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Comparison of Effect on Tobacco Consumption and Carbon Monoxide Absorption of Changing to High and Low Nicotine Cigarettes

Russell, M. A. H.; Wilson, C.; Patel, U. A.; Cole, P. V.; Feyerabend, C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1973 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
In 10 sedentary workers, smoking as they felt inclined over a five-hour period in the middle of a typical working day, changing to low nicotine cigarettes (<0·3 mg) caused an increase in the number and weight of cigarettes smoked, while changing to high nicotine cigarettes (3·2 mg) caused a decrease (P < 0·01). The average number and weight smoked in five hours for usual, low, and high nicotine brands were respectively 10·6 (6·00 g), 12·5 (6·52 g), and 6·7 (4·19 g). When smoking the usual brand the average blood carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) increased 1·78% (from 6·38% to 8·16%). But on changing to either high or low nicotine cigarettes the COHb levels instead of increasing, tended to fall (P < 0·01). The average fall of 0·34% while smoking low nicotine cigarettes was due to the low carbon monoxide (CO) yield of these cigarettes, while the fall of 1·04% when smoking high nicotine cigarettes was attributable to reduced consumption. The findings support the view that smoking behaviour is modified to regulate nicotine intake. Besides having low tar and CO yields, the least harmful cigarettes for heavy smokers may be those with a high, rather than low, nicotine yield.

Comparison of the nicotine content of tobacco used in bidis and conventional cigarettes

Malson, J.; Sims, K.; Murty, R.; Pickworth, W.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
OBJECTIVE—To compare the nicotine content of 12 unfiltered brands of bidi cigarettes (hand rolled cigarettes imported from India) with 8 popular brands of filtered and unfiltered US and conventional cigarettes from India.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Identical laboratory procedures were used to determine nicotine content (in duplicate) and physical characteristics.
RESULTS—The nicotine concentration in the tobacco of bidi cigarettes (21.2 mg/g) was significantly greater than the tobacco from the commercial filtered (16.3 mg/g) and unfiltered cigarettes (13.5 mg/g).
CONCLUSIONS—Bidi cigarettes contain higher concentrations of nicotine than conventional cigarettes. Therefore, it is logical to presume that bidi smokers are at risk of becoming nicotine dependent. These findings belie a popular belief among US teens that bidis are a safe alternative to commercial cigarettes.


Keywords: bidis; beedies; youth

Release of carbon granules from cigarettes with charcoal filters

Pauly, J. L.; Stegmeier, S. J.; Mayer, A. G.; Lesses, J. D.; Streck, R. J.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
OBJECTIVE: To inspect cigarettes with a triple granular filter for charcoal granules on the cut filter surface and, if present, to determine whether the charcoal granules on the filter are released during smoking. DESIGN: 400 Lark cigarettes in 20 packs were examined individually by each of three investigators for the presence of charcoal granules on the cut surface of the cellulose acetate filter. Without removing the cigarettes from the pack, the filters were examined with a stereo zoom microscope for charcoal granules. The percentage of cigarettes that had charcoal granules was defined, and charcoal granules on each filter were counted. Randomly selected cigarettes were then smoked by consenting adult smokers to assess whether the charcoal granules were released during smoking. Lark cigarettes were smoked with a conventional cigarette holder that had been configured to contain an in-line membrane. After smoking, the membrane was analysed microscopically for charcoal granules and other components of the filter that had been released during smoking. RESULTS: Charcoal granules were observed in 79.8% (319/400) of the cigarettes examined. The number of granules per cigarette was 3.3 (SD 3.7). Gaps between the tipping papers--the wrapping papers that surround the filter--were often seen (70%; 242 (71); n = 400 cigarettes). Further...

Health impact of "reduced yield" cigarettes: a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidence

Thun, M.; Burns, D.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
Cigarettes with lower machine measured "tar" and nicotine yields have been marketed as "safer" than high tar products over the last four decades, but there is conflicting evidence about the impact of these products on the disease burden caused by smoking. This paper critically examines the epidemiological evidence relevant to the health consequences of "reduced yield" cigarettes. Some epidemiological studies have found attenuated risk of lung cancer but not other diseases, among people who smoke "reduced yield" cigarettes compared to smokers of unfiltered, high yield products. These studies probably overestimate the magnitude of any association with lung cancer by over adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked per day (one aspect of compensatory smoking), and by not fully considering other differences between smokers of "high yield" and "low yield" cigarettes. Selected cohort studies in the USA and UK show that lung cancer risk continued to increase among older smokers from the 1950s to the 1980s, despite the widespread adoption of lower yield cigarettes. The change to filter tip products did not prevent a progressive increase in lung cancer risk among male smokers who began smoking during and after the second world war compared to the first world war era smokers. National trends in vital statistics data show declining lung cancer death rates in young adults...

