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"Desarreglando el mundo para arreglar los sueños": a obra de María Teresa León e suas relações com os anos da Guerra Civil Espanhola. Uma leitura de Juego limpio; "Desarreglando el mundo para arreglar los sueños": the work of Maria Teresa León and its relations with the years of the Spanish Civil War, a reading of Juego limpio

Silva, Gisele Aparecida da Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/03/2014 PT
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66.46%
A Guerra Civil Espanhola não foi somente um confronto bélico, mas também, uma guerra marcada pelas questões sociais, políticas e ideológicas que estavam em ebulição no país, envolvendo operários, camponeses, personalidades políticas e artísticas, bem como intelectuais, que combatiam e defendiam seus ideais por meio de manifestações artísticas. Porém, mesmo com a imposição do exílio para estes escritores, poetas e pensadores, a resistência prosseguia por meio de autobiografias, antologias ou romances com a proposta de refletir os acontecimentos daqueles dias com um olhar distinto daquele imposto por Francisco Franco durante sua Ditadura. Um dos cenários recriados para a reflexão dos resultados desta guerra de confrontos já citados é Juego limpio, escrito durante o exílio de María Teresa León. No romance, Camilo rememora as experiências vividas durante sua atuação no grupo Guerrillas del Teatro del Ejército del Centro durante o conflito civil e sua relação amorosa com Angelines, atriz da companhia. De dentro de sua cela, Camilo refugia-se em suas memórias de modo a refletir seu presente mediante seu passado, estabelecendo a tensão entre o vivido (passado) e o narrado (presente), porém não o faz só...

The Aftermath of Civil War

Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Using an "event-study" methodology, this paper analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on those experiences where the end of conflict marks the beginning of a relatively lasting peace. The paper considers 41 countries involved in internal wars in the period 1960-2003. In order to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, the paper considers a host of social areas represented by basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demographic trends, and conflict and security issues. For each of these indicators, the paper first compares the post- and pre-war situations and then examines their dynamic trends during the post-conflict period. The paper concludes that, even though war has devastating effects and its aftermath can be immensely difficult, when the end of war marks the beginning of lasting peace, recovery and improvement are indeed achieved.

What Is a Civil War? A Critical Review of Its Definition and (Econometric) Consequences

Gersovitz, Mark; Kriger, Norma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The authors argue that the academic literature, both qualitative and quantitative, has mislabeled most episodes of large-scale violence in Africa as civil war; these episodes better fit their concept of regional war complexes. The paper seeks to highlight the fundamental flaws in the conception of civil war in the econometric literature and their implications for econometric specification and estimation, problems that this literature is inherently incapable of rectifying. The authors advocate the comparative study of regional war complexes in Africa based on historical narratives.

State and Civil War: A comparative analysis of the political thought of Carl Schmitt and Vladimir I Lenin

BOLSINGER, Eckard
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
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The end of the Cold War has seen the resurgence of old patterns of internal and external armed conflicts. War and civil war as factors in the process of the dissolution and formation of political structures have reappeared even within Europe. In the post-Cold War world politics appears less to be ordered by clear principles. Instead, it is insecure and undermined by violence and instability) It would, however, be misleading to assume that the contemporary experience of eruptive violence simply signifies an aberration from a peaceful path of social and political development. Against the identification of modernization and the gradual decline of (civil) wars, Hans Joas (1996), in close reference to current historical sociology, has emphasized that external and internal forms of armed struggle cannot be seen as deviations, anomalies, or interruptions in the development of modern social and political structures. Rather, they represent their inherent feature.2 According to his view, (civil) war and violence are constitutive parts of mRdernity and not its prehistory; the ongoing military and armed conflicts are thus only a reminder of this close connection. How should political theory react to the central role of (civil) war and armed violence in shaping modern political structures? If current historical sociology is right that (civil) war and armed conflicts lie at the foundations of modern politics...

