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Governance and the City : An Empirical Exploration into Global Determinants of Urban Performance

Kaufmann, Daniel; Léautier, Frannie; Mastruzzi, Massimo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The authors contribute to the field of urban governance and globalization through an empirically-based exploration of determinants of the performance of cities. They construct a preliminary worldwide database for cities, containing variables and indicators of globalization (at the country and city level), city governance, city performance (access and quality of infrastructure service delivery), as well as other relevant city characteristics. This city database, encompassing hundreds of cities worldwide, integrates existing data with new data gathered for this research. The findings suggest that good governance and globalization (at both the country and city level) do matter for city-level performance in terms of access and quality of delivery of infrastructure services. The authors also find that globalization and good city governance are significantly related with each other. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that there are complex interactions between technology choices, governance, and city performance, as well as evidence of a nonlinear (U-shaped) relationship between city size and performance, challenging the view that very large cities necessarily exhibit lower performance and pointing instead to potential agglomeration economies. The framework also suggests a way of bridging two seemingly competing strands of the literature...

Decentralization and Local Governance in MENA : A Survey of Policies, Institutions, and Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Entering the 21st century, the 1999-2000 World Development Report (WDR), identifies two main forces that are shaping the world in which development policy is being defined and implemented: (i) globalization, the increasing worldwide integration of private sector interaction and commercial relationships; and (ii) localization, a process of devolving fiscal and administrative roles and responsibilities from central to sub-national tiers of government. It goes on to note that these global-private and local-public pressures are not only reinforcing, but also challenging traditional paradigms and forms of intergovernmental systems. Political decentralization, often associated with pluralistic politics and representative government, aims to give citizens more say in public policy and decision-making. Its advocates assume that decisions made with greater participation will be better informed and more relevant to diverse interests in society than those made only by national political authorities. The concept implies that the selection of representatives from local electoral jurisdictions allows citizens to know better their political representatives and allows elected officials to know better the needs and desires of their constituents. Administrative decentralization aims to redistribute authority...

City Development Strategy : Colombo

Municipal Council of Colombo
Fonte: Colombo, Sri Lanka Publicador: Colombo, Sri Lanka
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The Colombo Municipal Council (CMC), in collaboration with the World Bank, UNDP, UNCHS (HABITAT) and the Western Provincial Council (WPC) in Sri Lanka, launched a project in February 2000 to formulate a comprehensive strategy framework and a perspective plan of action for development of the city. The purpose was to identify key areas and issues that need systemic and planned attention of the Council and other major stakeholders and to develop appropriate strategies to address them. A Senior Consultant was assigned to the CMC by the sponsors to help formulate the strategy through a consultative process. In formulating the strategy framework, the CMC consulted a wide variety of stakeholder groups through a series of formal and informal consultations. They included civil society partners such as NGOs and CBOs, representatives of the poor; senior municipal officials; and leading private sector representatives, i.e., major investors, realtors, developers and Chambers of Commerce & Industry. Their views, ideas and suggestions were reviewed and those compatible with the development vision and thrust identified by the CMC task forces and stakeholder consultations are incorporated in this strategy framework. All stakeholders...

Inclusive Heritage-Based City Development Program in India

World Bank Group; Cities Alliance
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This report summarizes the motivation, objectives, methodology, results and lessons learned from the design and implementation of the Demonstration Program on Inclusive Heritage-based City Development in India. The development objective of this program is to test an inclusive heritage-based approach to city development planning in three pilot cities with a focus on learning and future expansion. The pilot cities include a metropolis (Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh), a medium-size city (Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh) and a small city (Ajmer-Pushkar, Rajasthan). The pilot cities have been selected on the basis of population, living standards in historic areas, heritage value and reform orientation. These cities represent India s diversity in terms of settlements as well as social and cultural heritage, and provide scope for customizing the tested planning instruments, specific institutional and financial arrangements and methods at an early stage. An initial activity is the first phase of a larger program aimed at providing national policy makers...

