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An Examination of the Behavioral and Neuropsychological Correlates of Three ADHD Candidate Gene Polymorphisms (DRD4 7+, DBH TaqI A2, and DAT1 40bp VNTR) in Hyperactive and Normal Children Followed to Adulthood

Barkley, Russell A.; Smith, Karen M.; Fischer, Mariellen; Navia, Bradford
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/07/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Several candidate gene polymorphisms have been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including DAT1 40bp VNTR, DRD4 7+, and DBH TaqI A2 alleles. We used the Milwaukee longitudinal study of hyperactive (N=122) and normal (N=67) children to compare participants with and without these respective polymorphisms on ADHD-related behavioral ratings at childhood, 8 years later in adolescence, and 13+ years later into young adulthood. Neuropsychological tests were given at the adolescent and young adulthood follow-up. No differences were found between the DRD4-7+ and 7- repeat polymorphism. The DBH TaqI A2 allele, when homozygous, was associated with being more hyperactive in childhood, having more pervasive behavior problems at adolescence, and earning less money on a Card Playing Task in adulthood. At adolescence, poorer test scores were also found only in the hyperactive group with homozygous for this allele. The DAT1 40bp VNTR heterozygous 9/10 repeat, however, differed from the 10/10 repeat pair in many respects, having greater ADHD and externalizing symptoms at all three follow-ups, more cross-situational behavioral problems at both childhood and adolescence, poorer mother-teen relations at adolescence, and lower class rankings in high school. Participants with the 9/10 pair in the control group also had lower work performance...

Sex Differences in the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adult Antisocial Behavior

Meier, Madeline H.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to age 18) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after age 17) were obtained eight years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed.

Longitudinal Replication Studies of GWAS Risk SNPs Influencing Body Mass Index over the Course of Childhood and Adulthood

Mei, Hao; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Fan; He, Jiang; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Smith, Erin N.; Schork, Nicholas; Murray, Sarah; Berenson, Gerald S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common variants associated with body mass index (BMI). In this study, we tested 23 genotyped GWAS-significant SNPs (p-value<5*10-8) for longitudinal associations with BMI during childhood (3–17 years) and adulthood (18–45 years) for 658 subjects. We also proposed a heuristic forward search for the best joint effect model to explain the longitudinal BMI variation. After using false discovery rate (FDR) to adjust for multiple tests, childhood and adulthood BMI were found to be significantly associated with six SNPs each (q-value<0.05), with one SNP associated with both BMI measurements: KCTD15 rs29941 (q-value<7.6*10-4). These 12 SNPs are located at or near genes either expressed in the brain (BDNF, KCTD15, TMEM18, MTCH2, and FTO) or implicated in cell apoptosis and proliferation (FAIM2, MAP2K5, and TFAP2B). The longitudinal effects of FAIM2 rs7138803 on childhood BMI and MAP2K5 rs2241423 on adulthood BMI decreased as age increased (q-value<0.05). The FTO candidate SNPs, rs6499640 at the 5 ′-end and rs1121980 and rs8050136 downstream, were associated with childhood and adulthood BMI, respectively, and the risk effects of rs6499640 and rs1121980 increased as birth weight decreased. The best joint effect model for childhood and adulthood BMI contained 14 and 15 SNPs each...

From Risk-Seeking to Risk-Averse: The Development of Economic Risk Preference from Childhood to Adulthood

Paulsen, David J.; Platt, Michael L.; Huettel, Scott A.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened risk-taking. Adolescents are notorious for impulsivity, emotional volatility, and risky behaviors such as drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol. By contrast, we found that risk-taking declines linearly from childhood to adulthood when individuals make choices over monetary gambles. Further, with age we found increases in the sensitivity to economic risk, defined as the degree to which a preference for assured monetary gains over a risky payoff depends upon the variability in the risky payoff. These findings indicate that decisions about economic risk may follow a different developmental trajectory than other kinds of risk-taking, and that changes in sensitivity to risk may be a major factor in the development of mature risk aversion.

