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Policy Surveillance in the G20 Fossil Fuel Subsidies Agreement: Lessons for Climate Policy

Aldy, Joseph Edgar
Fonte: Harvard Project on Climate Agreements Publicador: Harvard Project on Climate Agreements
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
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46.45%
Inadequate policy surveillance has undermined the effectiveness of multilateral climate agreements. To illustrate an alternative approach to transparency, I evaluate policy surveillance under the 2009 G-20 fossil fuel subsidies agreement. The Leaders of the Group of 20 nations tasked their energy and finance ministers to identify and phase-out fossil fuel subsidies. The G-20 leaders agreed to submit their subsidy reform strategies to peer review and to independent expert review conducted by international organizations. This process of developed and developing countries pledging to pursue the same policy objective, designing and publicizing implementation plans, and subjecting plans and performance to review by international organizations differs considerably from the historic approach under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper draws lessons from the fossil fuel subsidies agreement for climate policy surveillance.

Biofuel crops as a strategy for adaptation to climate change in the Semi-Arid region of Brazil.

MONTEIRO, J. M. G.; ROVERE, E LA; AVZARADEL, A C
Fonte: In: INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION CONFERENCE, 2010, Queensland. Anais... Queensland: CSIRO, 2010. Publicador: In: INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION CONFERENCE, 2010, Queensland. Anais... Queensland: CSIRO, 2010.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
2010

Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Hydrology : Development of a Methodology through a Case Study in the Andes of Peru

Vergara, Walter; Deeb, Alejandro; Leino, Irene; Kitoh, Akio; Escobar, Marisa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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36.71%
The objective of study of the impacts of climate change on mountain hydrology is to develop a methodology to assess the net impacts of climate change on the hydrological response in mountainous regions. This is done through a case study in the Peruvian Andes. There are few examples of predictions of the impact of climate change on resource availability and even fewer examples of the applications of such predictions to planning for sustainable economic development. This report presents a summary of the efforts of a Bank energy and climate change team to develop methodological tools for the assessment of climate impacts on surface hydrology in the Peruvian Andes. The importance of analyzing the potential climate impacts on hydrology in Peru arises in part from concerns about the retreat of tropical glaciers, the drying of unique Andean wetland ecosystems, as well as increased weather variability and weather extremes, all of which will affect water regulation. The study, together with a recently published report by the World Bank...

Sub-Saharan Africa - Managing Land in a Changing Climate : An Operational Perspective for Sub-Saharan Africa

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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36.71%
Livelihoods, food security, and development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa are highly dependent on land management practices to generate natural ecosystem goods and services. Out of a total population of about 717 million people, almost 60 percent depend for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing, or forestry. However, unsustainable land management already is leading to large-scale land degradation trends, which pose a threat to food security and poverty alleviation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change threatens to exacerbate and add to the existing vulnerabilities. Evidence has shown that the number of people affected by climate variability, through floods and droughts, is already increasing. Much-needed increases in agricultural production have, as a result, been unrealized. These outcomes place smallholder farmers, who depend largely on rainfed agriculture, in highly vulnerable circumstances under climate-change predictions. The objective of this work is to improve practical knowledge resources for Sub-Saharan African countries...

Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
This report, Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America, reports the results of action research to identify and prioritize stakeholder driven, locally relevant response options to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The study has three primary objectives. The first is to develop and apply a pilot methodology for assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change and for formulating adaptation response strategies to inform private and public sector decisions in the Latin America region. The study is principally concerned with adaptation responses to climate change, rather than mitigation. The second objective is to formulate recommendations for investments in each of the selected agro-ecosystems in a range of areas including agricultural technology adaptation, infrastructure investments, public and private sector support activities, and institutional and policy changes. The final objective is to disseminate the study results in the Latin America region and other parts of the world to help increase understanding of the impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation response strategies. This methodology can be used by the Bank to support client countries in defining response strategies...

