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A elasticidade do ligamento colateral medial da articulação do cotovelo de cão não advém de elastina; The elasticity of the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint does not come from elastin

COSTA, Paloma Souza; OLIVEIRA, Daniela; BARALDI -ARTONI, Silvana Martinez; SHIMANO, Antonio Carlos; CATTELAN, José Wanderley
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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36.88%
A literatura relata que ligamentos consistem de tecido conjuntivo denso, composto por água, colágeno tipos I e III, diversas proteoglicanas, pouca elastina e várias outras substâncias. Além disso, os ligamentos, quando testados in vitro com tensão longitudinal e unidirecional, apresentam um comportamento mecânico não-linear, ou seja, as fibras colágenas são alongadas aos poucos, perdendo seu padrão ondulado, até que todas estejam no limite máximo de tração e iniciem o rompimento. Portanto, no presente estudo avaliou-se a presença de fibras elásticas (elastina) no ligamento colateral medial do cotovelo de cães adultos para ponderar se a elasticidade do referido ligamento deve-se à presença de fibras elásticas ou às propriedades elásticas do colágeno ou à combinação de ambas. Foram utilizadas quatro articulações, de machos e fêmeas em igual proporção, das quais foram adquiridas as amostras das porções médias dos ligamentos colaterais mediais para a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram corados pela técnica de Weigert, e não foi observada a presença de fibras elásticas, detectável por esta técnica à microscopia de luz. Concluiu-se que a elasticidade do ligamento colateral medial do cotovelo de cão deve-se...

The Eaton-Gersovitz-Arellano environment with collateral

Guinsburg, Pedro Vaissman
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
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Neste artigo eu introduzo colateralização no ambiente de dívida soberana de Eaton-Gersovitz-Arellano. Esta colateralização pode ser vista como Investimento Estrangeiro Direto. A entrada de recursos colateralizados serve como uma estratégia de comprometimento dos países. Ao abrir a economia para este tipo de aporte de recursos, meu modelo prescreve maior tomada de dívida em equilíbrio pelos países e menos uso de default como instrumento de suavização da trajetória de consumo. Além destas características, eu mostro que limitação de colateral pode gerar mais default em equilíbrio do que um modelo sem Investimento Estrangeiro Direto ou colateral.; In this article I introduce collateralization in the Eaton-Gersovitz-Arellano environment. In my paper, collateral can be understood as Foreign Direct Investment. I find that collateral increases the equilibrium levels of defaultable debt and, at the same time, avoids the use of default. Restrictions of collateral leads to higher use of default in equilibrium.

Collateral or utility penalties ?

Maldonado, Wilfredo Fernando Leiva
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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In a two-period economy with incomplete markets and possibility of default we consider the two classical ways to enforce the honor of financial commitments: by using utility penalties and by using collateral requirements that borrowers have to fulfill. Firstly, we prove that any equilibrium in an economy with collateral requirements is also equilibrium in a non-collateralized economy where each agent is penalized (rewarded) in his utility if his delivery rate is lower (greater) than the payment rate of the financial market. Secondly, we prove the converse: any equilibrium in an economy with utility penalties is also equilibrium in a collateralized economy. For this to be true the payoff function and initial endowments of the agents must be modified in a quite natural way. Finally, we prove that the equilibrium in the economy with collateral requirements attains the same welfare as in the new economy with utility penalties.

Role of the oblique ligament in the integrity of the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint

Oliveira, D.; Baraldi-Artoni, Silvana Martinez; Shimano, A.C.; Rossi, J.R.; Tovar, M.C.H.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Escola de Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Escola de Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 127-133
ENG
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Foram estudados o arranjo e o diâmetro médio das fibrilas colágenas do ligamento colateral medial da articulação do cotovelo do cão, isolado ou associado ao ligamento oblíquo e tracionado até a ruptura. Dezoito articulações foram divididas em três grupos. O primeiro grupo teve o ligamento colateral medial coletado, mas não tracionado; o segundo grupo teve o ligamento colateral medial tracionado isoladamente; o terceiro grupo teve os ligamentos colateral medial e oblíquo tracionados associadamente. O ligamento colateral medial não submetido ao ensaio de tração apresentou um padrão ondulado das fibras colágenas, o qual não foi totalmente destruído quando foi tracionado, associado ao ligamento oblíquo, e perdeu totalmente o padrão reticular das fibras colágenas quando testado isoladamente. Quando o ligamento colateral medial foi submetido à tensão isoladamente, o diâmetro médio das fibrilas colágenas aumentou em relação ao grupo não submetido à tensão. Associado ao ligamento oblíquo, o diâmetro médio das fibrilas colágenas foi o maior na região de inserção e o menor na região média, em relação aos outros grupos. Concluiu-se que o ligamento oblíquo pode favorecer a integridade da região de inserção do ligamento colateral medial...