Formulation of an integrated approach to sustainable water management in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Vo, Phu Le
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
In 1986, Vietnam opened up the country’s economy by launching the Doi Moi (renovation) policy, which made the process of economic liberalisation possible. Accordingly, Ho Chi Minh City, the country’s biggest city, has undergone rapid growth of population, urbanisation and industrialisation. While achieving remarkable economic growth, the city faces considerable urban environmental challenges. The rapid growth of urbanisation and industry has placed increasing pressure on available freshwater resources, through excessive water use and increasing volumes of untreated wastewater. Firstly, the urban water sector has had to meet growing demand for water use for domestic purposes during the dry season. Secondly, groundwater levels have experienced a substantial drawdown in outlying urban districts as a result of over-abstraction. Thirdly, rapidly expanding industrial activities are causing severe demand on water resources. The city’s major supply sources have developed an alarming level of pollutants discharged by industry. The aim of this thesis is to formulate an integrated approach to the sustainable management of water resources in Ho Chi Minh City. In order to achieve this, the research was designed to examine institutional frameworks and arrangements and to explore the perception of water value by water users and stakeholders. The underlying reasons for ineffective management are anchored in fragmented management practices which result from inadequate institutional frameworks and arrangements...

A model in defense reutilization: Presidio of Monterey and Fort Ord

Campbell, Scott A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
The Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process has impacted people and cities throughout United States. Many municipalities are directly affected by base closures that occur within their borders. Of major concern to those cities and states is the economic impact a base closure will have on their local economies. In an effort to prevent bases from being closed many city and state officials and private citizens- have turned to Federal officials for assistance. The Monterey Peninsula is one of the communities affected by the BRAC process, with the closure of Fort Ord and the recommended closure of the Defense Language Institute (DLI). The primary reason DLI was slated for closure by BRAC was excessive Base Operation Support (BASEOPS) Costs. The City of Monterey adopted a unique alternative approach to prevent closure of DLI. Monterey City officials developed a proposal to provide these costly BASEOPS serv with the existing City infrastructure and presented it to the Department of Defense (DOD). This thesis analyze this proposal, assess its feasibility and propose other contractual alternatives to reduce BASEOPS costs. The objective of the research is to present and evaluate possible alternatives for acquiring BASEOPS services and to recommend the most effective method to control BASEOPS costs. Perhaps this information can be used to prepare for future BRAC-type assessments of DLI to prevent its closure.

Sophia City Strategy

Zeijlon, Anders
Fonte: Sofia Municipality and the Cities Alliance/World Bank, Sofia Publicador: Sofia Municipality and the Cities Alliance/World Bank, Sofia
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The purpose of the Sofia City Strategy (SCS) is to combat poverty and provide the basis for sustainable development of the local economy and the welfare of city residents. SCS is driven by the need to reevaluate the increased role of Bulgarian local authorities that resulted from the country's transition from socialism to a market economy. Launching a long-term strategy for Sofia will provide the municipality with an opportunity to effectively implement the goals that it set out to achieve in the three to five year period ahead. Sofia's city management initiated work on the strategy in 2000 after cities alliance committed to support the initiative. The strategy draws upon the preferences and expectations of the population that were identified through analyses, consultations and surveys undertaken by international organizations and experts during strategy development. Five broad areas have been identified as key components of the strategy: i) the role of the municipality in the development and growth of the city economy; ii) the provision of infrastructure...