The Outbreak of Civil War in Greece: Strategic leadership, brinkmanship, and deterrence failure

PAPPAS, Takis S.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article argues against two firmly-established ideas about the 1944 communist insurgency that led to the outbreak of civil war in postliberation Greece: (a) blame attribution to predominantly one actor, who, depending on each author’s ideological perspective, is either the Greek Communists or the British, and (b) outcome inevitability. Instead, the present analysis brings to the fore a set of no less than five distinct actors including, besides the original two, Prime Minister George Papandreou; Greece’s traditional political class; and the Greek monarch. Based primarily on the close reading of original documents, such as the personal accounts left behind by the protagonists of the civil war drama, and using causal inferences derived from counterfactual logic, this analysis shows that the Greek civil war would have been an inevitable outcome only if there were on the scene just two actors, the British and the Communists, directly confronting each other. Since however that was not the case, it is shown that Papandreou could have prevented civil war had he succeeded in both forging strategic alliances with the traditional political elites and embracing republicanism. His failure to implement either goal offers a novel interpretation of the Greek civil war...

Citizen-Officers: The Union and Confederate Volunteer Junior Officer Corps in the American Civil War, 1861-1865

Bledsoe, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
This dissertation engages the historiography of American citizenship and identity, republican traditions in American life and thought, and explores the evolution of military leadership in American society during the American Civil War. The nature, experiences and evolution of citizen-soldiers and citizen-officers, both Union and Confederate, reveal that the sentimental, often romantic expectations and ideologies forged in the American Revolution and modified during the antebellum era were recast, adapted, and modified under the extreme pressures of four years of conflict. Civil War citizen-officers experienced extreme pressures to emulate the professional officers of the regular army and to accommodate the ideological expectations of the independent, civic-minded volunteers they led. These junior leaders arrived at creative, often ingenious solutions to overcome the unique leadership challenges posed by the tension between antebellum democratic values and the demands of military necessity. Though the nature and identity of the officers in both armies evolved over time, the ideological foundations that informed Civil War Americans’ conceptions of military service persisted throughout the conflict. The key to the persistence of the citizen-soldier ethos and citizen-officer image during and after the Civil War era lies in the considerable power of antebellum Americans’ shared but malleable republican tradition. By focusing on the experience of volunteer company-grade officers in the Civil War era...

The Garrison War: Culture, Race, and the Problem of Military Occupation during the American Civil War Era

Lang, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Focusing on nineteenth-century American military occupation, this dissertation critically engages the existing literature on Civil War soldiers. It departs from the traditional historiographical paradigm of “why they fought and endured”—based on motivation and the experience of active combat—and instead emphasizes how the soldiering experience was fragmented and fraught with disillusionment and confusion. The Civil War traditionally is interpreted as period-divide between the antebellum and post-bellum eras. Soldiers’ responses to the culture of military occupation, however, revealed striking continuity across time, space, and conflict in nineteenth-century America. By uniting three principal events—the Mexican-American War, Civil War, and post-bellum Reconstruction—the study interprets how nineteenth-century volunteer citizen-soldiers struggled to understand their roles as occupying forces. As occupation emerged as a fundamental staple of the American military tradition, its complexities challenged the cultural ideals that fueled the citizen-soldier model. The milieu of occupation thus contested American soldiers’ integrity, masculinity, and racial identity. The citizen-soldier tradition collided with an equally aggressive...

Humanitarian crisis as a by-product of civil war in Mindanao: an internal issue for a security time bomb for Australia?

Russell-Farnham, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Though Australia is officially part of Oceania, our immediate strategic space is South East Asia (SEA) and as such our geographical proximity to the Philippines makes it an integral part of our security concerns. With the fourteenth largest population in the world and the second largest population in South East Asia (second lonely to Indonesia), the Philippines is a very important member of Australia's regional neighbourhood. Mindanao, the Philippines second largest island, has been gripped by civil war for the last three and a half decades. The separatist aspirations of the Moro people has see n them engage the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) in a long and bloody civil war, spanning decades and fluctuating in severity. The social and humanitarian implications of the ongoing civil war have been severe. Over the last thirty-three years an estimated 120,000 people have been killed and millions more have been displaced from their homes. The ongoing conflict has seen the fabric of Mindanaoan society tom, dividing the island along religious lines and imbedding mutually reinforcing distrust and resentment throughout the island's population. Although numerous attempts have been made to restore peace to Mindanao over the decades...

