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So close, yet so far away? the effects of city size, density, and growth on local civic participation

Tavares, António F.; Carr, Jered
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
Recent studies in the U.S. context have suggested that political participation is a function of the size and concentration of a city’s population. Most of this research focuses on the idea that there is an optimal size and concentration of population that favors active political participation in terms of a higher propensity to vote in local elections, contact local officials, and attend community meetings. The conventional argument suggests a negative relationship between city size and political participation that is mitigated to some extent by the deeper social interactions generated by increased population density. We extend this research by also investigating the influence of population growth on the broader concept of civic participation. Civic participation is a multidimensional concept that requires the use of a broad set of indicators. We expand the number of measures to gauge civic participation at the local level by including data on the formation of volunteer associations, volunteer fire brigades and not-for-profit organizations as well as voter turnout. We test the hypotheses derived from extant research using aggregate data collected from Portuguese cities and discuss the implications of our findings for the literature on local civic participation

Mecanismos de participação cívica : orçamento participativo; Mechanisms of civic participation : participatory budgeting

Costa, Carla Alice Saraiva da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Dissertação de mestrado em Administração Pública; Ao longo dos últimos anos, a participação cívica e o papel do cidadão na sociedade sofreram uma evolução significativa e contínua associada ao progresso da própria democracia, da governação e das reformas na Administração Pública. Dos vários mecanismos de participação adotados em todo o mundo, nos últimos anos, ganhou particular relevância o mecanismo de participação política denominado Orçamento Participativo (OP), cuja implementação nos municípios portugueses é objeto de análise neste trabalho. A análise dos fatores que conduzem à adoção do mecanismo de participação cívica de OP, nos municípios portugueses será centrada em fatores políticos, económicos, demográficos e ainda na possível correlação espacial. Será ainda, analisada a evolução ao nível da implementação, da participação e da afetação de recursos públicos. Os resultados obtidos permitem identificar a população, a margem de vitória das eleições autárquicas, as receitas municipais e o rendimento das famílias como fatores que influenciam a adoção do orçamento participativo. Foi ainda confirmada a existência de correlação espacial na adoção deste mecanismo de participação.; Over the past few years...

O associativismo e a participação cívica dos jovens em meio rural

Tavares, Cárina Isabel Castro
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /10/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Esta dissertação tem como tema “O associativismo e a participação cívica dos jovens em meio rural”. Com este tema pretendeu-se alcançar o seguinte objectivo geral: “analisar o impacto do associativismo na participação cívica dos jovens em meio rural”. Para alcançar este objectivo e outros objectivos específicos, formulamos a seguinte hipótese geral: “o associativismo é um dos principais factores com influência na participação cívica dos jovens em meio rural”. Para melhor testar esta hipótese foram criadas cinco hipóteses específicas: os jovens que fazem parte de associações possuem características positivas tais como: solidariedade, confiança e tolerância na relação com os outros; existem relações positivas no respeito uns pelos outros, não existindo nos jovens associados a superioridade individual; os jovens associados têm compromissos cívicos que os levam a cumprir os seus deveres, tais como votar, confiança nos políticos e no país, porque têm uma atitude relacionada com capital social mais significativa; os motivos que levam os jovens ao associativismo prendem-se com o facto de reconhecerem que as expectativas e as oportunidades esperadas são alcançadas; o associativismo proporciona aos jovens satisfação e bem-estar na sua vida pessoal. Para conseguir concretizar esta investigação...

WELFARE AND CITIZENSHIP: THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE ON YOUNG ADULTS’ CIVIC PARTICIPATION

Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
Recent scholarship and public discourse highlight an apparent waning of civic engagement in the United States. Although the welfare state is generally thought to support democracy by reducing economic inequality, it may paradoxically contribute to political disempowerment of some groups. We examine the effects of state interventions on civic participation among young adults, hypothesizing that involvement with stigmatizing social programs, such as welfare, reduces political engagement while receipt of non-stigmatizing government assistance does not dampen civic involvement. Using official voting records and survey data from the Youth Development Study (YDS), a longitudinal community sample of young adults, a series of regression models suggests that welfare recipients are less likely to vote than non-recipients, whereas recipients of non-means tested government assistance participate similarly to young adults who do not receive government help. These effects hold even when background factors, self-efficacy, and prior voting behavior are controlled. Welfare receipt is not associated, however, with suppressed participation in non-state arenas such as volunteer work. Intensive interviews with YDS welfare recipients are used to illustrate and develop the analysis.