Toxicological Analysis of Low-Nicotine and Nicotine-Free Cigarettes

Chen, Jinguo; Higby, Richard; Tian, Defa; Tan, Duanjun; Johnson, Michael D.; Xiao, Yingxian; Kellar, Kenneth J; Feng, Shibao; Shields, Peter G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
Low-nicotine and nicotine-free cigarettes are commercially available under the brand-name Quest®. Some consumers may believe that these are safer cigarettes, and they may smoke more cigarettes or inhale more smoke to compensate for low nicotine yields. Thus, we have studied the toxicological effects of these two cigarettes and compared them with the Kentucky reference cigarette 2R4F. Also, the availability of nicotine-free cigarettes allows for the assessing the role of nicotine in cigarette smoke. In addition to nicotine, some tobacco-specific nitrosamines, aldehydes, and volatile organic compounds were also reduced in the Quest® cigarettes compared to the 2R4F. However, aromatic amines were higher in the nicotine-free compared with low nicotine cigarettes. The Ames test revealed that cigarette smoke condensates from the nicotinefree (CSC-F), low nicotine (CSC-L) and 2R4F (CSC-R) cigarettes had a similar mutagenic potency. Exposure to any CSC caused a similar dose-dependent LDH leakage from normal human bronchial epithelial cells. However, CSC-F had more inhibitory effects on the cell growth than CSC-L and CSC-R. Adding nicotine to the CSC-F attenuated this inhibition. Both Quest® CSCs decreased gap junction intercellular communication and caused cell cycle arrest. CSC exposure increased cytoplasmic nucleosomes...

Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Cummings, K. Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C. K.; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C.; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania; Per
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 35%)...

Brand Cigarillos — A Cheap and Less Harmful Alternative to Cigarettes? Particulate Matter Emissions Suggest Otherwise

Gerber, Alexander; Bigelow, Alexander; Schulze, Michaela; Groneberg, David A.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-associated particulate matter (PM) constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. Methods: An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE) was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS) Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Results: Mean concentrations (Cmean) and area of the curve (AUC) of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Conclusion: Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes...

The importance of science-informed policy and what the data really tell us about e-cigarettes

Abrams, David B.; Niaura, Raymond
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
A possible future end-game for cigarettes is explored in the context of the historical progress made to date by tobacco control. Despite good progress, there remains an urgent need to increase the use of proven tobacco control policies and practices for prevention and cessation. The problem is worse than previously thought and the 50th anniversary United States Surgeon General’s report indicates the overwhelming majority of avoidable deaths are caused by combusting of tobacco, primarily cigarettes. The report highlights for the first time the addition of a harm minimization strategy to enhance proven tobacco control efforts and thus much more rapidly speed the obsolescence of cigarettes. Harm minimization can be two pronged. First, it can boost proven tobacco control polices to make cigarettes more expensive and less appealing and accessible to maximize the fact that cigarettes are orders of magnitude the most harmful of all tobacco delivery systems. Second, harm minimization can support use of substantially less harmful but appealing alternatives to substitute for lethal cigarettes for those users who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. A future end-game might prudently manage emerging new products like e-cigarettes to help boost the difference in harm between them and lethal cigarettes. Harm minimization could help to accelerate the end of the century-long dominance of the cigarette in what has been called “the golden holocaust”. Rather than these emerging delivery devices being used to replace lethal cigarettes in what might be termed a David versus Goliath strategy to disrupt the status quo...

THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND THE PROPOSED REGULATION OF CIGARETTES

Prabhu, Jayani V.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
Since the 1930s the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") has taken broad Jurisdiction over eveiyday products in an attempt to ensure public health. Despite that mission, the FDA In particular and the Federal government In general has done little to regulate the tobacco Industry. Recently, however, the Commissioner of the FDA, Dr. David A. Kessler. raised the possibility of regulating the cigarette industry. But is the simple regulation of cigarettes permitted by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938, which grants the FDA jurisdiction over products? Given the unanimity of opinion on the hazards of cigarette smoking, the answer to this question is no, and yet the conclusion that cigarettes must be banned seems too radical to seriously imagine. As a result, the context in which the FDA has approached cigarette smoking should be analyzed.

Opposite trends in the consumption of manufactured and roll-your-own cigarettes in Spain (1991–2020)

Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Clèries, Ramon; Villalbí, Joan R; Daynard, Richard A; Connolly, Gregory N; Fernández, Esteve
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Objective: The aim of this study is to describe trends in the consumption of manufactured and roll-your-own cigarettes between 1991 and 2012 in Spain, and to project these trends up to 2020. Methods: We estimated daily consumption per capita during 1991–2012 using data on sales of manufactured cigarettes (20-packs) and rolling tobacco (kg) from the Tobacco Market Commission, and using data of the Spanish adult population from the National Statistics Institute. We considered different weights (0.5, 0.8 and 1 g) to compute the number of rolled cigarettes per capita. We computed the annual per cent of change and assessed possible changes in trends using joinpoint regression, and projected the consumption up to 2020 using Bayesian methods. Results: Daily consumption per capita of manufactured cigarettes decreased on average by 3.0% per year in 1991–2012, from 7.6 to 3.8 units, with three trend changes. However, daily consumption per capita of roll-your-own cigarettes increased on average by 14.1% per year, from 0.07 to 0.92 units of 0.5 g, with unchanged trends. Together, daily consumption per capita decreased between 2.9% and 2.5%, depending on the weight of the roll-your-own cigarettes. Projections up to 2020 indicate a decrease of manufactured cigarettes (1.75 units per capita) but an increase of roll-your-own cigarettes (1.25 units per capita). Conclusions: While the consumption per capita of manufactured cigarettes has decreased in the past years in Spain...

Aplicações de métodos quimiométricos para classifica-ção de cigarros; Applications of chemometric methods for grading of cigarettes

MOURA, Monique Jesus Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Química; Educação em Química Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Química; Educação em Química
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Inorganic constituents found in cigarettes come from the tobacco plant, as it absorbs them from the soil, which can be contaminated by chemical fertilizers and environment factors. Inorganic constituents are necessary for many vital functions of human metabolism, but their lack or excess in human body can lead to biological disorder. Lead and cadmium are particularly toxic. While cobalt, cupper and nickel can be highly toxic if inhaled as carbon composites, and that is what happens as a person smokes. In this work, twenty cigarette brands, commonly available to consumers, were classified using chemometric methods, regarding the concentration of potentially toxic inorganic constituents, as Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Ni. A method of acid digestion in microwave oven was used for opening the samples that was done in triplicate, using HNO3 65% and H2O2 35% as reagent. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was used as analytical technique for the five inorganic constituents determination in the cigarette brands, which results were expressed in μg g-1. Results points to Cu, Pb and Co, as the main elements in every sample. Ni is an element of intermediate content while Cd presents values under 0,6 μg g-1. PCA and HCA, Chemiometric Methods...

Effectiveness of a television advertisement campaign on giving cigarettes in a Chinese population

Qin, Y.; Su, J.; Xiang, Q.; Hu, Y.; Xu, G.; Ma, J.; Shi, Z.
Fonte: Japan Epidemiological Association Publicador: Japan Epidemiological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Background: Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes. Methods: Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement “Giving cigarettes is giving harm” were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18–45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables. Results: After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P < 0.001). The rate of not giving cigarettes dropped from 32.1% before the campaign to 28.5% after (P = 0.05). In the post-campaign evaluation, participants who reported seeing the advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study showed that an anti-tobacco television advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed...