The role of the oblique ligament in the mechanical behavior of the medial collateral ligament of the mongrel dog elbow joint - Some biomechanical aspects

Oliveira, Daniela; Artoni, Silvana Martinez Baraldi; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Pacheco, Maria Rita; Rossi, Juliana Regina; De Araújo, Marcos Lania
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 135-139
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study investigated the oblique ligament mechanical contribution to the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint. Fifteen dogs were used for the study of the failure load, displacement, and energy absorption of the medial collateral and oblique ligaments of the canine elbow joint, associate and separately in the joint. Medial collateral ligament failure load and energy absorption were significantly higher in relation to the isolated oblique ligament. When the ligaments were associated in the joint, they presented an increment in failure load, displacement and energy absorption in relation to the ligaments analyzed separately. It was concluded, therefore, that the oblique ligament could have an important paper in the stability of the canine elbow joint, as it favors the medial collateral ligament resistance to the tensile load, one of the main stabilizer of the elbow joint.

Collateral, default penalties and infinite horizon equilibrium

Páscoa, Mário Rui; Seghir, Abdelkrim
Fonte: Nova SBE Publicador: Nova SBE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Pascoa and Seghir (2009) noticed that when collateralized promises become subject to utility penalties on default, Ponzi schemes may occur. However, equilibrium exists in some interesting cases. Under low penalties, equilibrium exists if the collateral does not yield utility (for example, when it is a productive asset or a security). Equilibrium exists also under more severe penalties and collateral utility gains, when the promise or the collateral are nominal assets and the margin requirements are endogenous: relative inflation rates and margin coefficients can make the income effects dominate the penalty effects. An equilibrium refinement avoids no-trade equilibria with unduly repayment beliefs. Our refinement differs from the one used by Dubey, Geanakoplos and Shubik (2005) as it does not eliminate no trade equilibria whose low delivery rates are consistent with the propensity to default of agents that are on the verge of selling.

Role of the oblique ligament in the integrity of the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint

Oliveira,D.; Baraldi-Artoni,S.M.; Shimano,A.C.; Rossi,J.R.; Tovar,M.C.H.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
It was studied the arrangement of the collagen fibrils of the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint and evaluated its diameter, when it was isolated or associated to the oblique ligament and loaded in tension until failure. Eighteen joints were divided in three groups. The first group had the medial collateral ligament collected and not loaded, the second group had the medial collateral ligament tested separately and the third group had both ligaments associately tested. Medial collateral ligament not submitted to strain presented a wavy and reticular pattern of the collagen fibers, which was not totally destroyed when it was loaded associated to the oblique ligament, and totally loses the reticular pattern when stretched separately. When the medial collateral ligament was loaded in tension separately, the mean collagen fibrils diameter increased in relation to the group not submitted to the tensile strain. Associated to the oblique ligament, the mean collagen fibrils diameter was the largest in the insertion area and the smallest in the mid-substance, in relation to the other groups. It was concluded that the oblique ligament could favor the integrity of the medial collateral ligament insertion area, facilitating its reconstruction after lesion with larger efficiency.

Influence on collateral flow of recanalising chronic total coronary occlusions: a case-control study

Pohl, T; Hochstrasser, P; Billinger, M; Fleisch, M; Meier, B; Seiler, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of recanalisation on collateral flow in a case-control study in patients with and without chronic total coronary occlusions.
DESIGN—In 54 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (mean (SD) age 61 (6) years), coronary collateral flow was measured by intracoronary pressure or Doppler guide wires at the end of repeated balloon occlusions. Coronary collateral flow index (collateral flow relative to normal antegrade flow) during the first two balloon inflations in 27 patients with a chronic total occlusion (occlusion group) was compared with that of 27 patients matched for age, sex, and collateral flow index at the first occlusion and with a coronary artery diameter stenosis ⩽ 80% (stenosis group).
RESULTS—Following revascularisation, collateral flow index decreased in 17 of the patients in the occlusion group (63%) and in eight of the patients in the stenosis group (30%) (p = 0.03 between groups). The overall change of collateral flow index between the first and the second balloon occlusion was −0.04 (0.01) in the occlusion group (p = 0.07 for paired comparison; from 0.29 (0.17) to 0.25 (0.14)), and +0.02 (0.06) in the stenosis group (p = 0.06 for paired comparison; from 0.27 (0.13) to 0.30 (0.15)). The trend to collateral enhancement in the stenosis group differed significantly from the occlusion group (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—While repeated coronary balloon occlusions induce collateral recruitment in the majority of patients with moderate stenoses...