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
The report is part of a broader study, the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC), which has two objectives: (a) to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs for informing international climate negotiations; and (b) to help decision makers in developing countries assess the risks posed by climate change and design national strategies for adapting to it. This paper is one of a series of country-level studies, where national data were disaggregated to more local and sector levels, helping to understand adaptation from a bottom-up perspective. Ethiopia is heavily dependent on rainfed agriculture. Its geographical location and topography in combination with low adaptive capacity entail a high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Historically the country has been prone to extreme weather variability. Rainfall is highly erratic, most rain falls with high intensity, and there is a high degree of variability in both time and space. Since the early 1980s, the country has suffered seven major droughts five of which have led to famines in addition to dozens of local droughts. Major floods also occurred in different parts of the country in 1988...

Adaptation to Climate Change -- Vulnerability Assessment and Economic Aspects : Plurinational State of Bolivia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study estimates that it will cost $75 - $100 billion each year for developing countries to adapt to climate change from 2010 to 2050 (World Bank 2009a). The study funded by the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Switzerland has two specific objectives. The first is to develop a global estimate of adaptation coststo inform the international community s efforts on how to tailor adequate and sustainable support regarding new and additional resources to help vulnerable developing countries meet adaptation costs. The second objective is to support decision makers in developing countries to better evaluate and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The EACC study includes a global track to meet the first study objective and a case study track to meet the second objective. The country track comprises seven countries: Ethiopia, Mozambique, Ghana, Bangladesh, Vietnam, The Plurinational State of Bolivia...

Turn Down the Heat : Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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46.61%
A Report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Analytics. This report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia. Building on the 2012 report, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day, 2°C and 4°C warming on agricultural production, water resources, and coastal vulnerability. It finds many significant climate and development impacts are already being felt in some regions, and that as warming increases from present day (0.8°C) to 2°C and 4°C, multiple threats of increasing extreme heat waves, sea-level rise, more severe storms, droughts and floods are expected to have further severe negative implications for the poorest and most vulnerable. The report finds that agricultural yields will be affected across the three regions, with repercussions for food security, economic growth, and poverty reduction. In addition, urban areas have been identified as new clusters of vulnerability with urban dwellers, particularly the urban poor, facing significant vulnerability to climate change. In Sub-Saharan Africa, under 3°C global warming, savannas are projected to decrease from their current levels to approximately one-seventh of total land area and threaten pastoral livelihoods. Under 4°C warming...

Getting a Grip on Climate Change in the Philippines : Extended Technical Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
Philippines currently experience and will continue to face significant impacts from climate change. To ensure climate resilience, build a low-carbon economy, and increase its role in the global climate change dialogue, the Philippine government has launched strong climate policy and institutional and financing reforms, supported by a clear rationale for no-regrets action. However, transformative progress toward a more climate resilient society and low carbon economy remains limited. Carried out at mid-term of the first phase of the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP), the Philippine Development Plan (2011-2016) and the current Administration, this review is an opportunity, and comes early enough, to ensure that first phase reforms are finalized and the groundwork for the second and third phases put in place. Recommendations consolidate the strategic direction of the NCCAP and set the stage for scaling up action over the next two phases. Specific activities are proposed to support eight objectives organized around three pillars: (i) strengthening the planning...

Getting a Grip on Climate Change in the Philippines : Executive Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
The Philippines already experiences and will continue to face impacts from climate change. In the decades ahead, the most serious consequences will be felt in coastal and urban areas. Severe hardships are expected in agriculture and fisheries, leading to negative impacts on jobs and the economy. With these risks in mind the Philippine Government has initiated significant climate reforms, establishing a basis for transformation. To assess gaps and accelerate implementation of the climate reform agenda, in 2012 the Department of Budget and management and the climate change commission sought advisory services from the World Bank to carry out a Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review (CPEIR). Carried out at mid-term of the first phase of the national climate change action plan, the Philippine development plan (2011-2016), and the current administration, this review comes early enough to help guide the finalization and operationalization of the first phase of the climate reform agenda. This executive report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the CPEIR...