Characterisation of mainstream and passive vapours emitted by selected electronic cigarettes

GEISS Otmar; BIANCHI IVANA; BARAHONA RUIZ FRANCISCO; BARRERO Josefa
Fonte: ELSEVIER GMBH Publicador: ELSEVIER GMBH
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
Electronic cigarettes have achieved growing popularity since their introduction onto the European market. They are promoted by manufacturers as healthier alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, however debate among scientists and public health experts about their possible impact on health and indoor air quality means further research into the product is required to ensure decisions of policymakers, health care providers and consumers are based on sound science. This study investigated and characterised the impact of ‘vaping’ (using electronic cigarettes) on indoor environments under controlled conditions using a 30 m3 emission chamber. The study determined the composition of e-cigarette mainstream vapour in terms of propylene glycol, glycerol, carbonyls and nicotine emissions using a smoking machine with adapted smoking parameters. Two different base recipes for refill liquids, with three different amounts of nicotine each, were tested using two models of e-cigarettes. Refill liquids were analysed on their content of propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine and qualitatively on their principal flavourings. Possible health effects of e-cigarette use are not discussed in this work. Electronic cigarettes tested in this study proved to be sources for propylene glycol...

Análise da Revisão Cochrane: O Uso de Cigarros Electrónicos para Diminuição/ Cessação Tabágica. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,12: CD010216.; Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation and Reduction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,12: CD010216.

Vaz-Carneiro, António; Centro de Estudos de Medicina Baseada na Evidência. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade de Lisboa. Lisboa. Portugal. Centro Colaborador Português da Rede Cochrane Iberoamericana. Lisboa. Portugal.; Costa, João; Centro de Estudos
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
O tabagismo é um dos factores de risco mais importantes para várias patologias das áreas cardiovascular, oncológica e respiratória. Existem presentemente um conjunto de técnicas de cessação tabágica envolvendo intervenções psicológicas, farmacológicas e comportamentais, com efectividades variadas e custos diferentes. Os cigarros electrónicos são dispositivos que produzem um aerossol com nicotina mas sem os produtos tóxicos do fumo do tabaco, tendo-se tornado populares como medida potencial para cessação tabágica. A presente revisão procurou analisar a evidência publicada sobre esta abordagem no tratamento da dependência tabágica, tendo concluído pela existência de provas razoáveis da sua efectividade clínica. Apresentam-se e discutem-se os achados desta revisão sistemática, com contextualização prática.; Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for various cardiovascular, cancer and respiratory diseases. There are a number of smoking cessation techniques involving psychological, pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with varying effectiveness and different costs. The electronic cigarettes are devices which produce a nicotine aerosol but without the toxic products of tobacco smoke, and they have become popular as a potential intervention for smoking cessation. The present review analyzed the evidence published of this approach for the treatment of tobacco dependence and concluded that there is reasonable evidence of its clinical effectiveness. We present and discuss the findings of this systematic review...

The Case for the Plain Packaging of Cigarettes: Objections and Incentives

McNeill, Jonathan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
This report examines the topic of tobacco control through the use of plain packaging. Predominantly it focuses on its implementation within Australia and as such deals exclusively with Australian law and legislation, international examples are touched upon in areas of economics and history. The idea of plain packaging began with a Canadian doctor in the late 1980s and has since been considered by several countries (Canada , New Zealand and the United Kingdom) but never successfully legislated. It is recommended as part of the World Health Organisation 's Framework for the Convention of Tobacco Control which is the leading guideline to the curbing of the international tobacco epidemic. In Australia there already exist certain guidelines which specify the design of cigarette packets such as packets must contain graphic health warnings which cover 30% of the front and 90% of the back of cigarette packs (Australian National Preventative Health Agency 2008). In addition to the this Australian law also prohibits terms such as 'light' and 'mild ' being used to describe cigarettes (Cancer Council 2005) after it was found by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) that around 55% of Australian smokers (falsely) believed that light cigarettes (meaning in this instance both those advertised as such as well as low in tar) were in some way healthier than regular cigarettes (Bo rland 2004). Advertising restrictions known as 'Out of Sight' legislation now prohibits tobacco products being displayed at the point of sale in several Australian states and whilst some contend that this eliminates the need for plain packaging ...

US Attitudes About Banning Menthol in Cigarettes: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

Winickoff, Jonathan P.; McMillen, Robert C.; Vallone, Donna M.; Pearson, Jennifer L.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Dempsey, Janelle H.; Cheryl Healton,; Klein, Jonathan D.; David Abrams,
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Menthol is a cigarette flavoring that makes smoking more appealing to smokers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to ban mentholated cigarettes to reduce youth uptake and encourage adult cessation. Survey findings indicate that more than half of all Americans (56.1%) and of Blacks alone (68.0% in one sample and 75.8% in another) support banning menthol. Endorsement of a ban—especially by Blacks, who have the highest rates of menthol cigarette use—would support FDA action to ban menthol to protect the public's health.