Participation, Social Accountability and Transparency Mechanisms in Development Policy Loans in Latin America, 2000-2003

Reuben, William; Arévalo, Blanche
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
A document review of development policy lending projects in the Latin America and Caribbean Region, approved in fiscal years (FY) 2000-03 at the World Bank, reveals increasing civil society involvement in loan design and goals, context, and activities supported by the loans. This study examines the tools used by the World Bank to promote public transparency, community participation, social auditing, and accountability in development policy lending during the past four years, and assesses the extent to which these objectives have been met.

Promoting Youth Opportunities and Participation in Morocco

La Cava, Gloria; Vishwanath, Tara; Morgandi, Matteo; Serajuddin, Umar; Ivanic, Maros; Jillson, Irene
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
This quick note is based on the report of the same name which was prepared just prior to the Arab Spring. The study anticipates the demands for social and economic inclusion articulated by Moroccan young people, especially February 2011. Since then, these demands have been amplified and reached a new level of urgency. This study adopts a mixed method approach combining an innovative quantitative instrument with qualitative and institutional analysis. The goal is to provide policy makers with a nuanced analysis of barriers to employment and active civic participation encountered by young people aged 15 to 29 years so as to tailor youth interventions more effectively. It identifies a wide range of recommendations available to support youth-inclusive activities and policies, and a roadmap for integrated youth investments.

Local Budget Transparency and Participation : Evidence from the Kyrgyz Republic

Esenaliev, Damir; Kisunko, Gregory
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
The paper investigates determinants of civic participation in local budget processes in rural areas in the Kyrgyz Republic by using data from the Life in Kyrgyzstan survey, conducted in 2012. The analysis of the data suggests that although civic awareness and interest in local budget processes is relatively high, the participation rate in local budgeting processes is low. The paper also shows that interest, awareness, and participation are positively associated with the age, education, employment, risk-taking attitudes, trust, and social capital of respondents. The paper documents that unawareness and lack of participation are largely related to being female, of non-Kyrgyz ethnic origin, inactive in the labor market, recent internal migrants, and residents of communities with poor infrastructure.

Self-Rated Health and Sickness-Related Absence: The Modifying Role of Civic Participation

LANCEE, Bram; TER HOEVEN, Claartje L.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.86%
In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the interaction between self-rated health and civic participation. We used the 1996 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study. Since sickness-related absence is a censored variable, we used a tobit regression model. The results confirmed the hypotheses: the effect between self-rated health and sickness-related absence was modified by civic participation, indicating that the effect of self-rated health on sickness-related absence is less pronounced for people who participate more as opposed to those who report less civic participation. In other words, those who are unhealthy and participate more, are fewer days absent from work. We argue that civic participation buffers the relationship between self-rated health and sickness-related absence because those who participate more have more resources to fulfill self-regulatory needs. Our findings emphasize the importance of civic participation outside the workplace for people at work when they do not feel physically well. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Civic participation and integration : a country of origin perspective

GSIR, Sonia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
This paper offers an insight into how emigration countries influence immigrants in their host society. Its main objective is to explore the following questions: first, whether and how emigration countries can influence the civic participation of immigrants in immigration countries and second, whether transnational links, in particular political transnational activities, have an impact on civic participation in receiving countries.; INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals’ Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration; INTERACT is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Sierra Leone - The Road to Recovery : Results from a Beneficiary Impact Assessment

Hackett, Julie; Sum, June-Wei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This note explores how a community-driven approach has successfully made inroads in Sierra Leone, a country racked by internal violence and without a tradition of widespread civic participation. By mobilizing village members to work together to rebuild physical infrastructure destroyed by the war, the World Bank's National Social Action Project is also rebuilding trust and collective action amongst a divided population. In particular, the project targeted areas not previously serviced by Government, 'newly accessible areas,' (those which were under rebel control until the end of the war in 2002); as well as the most vulnerable population groups within those areas.