Conserving the Past as a Foundation for the Future : China-World Bank Partnership on Cultural Heritage Conservation

Ebbe, Katrinka; Licciardi, Guido; Baeumler, Axel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The rich cultural heritage of China is an essential touchstone of its collective identity. The country's archaeological sites, historic architecture, expressive arts, cultural landscapes, and ethnic diversity also are treasured around the world. Despite their importance, China's cultural assets are under tremendous pressure due to the country's rapid development, particularly its rapid urbanization. Moreover, rising incomes and mobility have significantly increased domestic tourism, leading to the overdevelopment and deterioration of cultural heritage sites. However, many of China's government officials, conservationists, and community groups have recognized these threats and, over the past several decades, have worked tirelessly to protect their country's cultural heritage. Based on the 12 projects developed under this partnership, this report presents an overview of the project approaches and experiences, takes stock of the challenges, extracts initial lessons learned, and identifies new directions and challenges ahead. The principal audience of the report is national...

Republic of Togo : Urban and Peri-Urban Development and Policy Note

Amankwah-Ayeh, Kwabena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This review concludes that for Togo's urban and peri-urban areas to sustainably grow, issues of urban governance and development need to be approached in a comprehensive manner, driven by well -guided policies developed in partnership with the people to support Sub-National Government Authorities and Entities(SGAs) in carrying out their functions efficiently. To meet evolving challenges of urbanization and decentralization, the Government of Togo (GoT) must rationalize the roles of various levels of government and agencies and limit their numbers to limit duplication, strengthen the capacities of relevant sector institutions and coordinate institutional actions and investments. It is further recommended that GoT must (i) clarify the roles and functions of national, prefectural, and local governments while ensuring that coordination functions between them work well; (ii) separate urban policy and regulatory functions from implementation of urban projects by allocating implementation responsibilities to private operators or qualified state agencies under performance-based arrangements; (iii) ensure proper allocation of taxing responsibilities...

Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dominated by old and fuel-intensive buses with high operating costs. Transit systems are also often plagued by overcrowded and undependable service, congested roadways and chaotic operating environments. Across the board, city officials in developing countries are under strong pressure to improve the efficiency and enhance the attractiveness of bus transportation. Fuel makes up a relatively large fraction of total bus operating costs, especially when labor costs are low, as in many developing countries. Fuel costs can be reduced by improving the driving style of bus drivers and through sound maintenance practices. A safe and economical driving style can reduce variable costs...

City of Accra, Ghana Consultative Citizens' Report Card

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This document reports on the findings from the first Consultative Citizens' Report Card exercise undertaken in the City of Accra, Ghana. The work began in late 2009 and continues in 2010 with the dissemination of the findings to, and consultations with, City residents. The Citizens' Report Card was undertaken by the World Bank with the full support and engagement of the Mayor's office, Accra Metropolitan Authority, Ghana. The Citizens' Report Card involved a large-scale household survey which was designed to be statistically representative to the sub-metropolitan level. It incorporated Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Google mapping which significantly aided fielding of the survey and which helps give a spatial dimension to the findings. The survey gathered information from City residents about the coverage and quality of seven core urban services, and also gathered perception-based information on residents' views of the efficiency and effectiveness of City officials, on the accessibility and effectiveness of local political representatives...

The Global City Indicators Program : A More Credible Voice for Cities

Bhada, Perinaz; Hoornweg, Dan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The Global City Indicators Program (GCIP) is a decentralized, city-led initiative that enables cities to measure, report, and improve their performance and quality of life, facilitate capacity building, and share best practices through an easy-to-use web portal. Managing cities effectively is critical and becoming more complex as population growth and economic development are taking place in urban areas. Today's big challenges, such as poverty reduction, economic development, climate change, and the creation and maintenance of an inclusive and peaceful society, will all need to be met through the responses of cities. So too will the day-to-day challenges of garbage collection, responding to the house on fire and larger disasters, and facilitating the provision of water, electricity, education, health care, and the myriad of other services that make life more productive and enjoyable. Standardized indicators are essential in order to measure the performance of cities, capture trends and developments, and support cities in becoming global partners.