Switching type valuation and design problems in general OTC contracts with CVA, collateral and funding issue.

MOTTOLA, GIOVANNI
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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In this work, we think to a possible real situation where two defaultable counterparties want to de fine a CSA in which both of them need the flexibility and the possibility to activate the collateralization during the life of the underlying claim/contract. We refer speci cally to a contingent risk mitigation mechanism that allows the counterparty to switch from zero to full/perfect collateralization (or even partial) and switch back whenever she wants until maturity paying some switching costs and taking into account the running costs that emerge over time. The running costs that we model and consider in the analysis of this problem are - by one side - those related to CVA namely counterparty risk hedging costs and - by the other side - the collateral and funding/liquidity costs that emerge when collateralization is active. We show the solution existence and uniqueness for the problem so defined, we build also an algorithm to determine numerically the value function and the optimal switching strategy. We also generalize the analysis allowing the strategic interaction between the parties and facing in the end the pricing problem of a general contract of this kind through reflected backward SDE technique.

Increasing Access to Credit through Reforming Secured Transactions in the MENA Region

Alvarez de la Campa, Alejandro
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper provides a comparative summary of secured transactions systems related to the use of movable property as collateral in the MENA region vis a vis international practices in countries with modern secured transactions systems. The paper sets out the importance of introducing reforms in the area of secured transactions with the objective of increasing access to credit for businesses, particularly SMEs. The MENA region clearly lags behind all other regions in the introduction of secured transactions reforms. The paper summarizes many of the weaknesses common across the region. The two main critical areas that need urgent reforms are the creation of modern secured transactions laws and electronic movable collateral registries, and the need to improve enforcement mechanisms for security interests in movable property.

Reforming Collateral Laws to Expand Access to Finance

Fleisig, Heywood; Safavian, Mehnaz; de la Peña, Nuria
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Most readers, especially those with car loans or home mortgages, know about collateral--property that the lender can take away from the borrower in the event that the borrower defaults. In low/middle income countries, it is understood that conservative lenders exclude firms from credit markets with their excessive collateral requirements. Usually, this is because only some property is acceptable as collateral: large holdings of urban real estate and, sometimes, new motor vehicles. Microenterprises, SMEs, and the poor have little of this property but they do have an array of productive assets that could easily be harnessed to serve as collateral. It is only the legal framework which prevents firms from using these assets to secure loans. In countries with reformed laws governing collateral, property such as equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, livestock are considered excellent collateral. This book aims to better equip project managers to implement reforms to the legal and institutional framework for collateral (secured transactions). It discusses the importance of movable property as a source of collateral for firms...

The Power of Collateral : How Problems in Securing Transections Limit Private Credit from Movable Property

Fleisig, Heywood
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In many developing countries, faulty laws and regulations make it hard to use livestock, machines, equipment, standing crops, and other movable property as collateral. The resulting constraints on access to credit hurt economies. In Bolivia, for example, a faulty legal and regulatory framework for the use of movable property as collateral has led to a loss in GDP estimated at between 5 and 10 percent. The author explains the problem.

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malawi - Legal Framework for Acceptance, Registration and Realization of Collateral

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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A well-functioning legal framework for secured lending needs to provide for the creation, recognition and enforcement of security interests. This includes making it possible for all types of assets to be collateralized, effective notice and registration rules to be adapted to all types of property, and clear rules of priority on competing claims or interests in the same assets. This working paper includes the following headings: procedure and costs for a secured transaction; registration system; credit reference bureau; realization of collateral; judicial framework; insolvency and corporate rehabilitation; and recommendations.

Secured Transaction Systems and Collateral Registries

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The main objective of this toolkit is to provide technical advice and guidance to World Bank Group staff, donor institutions, government officials and other practitioners on the implementation of secured transactions law and institutional reforms in emerging market countries. However, the Toolkit has not been designed to eliminate the need for in-person expert advice for governments that undertake to introduce a secured transactions system. It is necessary to take into account the factors that are unique to each jurisdiction. The content of the Toolkit will guide the reader through the various stages of the project cycle (identification, diagnostic, solution design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation) involved in the introduction of secured transactions reforms. The recommendations presented in the Toolkit are based on IFC s experience in the secured transactions area, the contributions of a number of experts in this field, existing literature, and reform experience in a number of emerging market countries and the existing best practices in jurisdictions with advanced secured transactions systems. While the Toolkit does not cover all aspects of secured transactions reform...