Insights in Public Health Electronic Cigarettes: Marketing to Hawai‘i's Adolescents

Williams, Rebecca J; Knight, Rebecca
Fonte: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA) Publicador: University Clinical, Education & Research Associate (UCERA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Current e-cigarette use among adolescents has more than doubled in the past few years nationally and more than tripled in Hawai‘i, despite the fact that safety in terms of health and injury from use is widely unknown. The use of e-cigarettes among adolescents is of particular concern because they may act as a gateway to smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes, substitute for cigarettes where smoking would normally not be allowed, and weaken the effect of clean air policies, and displace effective smoking cessation treatments. Additionally, the use of e-cigarettes may lead to the use of conventional cigarettes. There is special concern that e-cigarette companies are recruiting adolescents who would not have otherwise tried smoking by using tactics such as offering e-cigarettes in attractive flavorings and using the same successful strategies to market their product as tobacco companies have used for conventional cigarettes in past decades. It has been shown that exposure to cigarette marketing is related to initiation and progression in adolescent smoking. Yet, there remains no regulation on the marketing of e-cigarettes to adolescents. It can be extrapolated that expanded regulation that includes limits on the marketing of e-cigarettes may help decrease use among adolescents and prevent the possible increase of smoking rates.

Impact of advertisements promoting candy-like flavoured e-cigarettes on appeal of tobacco smoking amongst children: an experimental study; Flavoured e-cigarette adverts

Vasiljevic, Milica; Petrescu, Dragos C.; Marteau, Theresa M.
Fonte: BMJ Publicador: BMJ
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication.; BACKGROUND: There are concerns that the marketing of e-cigarettes may increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. We examined this concern by assessing the impact on appeal of tobacco smoking after exposure to advertisements for e-cigarettes with and without candylike flavours, i.e. bubble gum and milk chocolate. METHODS: We assigned 598 English school children (aged 11-16) to one of three different conditions corresponding to the adverts to which they were exposed: adverts for flavoured ecigarettes, adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes, or a control condition in which no adverts were shown. The primary endpoint was appeal of tobacco smoking. Secondary endpoints were: appeal of using e-cigarettes, susceptibility to tobacco smoking, perceived harm of tobacco, appeal of e-cigarette adverts, and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. RESULTS: Tobacco smokers and e-cigarette users were excluded from analyses (final sample = 471). Exposure to either set of adverts did not increase the appeal of tobacco smoking, the appeal of using e-cigarettes, or susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Nor did it reduce the perceived harm of tobacco smoking...

Determination of Metal Ions in Contraband Cigarettes in Brazil; Determinação de Íons Metálicos em Cigarros Contrabandeados no Brasil

Cleber Pinto da Silva; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Carmen Lúcia Voigt; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Sandro X. de Campos; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa
Fonte: Revista Virtual de Química Publicador: Revista Virtual de Química
Tipo: ; Formato: binary/octet-stream
Publicado em 01/11/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
In Brazil, one out of each four cigarettes consumed by the smokers is smuggled. These cigarettes do not go through quality control and can present potential risk to their consumers. In this study, the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) of metal ions Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ag and Ni was carried out in cigarettes of 18 different brands, which are the most smuggled into the country. The results obtained revealed that in all 18 brands of cigarettes analyzed, the values of metal ions under study appeared in higher concentrations when compared to similar studies found in the literature, with values up to eleven times higher for very toxic metals such as Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb. DOI: 10.5935/1984-6835.20140082; No Brasil, um em cada quatro cigarros consumidos pela população é proveniente do contrabando. Esses cigarros não possuem qualquer controle de qualidade e podem apresentar potencial risco aos seus consumidores. Nesse trabalho, foi realizada a análise por espectrometria de absorção atômica de chama (FAAS)  dos íons metálicos Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ag e Ni em 18 marcas dos cigarros mais contrabandeados  no Brasil. Os resultados obtidos apontam que para todas as 18 marcas de cigarros contrabandeados os valores dos íons metálicos analisados apresentaram concentrações maiores em comparação a estudos similares encontrados na literatura...