City Indicators : Now to Nanjing

Hoornweg, Daniel; Ruiz Nuñez, Fernanda; Freire, Mila; Palugyai, Natalie; Villaveces, Maria; Herrera, Eduardo Wills
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This paper provides the key elements to develop an integrated approach for measuring and monitoring city performance globally. The paper reviews the role of cities and why indicators are important. Then it discusses past approaches to city indicators and the systems developed to date, including the World Bank's initiatives. After identifying the strengths and weaknesses of past experiences, it discusses the characteristics of optimal indicators. The paper concludes with a proposed plan to develop standardized indicators that emphasize the importance of indicators that are measurable, replicable, potentially predictive, and most important, consistent and comparable over time and across cities. As an innovative characteristic, the paper includes subjective measures in city indicators, such as well-being, happy citizens, and trust.

Exploring the factors that support cooperative and equitable municipal-First Nation relationships: A case study of the City of Calgary and the Tsuut’ina Nation

Newton, Randi
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
This research examines the factors that influence the emergence of cooperative municipal-First Nation relationships, and explores how these relationships can be sustained and built upon so that they are based on the principles of mutual recognition, mutual respect, sharing and mutual responsibility. Municipalities and First Nations are increasingly collaborating on land use planning, development, and services provision, and municipal officials, including planners, need to consider the role they can have in transforming organisational structures and land use planning practices in a way that will foster collaboration with First Nations. Strong relationships allow for mutually beneficial projects to be explored and undertaken, they reduce the chance for conflict and misunderstanding, and they play an important role in meaningful reconciliation between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples This research utilizes a case study of the City of Calgary and the Tsuut’ina Nation to examine municipal-First Nation cooperation, and centres on how the relationship between the two communities evolved during negotiations to construct the southwest Calgary ring road through Nation land. Document review, policy analysis, and semi-structured interviews were used to determine the factors that encouraged the emergence of a cooperative relationship between the two neighbours. The research points to the importance of visionary community leadership in building trust and respect between First Nations and local governments...

GLOBALIZING THE INFORMAL CITY: NEOLIBERALISM AND URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN ACCRA, GHANA

Habib, ABDUL ALIM
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Over the last decade, and particularly the last five years, state officials in Ghana’s capital city, Accra, have intensified their resolve to ‘modernize’ the city and make it a competitive destination for global investments. In the same period, exercises by city authorities to remove or at least suppress practices of ordinary residents in the informal sector have become more frequent and intensified. Groups such as street hawkers, market women, and slum dwellers have become the main target of periodic ‘decongestion exercises’. In this dissertation I investigate how the policies and practices associated with the ‘globalizing’ and ‘modernizing’ ambition of the state intersect with the interests of the majority of urban residents whose everyday social and economic practices are concentrated in the informal sector, a sector deemed to be deleterious to the desired image for the city. I argue that contemporary city-making in Ghana is driven mainly by a combination of economic, nationalist and individual interests. In examining how cultural and social locations such as gender and ethnicity mediate the relationship between the state and residents, I demonstrate how contemporary forms of neoliberal urban governance shape, and are being shaped by...

Competitive Cities for Jobs and Growth; What, Who, and How

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
A competitive city is a city that successfully facilitates its firms and industries to create jobs, raise productivity, and increase the incomes of citizens over time. Worldwide, improving the competitiveness of cities is a pathway to eliminating extreme poverty and to promoting shared prosperity. The primary source of job creation has been the growth of private sector firms, which have typically accounted for around 75 percent of job creation. Thus city leaders need to be familiar with the factors that help to attract, to retain, and to expand the private sector. This document aims to analyze what makes a city competitive and how more cities can become competitive.