From Stability to Insurgency: The Root and Proximate Causes of the September 2002 Civil War in Cote d'Ivoire

Kouadio, Bertin K
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This dissertation was an analysis of the root and proximate causes of the September 2002 civil war in Côte d’Ivoire. The central question of this study was: Why did Côte d’Ivoire, which was relatively stable under President Houphouët-Boigny, suddenly begin to experience political violence in the 1990s and an explosion in 2002? Côte d’Ivoire was an interesting case because it was stable for a long period of time, apparently making it an infertile ground for conflict. It was also interesting for comparative purposes because of the fact that several states in West Africa (for instance, Benin, Togo, and Ghana) have experienced military coups but not have civil wars. Finally, this case was an opportunity to revisit the debate on the causes of civil wars in the African context. Chapter one has outlined the entire dissertation project and contextualized the analysis that follows in the subsequent chapters. Chapter two has reviewed the literature on civil wars in general, identified the different types of civil wars, and the type the Ivoiran war is. Chapter three has examined the domestic and international political economy as a source of the civil violence in Côte d’Ivoire. Chapter four has examined the role of ethnicity and region as identities of the war...

How Much War Will We See? Estimating the Incidence of Civil War in 161 Countries

Elbadawi, Ibrahim; Sambanis, Nicholas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.59%
Quantitative studies of civil war have focused either on war's onset, or its termination, producing important insights into these end points of the process. The authors complement these studies by studying how much war we are likely to observe in any given period. To answer this question, they combine recent advances in the theory of civil war initiation, and duration, and, develop the concept of war incidence, denoting th probability of observing an event of civil war in any given period. They test theories of war initiation, and duration against this new concept, using a five-year panel data set for 161 countries. Their analysis of the incidence of war corroborates most of the results of earlier studies, enriching those results by highlighting the significance of socio-ppolitical variables as determinants of the risk of civil war. Their findings: 1) Steps toward advancing political liberalization, or economic development reduce the risk of civil war, whatever the degree of ethno-linguistic fractionalization in a society. 2) This effect is amplified in polarized societies. The probability of civil war is lower in very homogeneous societies...

The Causes of Civil War

Djankov, Simeon; Reynal-Querol, Marta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The dominant hypothesis in the literature that studies conflict is that poverty is the main cause of civil wars. The authors instead analyze the effect of institutions on civil war, controlling for income per capita. In their set up, institutions are endogenous and colonial origins affect civil wars through their legacy on institutions. Their results indicate that institutions, proxied by the protection of property rights, rule of law and the efficiency of the legal system, are a fundamental cause of civil war. In particular, an improvement in institutions from the median value in the sample to the 75th percentile is associated with a 38 percentage points' reduction in the incidence of civil wars. Moreover, once institutions are included as explaining civil wars, income does not have any effect on civil war, either directly or indirectly.

Civil War Risk in Democratic and Non-Democratic Neighborhoods

Raleigh, Clionadh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
This study questions the extent to which domestic conflict is influenced by national, regional, and international relationships. It is designed to answer specific questions relating to the effects of neighboring characteristics on a state's risk of conflict and instability: What is the interaction between neighboring conflict and political disorder? Do democratic neighborhoods have different conflict trajectories than non-democratic neighborhoods and if so, where and why? Given that most poor countries are located in poor and conflictual neighborhoods, to what extent is there a relationship between poverty and political disorder in different regime neighborhoods? Using spatial lag terms to specify neighboring regime characteristics and multilevel models to differentiate between explanatory levels, this study reiterates the importance of domestic and neighboring factors in promoting or diminishing the risk of instability and conflict. However, the pronounced negative effects of autocratic and anocratic neighborhoods are mitigated by a growing domestic GDP. This study also finds that democratic neighborhoods are more stable...

