Agency, buildings account for some 41 percent of global energy savings potential by 2035, compared with the industrial sector (24 percent) and the transport sector (21 percent). This guidance note outlines how cities can tap into a wide array of proven technologies, policies, and financing mechanisms to improve energy efficiency and capture cost-effective energy savings in buildings. It offers city leaders advice on how to get started in introducing energy efficiency measures...

Energy Efficiency Finance : Assessing the Impact of IFC's China Utility-based Energy Efficiency Finance Program

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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46.01%
This evaluation assesses the performance of International Finance Corporations (IFC's) energy efficiency finance program in China aimed at stimulating energy efficiency investments through bank guarantees and technical assistance. The program's significance is underpinned by the fact that China's size, rapid economic growth, and inefficiencies in energy use make it one of the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2.). The utilization of IFC's program has been rapid compared with other similar programs. The difference made by the program is traced along the chain of interventions: (i) at the level of banks, the program is narrowly based on one of the two partner banks, which, with the help of the program, expanded its energy efficiency lending as a new business line; (ii) at the level of energy management companies, the program's technical assistance improved the program participants' access to finance; and (iii) at the end-user level, it promoted the use of energy efficiency investments that achieved reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation recommends areas of improvement to realize greater impact. First...

West Bank and Gaza Energy Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
This report examines the energy sector in the West Bank and Gaza. It finds that from the perspective of its energy sector, West Bank and Gaza is in an unusual position in at least three respects: 1) Because of political and logistical factors, nearly all of these supplies at present come from Israel; 2) A second unusual challenge faced by West Bank and Gaza is its fragmentation into two distinct geographical zones with divergent economic characteristics and 3) A third unusual challenge is the constraints imposed by Israeli policies and actions on the ability of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to operate and develop its energy systems. This Review addresses the question of how the energy sector can make an effective contribution to the economic recovery and long-term growth of West Bank and Gaza in this situation. It does so by examining the broad regional and strategic dimensions relating to the sector that form the basis of a sustainable investment and institutional development program. This Review is structured in three parts. The first part is this Executive Summary that presents the recommendations of the Review...

Implementing Energy Subsidy Reforms : Evidence from Developing Countries

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Poorly implemented energy subsidies are economically costly to taxpayers and damage the environment through increased emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Energy subsidies also create distortive price signals and result in higher energy consumption or production as well as barriers to entry for cleaner energy services. Subsidies to consumption, by lowering end-use prices, can encourage increased energy use and reduce incentives to conserve energy efficiently. Universal energy-price subsidies tend to be regressive because benefits are conditional upon the purchase of subsidized goods and increase with expenditure. This report selected a representative sample of case studies in 20 developing countries, based on a number of criteria, including the countries' level of development (and consumption) and energy dependency (distinguishing between net energy exporters and importers). The case studies have been selected on the hypothesis that energy dependence and per capita income appear to be the key drivers of subsidy reforms in developing countries. Of the two criteria...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries. Nearly 80 percent of the nation's 140 million people reside in rural areas; of these, 20 percent live in extreme poverty. Geographically, many low-lying areas are vulnerable to severe flooding, while other regions are prone to drought, erosion, and soil salinity. Such an unfavorable agricultural landscape, combined with mismanagement of natural resources and increasing population pressure, is pushing many of the rural poor to the brink. Because Bangladesh is such a poor country, it also is one of the world's lowest energy producers. Total annual energy supply is only about 150 liters of oil equivalent per capita (International Energy Agency, or IEA 2003); in rural areas, conditions are even worse. Compared to other developing countries, Bangladesh uses little modern energy. Despite its successful rural electrification program, close to two-thirds of households remain without electricity and, with the exception of kerosene, commercial fuels are beyond reach for many. Moreover...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, M.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
This study, the first to concentrate on Bangladesh's energy systems and their effects on the lives of rural people, drew on these background studies, as well as other World Bank-financed research on IAP and rural infrastructure, to present a rural energy strategy for the country. The study's broad aim was to identify ways to improve the living standard in rural Bangladesh through better and more efficient use of energy, while creating an environment conducive to growth and poverty reduction. For any developing country, the crux of a rural energy strategy is to have more and better choices for meeting rural demand for energy through market mechanisms and sound policy. This goes hand in hand with the development of competent implementing institutions, which are critical to the process. Also important are new supply- and demand side technologies that can be used to raise rural people's welfare and improve productivity to increase growth prospects. Accordingly, the rural energy strategy advocated by this study aims to satisfy the types of demand that increase household welfare and raise rural growth prospects as energy becomes a direct input into the production process.

Accelerating Energy Conservation in China's Provinces

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
China's comprehensive 2006-10 energy conservation drive has succeeded in both delivering strong results to date and laying policy and program foundations for delivering more energy savings well into the future. The policies, program concepts, and implementation platforms created over the last four years will serve China well to achieve further energy conservation results during the next five-year planning cycle, and to help achieve China's target to reduce the carbon intensity of its economy by 40-45 percent by 2020. However, much work remains to be done, to improve, adjust, and strengthen the programs further, and to continue to interject new and creative solutions. This report seeks to provide provincial agencies and groups in China, and those that support them, with some outside perspectives and ideas on further development of provincial-level energy conservation programs over the next several years. The report also describes the provincial energy conservation programs developed during the last four years in some detail...

Energy management of commercial buildings - A case study from a POET perspective of energy efficiency

Xia,Xiaohua; Zhang,Jiangfeng; Cass,William
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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46.03%
This paper aims at analyzing the energy management activities for commercial buildings of a financial service company in South Africa by energy efficiency in terms of performance, operation, equipment and technology (POET). The sustainability of a general energy management program is discussed within this POET framework. As an application of this discussion to the commercial building scenario, the award winning energy management program of this financial service group company is featured from the POET perspective of energy efficiency. The case study shows that the POET based framework can not only cover all major energy management activities, but also identify further energy efficiency improvement opportunities.

Contribution analysis of electrical energy management in the industrial and commercial sector: A challenge to the Tanzania utility industry

Mohamed,A K; Kahn,M T E
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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45.99%
The investigation of electrical energy management (EEM) in the industrial and commercial sector determines how energy management affects electricity consumption and what makes its potential for being used to reduce peak demand of utility industries. The aim of this paper is to analyze the contribution of electrical energy management in the industrial and commercial sector and highlight its challenges to the Tanzanian utility industry. Energy efficiency technology analyzed in this paper includes energy efficiency lighting and power factor improvement. The analysis found that, if EEM is properly implemented, a significant amount of energy could be saved and could be converted to monetary benefits which might facilitate the development of other activities. The utility industry can benefit from saving considerable amounts of energy as well as the reduction of peak demand which can minimize the race of stumbling on new energy sources and construction of new power plants. The saved energy can be distributed to other consumers so as to improve accessibility or reliability of the electrical system and consequently minimize the impact of environmental pollution.