Understanding the Impact of Climate Change on Hydropower : The Case of Cameroon

Grijsen, Johan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.71%
The Africa energy unit (AFTEG) of the World Bank has obtained financing from the trust fund for environmentally and socially sustainable development (TFESSD) funded by Finland and Norway for work towards understanding the impact of climate change on hydropower: the case of Cameroon. The development objective of this activity is: (i) to develop tools for assessing climate change impacts on the operation of hydraulic infrastructure such as regulating dams and hydropower plants in the Sanaga river basin, and (ii) to take steps towards an institutional framework for climate resilient water resources management in Cameroon. The aim of this initiative is to build resilience to climate risks into water management in general and hydropower development in Cameroon in particular. The study includes three components: (i) develop suitable climate change scenarios for the Sanaga basin, support the electricity development corporation (EDC) of Cameroon to develop a reliable hydrological model for the Sanaga river basin...

Beyond Downscaling : A Bottom-Up Approach to Climate Adaptation for Water Resources Management

Garcia, L.E.; Matthews, J.H.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Wijnen, M.; DiFrancesco, K.N.; Ray, P.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report focuses on how we achieve water sustainability over long timescales - decades, even centuries from now. These timescales are important and relevant to our decisions about planning, infrastructure, and institutions today. Many of the methods we use to manage water, directly or indirectly, commit us to future decision pathways and restrict us from making other, alternative decisions. Across the first four chapters, this report describes the challenges of including climate change in water management decision-making and provides an overview of current practices in the adaptation field. After considering the pros and cons of these practices, the book concludes with a framework for an adaptation approach supported by Alliance for Global Water Adaptation (AGWA).

Adaptation to a Changing Climate in the Arab Countries : A Case for Adaptation Governance and Leadership in Building Climate Resilience

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Adapting to climate change is not a new phenomenon for the Arab world. For thousands of years, the people in Arab countries have coped with the challenges of climate variability by adapting their survival strategies to changes in rainfall and temperature. Their experience has contributed significantly to the global knowledge on climate change and adaptation. But over the next century global climatic variability is predicted to increase, and Arab countries may well experience unprecedented extremes in climate. Temperatures may reach new highs, and in most places there may be a risk of less rainfall. Under these circumstances, Arab countries and their citizens will once again need to draw on their long experience of adapting to the environment to address the new challenges posed by climate change. This report prepared through a consultative process with Government and other stakeholders in the Arab world assesses the potential effects of climate change on the Arab region and outlines possible approaches and measures to prepare for its consequences. It offers ideas and suggestions for Arab policy makers as to what mitigating actions may be needed in rural and urban settings to safeguard key areas such as health...

Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture : Refocusing Impact Assessments to 2050

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet national development, food security, climate adaptation and mitigation, and trade goals over the next several decades, Brazil will need to significantly increase per area productivity of food and pasture systems while simultaneously reducing deforestation, rehabilitating millions of hectares of degraded land, and adapting to climate change. There is inadequate data to accurately model projected climate challenges facing Brazil. The report concludes that key integrated and linked interventions are needed in the short term to significantly improve currently available assessments of climate change impact on Brazilian agriculture and to guide policy makers with the priorities and phasing of needed investments.

Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture; Brasil - Impactos das mudancas climaticas na producao agricola Brasileira

Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Fernandes, Erick C.M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet national development, food security, climate adaptation and mitigation, and trade goals over the next several decades, Brazil will need to significantly increase per area productivity of food and pasture systems while simultaneously reducing deforestation, rehabilitating millions of hectares of degraded land, and adapting to climate change. There is inadequate data to accurately model projected climate challenges facing Brazil. The report concludes that key integrated and linked interventions are needed in the short term to significantly improve currently available assessments of climate change impact on Brazilian agriculture and to guide policy makers with the priorities and phasing of needed investments.