Low Birth Weight Is Associated With Higher Blood Pressure Variability From Childhood to Young Adulthood: The Bogalusa Heart Study

Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Yao, Lu; Li, Shengxu; Dasmahapatra, Pronabesh; Fernandez, Camilo; Xu, Jihua; Berenson, Gerald S.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
The association between birth weight and long-term within-individual variability of blood pressure (BP) was examined in a longitudinal cohort of 1,454 adults (939 whites and 515 blacks; adulthood age = 19–50 years) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study in Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 1973–2010. BP variability was depicted as standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and deviation from age-predicted values using 6–15 serial BP measurements from childhood to adulthood over an average of 25.7 years. Birth weight was significantly and negatively associated with adulthood BP levels, long-term BP levels, and rate of change. Importantly, low birth weight was significantly associated with increased BP variability in terms of standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and deviation. As evaluated using the regression coefficients, a 1-kg lower birth weight was associated with increases in systolic BP variability measures (−0.38 mm Hg, P = 0.04 for standard deviation; −0.004 mm Hg, P = 0.01 for coefficient of variation; and −0.16 mm Hg, P = 0.04 for deviation) after adjustment for race, age, sex, mean BP levels, and gestational age; similar trends in the associations were noted for diastolic BP variability measures. In conclusion...

Chronic d-amphetamine administered from childhood to adulthood dose-dependently increases the survival of new neurons in the hippocampus of male C57BL/6J mice

Dabe, Emily C.; Majdak, Petra; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Miller, Daniel S.; Rhodes, Justin S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
Adderall is widely prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) though long term neurological effects of the main ingredient d-amphetamine are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of clinically prescribed doses of d-amphetamine and one abuse dose administered from childhood to adulthood on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of the granule layer of the dentate gyrus. Beginning in early adolescence (age 28 days) to adulthood (age 71), male C57BL/6J mice were administered twice daily i.p. injections of vehicle, 0.25, 0.5 or 2 mg/kg d-amphetamine. Locomotor activity was measured in home cages by video tracking. At age 53–56, mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells. Immunohistochemical detection of BrdU, NeuN, Doublecortin (Dcx) and Ki67 was used to measure neurogenesis and cell proliferation at age 71. ΔFosB was measured as an indicator of repeated neuronal activation. An additional cohort of mice was treated similarly except euthanized at age 58 to measure activation of granule neurons from d-amphetamine (by detection of c-Fos) and cell proliferation (ki67) at a time when the fate of BrdU cells would have been determined in the first cohort. D-amphetamine dose-dependently increased survival and differentiation of BrdU cells into neurons and increased number of Dcx cells without affecting number of Ki67 cells. Low doses of d-amphetamine decreased c-Fos and ΔFosB in the granule layer. Only the high dose induced substantial locomotor stimulation and sensitization. Results suggest both therapeutic and abuse doses of d-amphetamine increase number of new neurons in the hippocampus when administered from adolescence to adulthood by increasing survival and differentiation of cells into neurons not by increasing progenitor cell proliferation. Mechanisms for amphetamine-induced neurogenesis are unknown but appear activity-independent. Results suggest part of the beneficial effects of therapeutic doses of d-amphetamine for ADHD could be via increased hippocampal neurogenesis.

Temporary Integration, Resilient Inequality: Race and Neighborhood Change in the Transition to Adulthood

Sharkey, Patrick
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
This article focuses on neighborhood and geographic change arising with the first “selection” of an independent residential setting: the transition out of the family home. Data from two sources—the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics—are used to provide complementary analyses of trajectories of change in geographic location and neighborhood racial and economic composition during young adulthood. Findings indicate that for young adults who originate in segregated urban areas and remain in such areas, the period of young adulthood is characterized by continuity in neighborhood conditions and persistent racial inequality from childhood to adulthood. For young adults who exit highly segregated urban areas, this period is characterized by a substantial leveling of racial inequality, with African Americans moving into less-poor, less-segregated neighborhoods. However, the trend toward racial equality in young adulthood is temporary, as the gaps between whites and blacks grow as the young adults move further into adulthood. Crucial to the reemergence of racial inequality in neighborhood environments is the process of “unselected” change, or change in neighborhood conditions that occurs around young adults after they move to a new neighborhood environment.