Risk and the Role of Collateral in Debt Renegotiation

Neus, Werner; Stadler, Manfred
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
EN
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In his basic model of debt renegotiation, BESTER [1994] argues that collateral is more effective if high risk projects are financed. This result, however, crucially depends on the definition of risk. Using the second-order stochastic dominance criterion introduced by ROTHSCHILD AND STIGLITZ [1970], we show that it is not a project’s high risk, induced by a high probability of default, that makes collateral more effective. Instead it turns out that, given the expected return, the probability of default has no impact on the collateral’s effectiveness. Moreover, a higher risk of the project caused by a higher loss given default makes the use of collateral even less effective.

Collateral Registries for Movable Assets : Does Their Introduction Spur Firms' Access to Bank Finance?

Love, Inessa; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Singh, Sandeep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Using firm-level surveys for up to 73 countries, this paper explores the impact of introducing collateral registries for movable assets on firms' access to bank finance. It compares firms' access to bank finance in seven countries that introduced collateral registries for movable assets against three control groups: firms in all countries that did not introduce a registry, firms in a sample of countries matched by location and income per capita to the countries that introduced registries for movable assets, and firms in countries that undertook other types of collateral reforms but did not set up registries for movable assets. Overall, the analysis finds that introducing collateral registries for movable assets increases firms' access to bank finance. There is also some evidence that this effect is larger among smaller firms.

The Cross-Country Magnitude and Determinants of Collateral Borrowing

Nguyen, Ha; Qian, Rong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using the World Bank Enterprise Survey covering 6,800 firms across 43 developing countries, this paper investigates the prevalence and determinants of collateralized borrowing. It focuses on the following two aspects: (1) whether firms' loans from financial institutions require collateral (the extensive margin) and (2) the collateral value relative to the loan value (the intensive margin). On the first aspect, it finds that collateral borrowing is prevalent. On average, 73 percent of loans from financial institutions require collateral. Firms that are small or sell domestically are significantly less likely to pledge collateral. Shorter loans and loans from non-bank financial institutions are also less often associated with collateral. On the second aspect, it finds that on average the loan value is at least 72 percent of the collateral value. The only robust and significant determinants of the collateral value are the type of assets used for collateral. The analysis also checks whether countries' income and institutions affect collateralized borrowing. It finds that firms in countries with higher income and better institutions and credit information are significantly less likely to pledge collateral. These factors...

It Started in Ghana : Implementing Africa's First Collateral Registry

Ouedraogo, Alice; Caruana, Isabel; Rodriguez, Elsa; Tischendorf, Susann
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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37.08%
The author all want to build something that matters. From the advisory Services perspective, no matter the business line, it's about helping meaningful players accomplish sustainable results. However, entering a continent with a new product is something that can be extremely challenging. This smart lesson tells of a project that, against all odds, installed the first online collateral registry in Africa, designed in line with international best practices and following principles established by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.

Belief Disagreements and Collateral Constraints

Simsek, Alp
Fonte: Econometric Society Publicador: Econometric Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Belief disagreements have been suggested as a major contributing factor to the recent financial crisis. This paper theoretically evaluates this hypothesis. I assume that optimists have limited wealth and take on leverage in order to take positions in line with their beliefs. To have a significant effect on asset prices, they need to borrow from traders with pessimistic beliefs using loans collateralized by the asset itself. Since pessimists do not value the collateral as much as optimists do, they are reluctant to lend, which provides an endogenous constraint on optimist's ability to borrow and to influence asset prices. I demonstrate that the tightness of this constraint depends on the nature of belief disagreements. Optimism concerning the probability of downside states has no or little effect on asset prices because these types of optimism are disciplined by this constraint. Instead, optimism concerning the relative probability of upside states could have significant effects on asset prices. This asymmetric disciplining effect is robust to allowing for short selling because pessimists that borrow the asset face a similar endogenous constraint. These results emphasize that what investors disagree about matters for asset prices, to a greater extent than the level of disagreements. When richer contracts are available...

Firm age, collateral value, and access to debt financing in an emerging economy: evidence from South Africa

Ezeoha,Abel; Botha,Ferdi
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 AF
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This paper applies the Blundell and Bond system generalised method of moments (GMM) two-step estimator to examine the impact of age and collateral value on debt financing, using a panel of 177 non-financial companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange over the period 1999 to 2009. The results show that South African firms have target leverage ratios and adjust their capital structures from time to time to achieve their respective targets, that the relationship between firm age and debt financing is nonmonotonic, and that firms with higher collateral value are likely to face fewer constraints on borrowing and therefore have greater access to medium-term and long-term debts. Robustness tests also reveal that during start-up and maturity stages, a firm's access to debt markets is significantly influenced by investments in assets that are acceptable to external creditors as collateral. These findings suggest that debt financing policies could be more critical for firms in the start-up and maturity stages