Investment Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty : Application to Climate Change

Hallegatte, Stéphane; Shah, Ankur; Lempert, Robert; Brown, Casey; Gill, Stuart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
While agreeing on the choice of an optimal investment decision is already difficult for any diverse group of actors, priorities, and world views, the presence of deep uncertainties further challenges the decision-making framework by questioning the robustness of all purportedly optimal solutions. This paper summarizes the additional uncertainty that is created by climate change, and reviews the tools that are available to project climate change (including downscaling techniques) and to assess and quantify the corresponding uncertainty. Assuming that climate change and other deep uncertainties cannot be eliminated over the short term (and probably even over the longer term), it then summarizes existing decision-making methodologies that are able to deal with climate-related uncertainty, namely cost-benefit analysis under uncertainty, cost-benefit analysis with real options, robust decision making, and climate informed decision analysis. It also provides examples of applications of these methodologies, highlighting their pros and cons and their domain of applicability. The paper concludes that it is impossible to define the "best" solution or to prescribe any particular methodology in general. Instead...

Economics of Climate Change in the Arab World : Case Studies from the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and the Republic of Yemen

Verner, Dorte; Breisinger, Clemens
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
This Economics of Climate Change in the Arab World is presents detailed case studies on the impacts of climate change in the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and the Republic of Yemen that were summarized. The Arab region is already being impacted by climate change through more frequent cyclones, floods, and prolonged droughts. Thousands of rural producers have seen their crops and herds devastated by extreme conditions, and have been forced to abandon their traditional way of life and migrate to crowded urban areas. Those who stay behind in rural areas struggle to cope with shortages of food and water. Climate change affects countries' economies and households through a variety of channels. Rising temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns affect agricultural yields of both rainfed and irrigated crops, and thus global and local food markets. Adaptation is a process that will take place over decades as new information makes policy makers reevaluate their climate vulnerabilities. Still, by seizing the opportunity to act now and act together...

Development and Climate Change : A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
The framework provided a road map for climate action for the World Bank Group (WBG) over fiscal years 2009-11, setting out the WBG's objectives, principles, areas of focus, and major initiatives in the field of climate change. The framework was organized around six action areas: 1) supporting climate actions in country-led development processes; 2) mobilizing additional concessional and innovative finance; 3) facilitating the development of market-based financing mechanisms; 4) leveraging private sector resources; 5) supporting accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and 6) stepping up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building. Climate change is one of the multiple stressors that affect the environment and impact on income and welfare. Further, its impact is worsened by other environmental damages. Looking ahead, strategies to combat climate change have to account for the continued need for rapid growth in developing countries. In this context, the World Bank is now looking at climate change in a holistic manner...

Development and Climate Change : A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group, Technical Annexes for FY09-11

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
The framework provided a road map for climate action for the World Bank Group (WBG) over fiscal years 2009-11, setting out the WBG's objectives, principles, areas of focus, and major initiatives in the field of climate change. The framework was organized around six action areas: 1) supporting climate actions in country-led development processes; 2) mobilizing additional concessional and innovative finance; 3) facilitating the development of market-based financing mechanisms; 4) leveraging private sector resources; 5) supporting accelerated development and deployment of new technologies; and 6) stepping up policy research, knowledge, and capacity building. Climate change is one of the multiple stressors that affect the environment and impact on income and welfare. Further, its impact is worsened by other environmental damages. Looking ahead, strategies to combat climate change have to account for the continued need for rapid growth in developing countries. In this context, the World Bank is now looking at climate change in a holistic manner...

Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia : Lessons from Recent Experiences and Suggested Future Directions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Like other regions, Eastern Europe and Central Asia is vulnerable to climate change and its potential socioeconomic impacts. While all countries are facing warmer temperatures, a changing hydrology, and more extreme events (for example, floods and droughts) and are concerned about the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, they differ in their financial and institutional capacities to respond. Therefore, especially for the most vulnerable countries in the region (for example, those in Central Asia and southern Europe), adapting to climate risk adds a new dimension to the challenges of development, but also provides an opportunity to revisit priorities and accelerate reforms. The Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Region of the World Bank has been actively working on climate-related projects and has advanced a number of initiatives in response to climate change since the 1990s. Nevertheless, up until a few years ago the region's focus was mainly on emissions reduction (mitigation), rather than on helping countries respond to existing or expected impacts from climate change through adjustments in natural or human systems. But more recently...