Natural Resources, Weak States and Civil War : Can Rents Stabilize Coup Prone Regimes?

Bodea, Cristina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
This paper argues that state weakness is broader than implied previously in the civil war literature, and that particular types of weakness in interaction with natural resources have aggravating or mitigating consequences for the risk of civil war. While in anocracies or unstable regimes natural resources can be expected to increase the risk of civil war, we suggest that resource wealth allows weak leaders to stabilize their relationship with their inner elite circle. In particular, for regimes at risk of coup d'etat, the availability of substantial resources is more likely to be channeled in ways that deter rebellion, plausibly countering the grievances generated by natural resources and rebels' viewing of such resources as a prize for taking over the state. Data from 1946-2003 and multiple empirical operationalizations broadly support our argument. These findings are consistent with work showing that resource rents can induce stability in state - society relationships.

Breaking the Conflict Trap : Civil War and Development Policy

Collier, Paul; Elliott, V. L.; Hegre, Håvard; Hoeffler, Anke; Reynal-Querol, Marta; Sambanis, Nicholas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.54%
Most wars are now civil wars. Even though international wars attract enormous global attention, they have become infrequent and brief. Civil wars usually attract less attention, but they have become increasingly common and typically go on for years. This report argues that civil war is now an important issue for development. War retards development, but conversely, development retards war. This double causation gives rise to virtuous and vicious circles. Where development succeeds, countries become progressively safer from violent conflict, making subsequent development easier. Where development fails, countries are at high risk of becoming caught in a conflict trap in which war wrecks the economy and increases the risk of further war. The global incidence of civil war is high because the international community has done little to avert it. Inertia is rooted in two beliefs: that we can safely 'let them fight it out among themselves' and that 'nothing can be done' because civil war is driven by ancestral ethnic and religious hatreds. The purpose of this report is to challenge these beliefs.

Riots, Coups and Civil War : Revisiting the Greed and Grievance Debate

Bodea, Cristina; Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
The most influential recent work on the determinants of civil wars found the factors associated with the grievance motivation to be largely irrelevant. Our paper subjects the results of this empirical work to further scrutiny by embedding the study of civil war in a more general analysis of varieties of violent contestation of political power within the borders of the state. Such an approach, we argue, will have important implications for how we think theoretically about the occurrence of domestic war as well as how we specify our empirical tests. In the empirical model, the manifestation of domestic conflict range from low intensity violence and coups to civil war. Our multinomial specification of domestic conflict supports the hypothesis that diversity accentuates distributional conflict and thus increases the risk of civil war. We also find that democracies may be more efficient than autocracies in reducing the risk of civil war.

Understanding Civil War : Evidence and Analysis, Volume 2. Europe, Central Asia, and Other Regions

Collier, Paul; Sambanis, Nicholas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The two volumes of Understanding Civil War build upon the World Bank's prior research on conflict and violence, particularly on the work of Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, whose model of civil war onset has sparked much discussion on the relationship between conflict and development in what came to be known as the "greed" versus "grievance" debate. The authors systematically apply the Collier-Hoeffler model to 15 countries in 6 different regions of the world, using a comparative case study methodology to revise and expand upon economic models of civil war. (The countries selected are Burundi, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Kenya, Mozambique, Sudan, Algeria, Mali, Senegal, Indonesia, Lebanon, Russian Federation, Colombia, Northern Ireland, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, and the Caucasus.) The book concludes that the "greed" versus "grievance" debate should be abandoned for a more complex model that considers greed and grievance as inextricably fused motives for civil war.