Evaluation of Durham City and County Greenhouse Gas Reduction Initiatives

Xi, Wenyi; Gao, Gary; Anjum, Rubaina; Son, Myeongyeon
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2014 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
To combat climate change, local governments and communities have undertaken various initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Durham City and County created a GHG Emissions Reduction Plan in 2007, with a goal of 50% GHG reduction for government operations by 2030 from the 2005 baseline. The purpose of this study is to examine various projects that the Durham local governments have undertaken since 2007, evaluate their energy savings and GHG reduction, and provide recommendations for further GHG reduction. The scope includes only projects associated with local government. Six different project types are examined: building upgrades, transportation, traffic signals, landfill methane, water and wastewater management. About 20 government officials from different departments were interviewed to collect information about projects and relevant data such as energy consumption and financial costs. Based on the data, the study analyzes the trend of energy use and GHG emissions through time and uses common metrics to measure energy intensity. Most of the GHG reduction projects were effective and are discussed in detail in the paper. The study provides recommendations for each individual project as well as general overall recommendations. The overall suggestions are to 1) set quantifiable sub-goals for different projects to complement the current total 50% reduction goal...

Contingencies Affecting the Issuing Of Public Disaster Warnings at Crescent City, California

Yutzy, Daniel
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 11855664 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Adequate prior warning of impending disaster can save many lives and alleviate property loss. However, when a community or an area is fore-warned and the predicted disaster does not materialize a very negative public reaction toward the officials who issued can develop. This is especially true where evacuation procedures are carried out. Previous disaster studies have indicated that repeated instances of warning not followed by some visible danger cues, result in disbelief or nonacceptance by people in general. As in Aesop's fable, the cry, "Wolf!" repeated too often without subsequent validation ultimately produces a response of either inaction or active rejection. "Note: page 1 is missing"; Office of Civil Defense, Office of the Secretary of the Army, under Contract No. OCD-PS-64-46, Subtask 265lA

Messersmith, G.S., Mexico City. Memorandum.

Messersmith, George S. (George Strausser), 1883-1960.
Fonte: Special Collections, University of Delaware Library Publicador: Special Collections, University of Delaware Library
Tipo: Outros Formato: Typed Document Copy, 5 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
Enclosed with No. 1506. Received instructions from Department by telephone on May 21 to contact Foreign Ministry to get permission for U.S. Army to send thirty men, not in uniforms and unarmed, who would act with Mexican Army contingent to survey both sides of Gulf of Lower California to determine if there were secret landing fields there as had been reported; it was further reported Japanese plane carrier sighted 400 or 500 miles off California coast; urgency of request emphasized; Foreign Minister was in conference with President, but talked with Undersecretary, [Jaime] Torres Bodet, who promised to get in touch with appropriate officials immediately; late that night was able to telephone Department that request had been granted; hesitated to make request; any visit from Embassy to Foreign Office is noted and interpreted by press as U.S. attempt to urge Mexico to declare war; such a request could also be interpreted as lack of confidence in Mexicans, who had already said such air strips did not exist; although Torres Bodet received request courteously and Mexican Government acceded to request without delay, obvious they were not happy about it; is convinced U.S. action in this respect ill-advised and unnecessary; on Sunday received further call from Department about three radar stations to be set up in Lower California...

Urbanization Trends in Bolivia; Tendencias urbanas en Bolivia : oportunidades y desafíos; Opportunities and Challenges

Trohanis, Zoe Elena; Zangerling, Bontje Marie; Sanchez-Reaza, Javier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This note is a summary of a report that considers urban areas as the complement to rural areas that will allow the Plurinational State of Bolivia to achieve the goals set forth in its Patriotic Agenda for the Bicentennial 2025. The report uses data available at the national level from censuses and household surveys from the National Statistics Institute (INE) and the Social and Economic Policy Analysis Unit of the Ministry of Development Planning (UDAPE) to provide a first approximation to: (i) identify opportunities that urban areas present to achieve the objectives of the Patriotic Agenda regarding the reduction of poverty and universal coverage of basic services; (ii) understand and overcome the challenges that the expansion of urban areas present, and understand the growth dynamics of different types of cities; (iii) review the institutional framework and planning tools currently available for urban development; and (iv) provide suggestions for future analysis. However, due to limitations of the available data...