The Effects of Local Environmental Institutions on Perceptions of Smoke and Fire Problems in Brazil

Wertz-Kanounnikoff, Sheila; Chomitz, Kenneth M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Environmental concern in developing countries has risen rapidly over the past decade. At the same time, decentralization and civic participation in environmental policy-making have also burgeoned. This paper uses data from the Brazilian Municipal Environmental Survey 2001 to examine the causal effect of municipio (county) level environmental institutions on perceptions about environmental problems in Brazil. Consistent with models of public choice, the analysis assumes that the existence of an environmental secretary or an environmental council is related to characteristics of the municipio population. To control for endogeneity - the possibility that the presence of environmental institutions merely signals constituents' tastes rather than influences municipal actions - the authors construct a system of equations that identifies the causal impact of the institutions. Estimation via a trivariate probit model allows for correlation of unobserved determinants of problem perception, presence of an environmental secretary...

Políticas locais e acção colectiva dos imigrantes da Europa de Leste, no Concelho de Lisboa

Dionísio, Elsa Alexandra Louro
Fonte: Universidade Aberta de Portugal Publicador: Universidade Aberta de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 1218039 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Dissertação de Mestrado em Relações Interculturais apresentada à Universidade Aberta; Resumo - Uma das principais dimensões do mundo contemporâneo traduz-se numa maior mobilidade de fluxos migratórios internacionais e na emergência de novos países de destino destes movimentos populacionais. Portugal é hoje um dos países de destino desses movimentos migratórios, que nele procuram melhores condições de vida e a concretização das suas aspirações. É, pois, neste novo quadro a que temos vindo a assistir, ao longo da última década, caracterizado pela entrada e fixação de um número significativo de indivíduos oriundos de países da Europa de Leste, que este movimento se apresenta, actualmente, enquanto uma das maiores comunidades imigrantes a residir em Portugal. Neste trabalho pretendeu-se examinar a natureza das políticas locais e a acção colectiva dos imigrantes da Europa de Leste, no concelho de Lisboa. A análise dos canais institucionais locais no que respeita a integração dos imigrantes sublinha o carácter reactivo e esporádico das medidas adoptadas. Por outro lado, os resultados da pesquisa apontam para o importante papel desempenhado pelas instituições da sociedade civil, maioritariamente as Organizações Não-Governamentais...

Active civic participation of immigrants in Portugal

Teixeira, Ana; Albuquerque, Rosana
Fonte: Carl Von Ossietzky Universitat Publicador: Carl Von Ossietzky Universitat
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.83%
Country Report prepared for the European research project POLITIS, Oldenburg 2005, www.uni-oldenburg.de/politis-europe; Portugal’s historical past strongly influences the composition of the country’s immigrant population. The main third-country foreign nationals in Portugal originate traditionally from Portuguese-speaking African countries (namely Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea Bissau, and S. Tomé e Príncipe) and Brazil. In 2001, a newly created immigrant status entitled “permanence” authorization uncovered a quantitative and a qualitative change in the structure of immigrant population in Portugal. First, there was a quantitative jump from 223.602 foreigners in 2001 to 364.203 regularized foreigners in 2003. Secondly, there was a substantial qualitative shift in the composition of immigrants. The majority of the new immigrants began coming from Eastern European countries, such as Ukraine, Moldavia, Romania, and the Russian Federation. Thus, European countries outside the E.U. zone now rank second (after African countries) in their contribution of individuals to the stocks of immigrant population in Portugal. The differences between the new and traditional immigration flows are visible in the geographical distribution of immigrants and in their insertion into the labour market. While the traditional flows would congregate around the metropolitan area of Lisbon and in the Algarve...

Declining autonomy at work in the EU and its effect on civic behaviour

Lopes, H.; Calapez, T.; Lagoa, S.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 03/08/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
The aim of this paper is to show that social benefits may accrue from work environments that support autonomous forms of work. Based on social psychology, economics and philosophy approaches, we argue that autonomy is a basic human need which, when satisfied, enhances civic behavior. Using individual data from the EWCS, we find evidence of the positive effect of work autonomy on volunteer work and political/trade union activities. Overall, work autonomy has decreased over the last fifteen years for all skill levels in the EU, though there are substantial differences between countries. Organizational practices that promote autonomy should be deliberately stimulated if civic participation is to be furthered.

Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government

Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C.; Comfort, Megan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.

The contribution of media consumption to civic participation

Livingstone, Sonia; Markham, Tim
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2008 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
A national UK survey (N = 1017) examined the association between media consumption and three indicators of civic participation – likelihood of voting, interest in politics, and actions taken in response to a public issue of concern to the respondent. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the variance explained by media use variables after first controlling for demographic, social and political predictors of each indicator of participation. Media use significantly added to explaining variance in civic participation as follows. In accounting for voting, demographic and political/social factors mattered, but so too did some media habits (listening to the radio and engagement with the news). Interest in politics was accounted for by political/social factors and by media use, especially higher news engagement and lower media trust. However, taking action on an issue of concern was accounted for only by political/social factors, with the exception that slightly fewer actions were taken by those who watched more television. These findings provided little support for the media malaise thesis, and instead were interpreted as providing qualified support for the cognitive/motivational theory of news as a means of engaging the public.

Young people, the Internet, and civic participation: an overview of key findings from the CivicWeb Project

Banaji, Shakuntala; Buckingham, David
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
Amid growing concern about young people's apparent lack of interest and involvement in politics and civil society, many have looked to the Internet for the solution to the problem of civic disconnection. But does the Internet really help to overcome young people's feelings of exclusion, apathy, and lack of motivation, thus improving prospects for democratic citizenship? This article provides an overview of key findings from a pan-European project that set out to address this issue. The CivicWeb project involved three main forms of investigation. First, it looked at the range of websites that seek to promote civic and political participation among young people, particularly focusing on the technological affordances, pedagogies, and ideologies in play on such sites. Second, it explored whether and how young people are involved in civic action on- and offline, their general and specific motivations, and the constraints on their participation. Finally, it addressed issues from the perspective of producers: how might organizations with varying aims and funding models use the Web more effectively to promote civic education, engagement, and action among a broader spectrum of young people? This paper provides an overview of the cross-cutting findings from surveys and textual case studies of youth civic websites in seven European countries...

Book review: Civic participation in America by Quentin Kidd

Hayward, Nick
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/03/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
"Civic Participation in America." Quentin Kidd. Palgrave Macmillan. December 2013. --- Participation in democratic processes has fallen significantly in recent years, a decline Quentin Kidd believes to be associated with changes in citizenship, the political economy and the public sphere. This is a book focused on the United States that has great relevance for Britain and the rest of Europe, writes Nick Hayward, although there are questions around the author’s reluctance to address the importance of social and economic inequalities in the debate about falling participation.

Political Participation of Latin American Migrants in Andalusia: Opportunities and Constraints

Bermúdez,Anastasia; Escrivá,Ángeles; Moraes Mena,Natalia
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
The main purpose of this article is to present the results of a research project on the political participation of Latin American migrants in Andalusia (mainly in the cities of Seville and Huelva). The project uses a broad concept of what political participation constitutes, including both civic practices and activities associated with conventional politics, and adopts a transnational perspective. It is based on 45 semi-structured interviews with politically active migrants and members of political parties and other institutions. The article highlights some of the main findings of the research, including the importance of taking into account migrants' previous political experiences, as well as the role played by migrant associations in order to better understand their political practices.

Social networks and civic and political participation in six European cities. A quantitative study

Duin,Laura van; Snel,Erik
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Geográficos Publicador: Centro de Estudos Geográficos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
This study examines the relation between the size and composition of social networks of people and the degree of civic and political participation using survey data of the GEITONIES-project in six European cities (Lisbon, Bilbao, Thessaloniki, Vienna, Warsaw and Rotterdam). In like with Robert Putnam's findings, we expected respondents with larger social networks to participate more. We also expected that respondents with bridging social networks (in particular with more interethnic social contacts) to participate more. We found that network size is indeed related to participation in voluntary work, but not to political participation (voting). Interethnic contacts do not contribute to civic or political participation. On the contrary, people with more intra-ethnic contacts participate more in voluntary work.