Slavery and the Civil War in Cultural Memory

Adkins, Christina Katherine
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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That slavery was largely excised from the cultural memory of the Civil War in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, particularly by white Americans, is well documented; Slavery and the Civil War in Cultural Memory moves beyond that story of omission to ask how slavery has been represented in U.S. culture and, necessarily, how it figures into some of the twentieth century's most popular Civil War narratives. The study begins in the 1930s with the publication of Gone with the Wind--arguably the most popular Civil War novel of all time--and reads Margaret Mitchell's pervasive tale of ex-slaveholder adversity against contemporaneous narratives like Black Reconstruction in America , Absalom, Absalom!, and Black Boy/American Hunger , which contradict Mitchell's account of slavery, the war, and Reconstruction. Spanning nearly seven decades, this study tells the story of how cultural productions have continued to reinterpret slavery. Focusing primarily on novels and films but also drawing on interviews with ex-slaves, private journals, and court records, each chapter explores how slavery is represented in a particular historical epoch and highlights each narrative's contribution to the creation of cultural memory, particularly its conformity to earlier works or its revision of antecedents. In addition...

Periodismo de guerra : las crónicas de la guerra civil española = War journalism : the chronicles of the Spanish civil war

Figueres, Josep M.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 SPA
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A partir de la lectura de dos mil crónicas periodísticas editadas durante la guerra civil española, el autor se plantea, en una lectura crítica de atendiendo la dualidad periodismo/literatura, la conformación de dichas crónicas. Analiza también aspectos esenciales en su difusión como la censura y el impacto humano en uno de los géneros más leidos durante la guerra y muy poco estudiados; The author has analyzed two thousand journalistic chronicles of the Spanish civil war. In this article he summarizes the characteristics of those chronicles in the journalistic and literary aspect. He also analyzes the essential aspects in his diffusion, as the censorship and the human impact. These chronicles of the Spanish civil war very were read at that time, but very little later studied

Coequal Heirs: The Civil War, Memory, and German-American Identity, 1861-1914

Kaelin, Michael Jr
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 22/05/2015
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66.46%
Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War, German-Americans took up arms in defense of their adopted country. The German-American community in 1861 was incredibly diverse, and notions of shared German identity were secondary to religious, regional, and other divisions. Although widely respected by Anglo-Americans because of a perception that they were well-suited for assimilation and enjoyed a generally high level of education and economic success, German-Americans were also marginalized by overriding nativist tendencies. In response to these challenges, German-American Civil War veterans constructed the image of a “freedom-loving German.” Mythologized as firm abolitionists and unwavering supporters of the Republican Party, this model took hold among many Germans as an ethnic identifier following the Civil War. This thesis examines the development of the freedom-loving German through experience of the 20th New York Infantry Regiment. After focusing on the stakes German-American soldiers attached to their service at the outset of the war, this thesis traces the development of a pluralistic brand of patriotism which German-Americans developed during the Gilded Age. This brand of patriotism was in constant dialogue with an emerging patriotic culture among all Americans...

Black Civil War patriots of Cecil County, Maryland

Mease, Eric
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Kolchin, Peter; The purpose of this thesis is to document the lives, before, during and after the Civil War, of African American Veterans of that war, members of the United States Colored Troop (USCT) regiments all, who were in some way related to Cecil County, Maryland. Either they were born there, lived there, were employed there, died there, and/or were buried there. While some of the subject veterans began their lives in slavery, most were born free. During the war they enlisted in the Union Army and fought at The Crater, Deep Bottom, The Gap, Petersburg, Richmond, and the last scene of the Civil War, the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House, all in Virginia. They marched through Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Florida, and Texas. They fought, they were wounded, and they lost limbs. At least four were killed in action, several more died of diseases that ravaged their military encampments, and a few have their final resting places in the cemeteries of the various black churches that dot the landscape of Cecil County, Maryland. After the war they blended into society raising families, educating their children, buying and selling land, mortgaging that land, and becoming laborers, farmers, sextons, brickmakers...