A socialização escolar na concepção de professores da rede municipal de ensino de Goiânia-GO; Socialization at school, according to the conception of Goiania-GO municipal teachers network

MENDANHA, Sílvia do Socorro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Educação; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Educação; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
The modern concept of childhood is simultaneously consolidated with the conformation of the bourgeois family and the organization of education at school, in capitalist society; in turn, this reorders the understanding and purpose of socialization processes. Inserted in that context, school is the privileged locus to promote the process of child`s socialization, which assumes a character of adaptation and integration, during the physical pass from childhood to adulthood. This perspective, becoming predominant at that time, enables the characterization and reorientation of both, either the bourgeois family or school; thereafter, school becomes the responsible instance for introducing the egress child, from family into social environment. Nevertheless, socialization process does not begin merely when child goes to school; during the process of growing, and later on, in adulthood, child participates of multiple socialization instances, as religion, political parties, technologies, groups of friends, among others. In spite of those, the instance of socialization at school is herein privileged, as it constitutes itself as the object of this work study. School has been named as the main institution for the establishment of child`s socialization process. This research objectifies to discuss the socialization processes under above perspective...

The development of muscle function from childhood to adulthood

Barrett, Ursula
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Master thesis (Research); all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
peer-reviewed; The quality of movement is determined in part by the force velocity relationship of the muscle involved. Conflicting results have been reported in studies comparing this relationship in adults and children due mainly to the variety of scaling techniques employed. These two studies examined the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships of the quadriceps muscles of children and adults using results scaled for local muscle size. Measurements of muscle function were collected using the Con-Trex isokinetic dynamometer. In study one twenty adults and twenty children performed maximal effort knee extensions at nine different velocities. Study two repeated the methodology of study one with three groups of equal gender distribution: children aged 6 years (n=20), 10 years (n=20) and young adults (n=20). Both studies scaled power values for lean thigh volume which was calculated using previously validated anthropometric measurements. The mean force-velocity curves showed a predictable shift upwards in the curves with each ascending age group in both studies. No gender difference was observed in the children’s groups but adult males achieved superior scores than female adults. The curves remained different following corrections of torque for CSA and velocity for length. ANOVA revealed significant differences in the uncorrected values of power between the two groups in study one and three groups in study two. When power values were corrected for lean thigh muscle volume...

Migration and the Transition to Adulthood in Contemporary Malawi

Beegle, Kathleen; Poulin, Michelle
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
In many African countries, the timing of important life events -- such as school-leaving, first marriage, and entry into the labor market -- is thought to be strongly tied to migration. This paper investigates the relationship between major life events, household characteristics, and migration among adolescents and young adults in contemporary Malawi. The specific research questions are twofold. First, what are the socio-economic and demographic determinants of migration? Second, how do school attendance, first marriage, and employment-seeking relate to migration patterns? The study uses panel data collected from a survey designed specifically to explore socioeconomic and demographic aspects of youth transitions to adulthood and which tracked respondents as they moved to new dwellings. Among the sample, they find that moves are not uncommon, and the predominant reasons for moves are non-economic. Although historically ethnic traditions in this area have held that girls and women usually did not move upon marrying...

A Practical Guide to Economic Analysis of Youth Projects

Knowles, James C.; Behrman, Jere R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Investments in youth are particularly important in light of the unprecedented numbers of young people now entering their reproductive and early adult productive years. Of the more than one billion youth aged 15-24, 86 percent live in developing countries. This guide is for those involved in appraising the economic merits of youth projects or projects with an important youth component. It builds on two previous publications in the HNP Discussion Paper series, Assessing the Economic Returns to Investing in Youth in Developing Countries (Knowles and Behrman 2003), and The Economic Returns to Investing in Youth in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature (Knowles and Behrman 2005). The guide is designed to explain and illustrate basic economic principles relevant to ex ante project appraisal, and their application to the task of making choices related to youth projects. It is also intended to familiarize those who do not specialize in youth projects, with some of the issues particular to youth projects...

Caribbean Youth Development : Issues and Policy Directions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
This report examines youth development in the Caribbean today. The objectives of the report are threefold, it aims to 1) identify the risk and protective factor and determinats of youth behaviors and development, 2) demonstrate that the negative behaviors of youth are costly, not only to the youth themselves but to society as a whole, and 3) identifies key intervention points for youth development, taking into account identified risk and protective factors for the Caribbean. For the purpose of the study, youth is defined as spanning the adolescent period from 10 to 24 years of age. Youth or adolescent development thus refers to the physical, social, and emotional processes of maturation from childhood to adulthood, with biological processes riving the initiation of adolescence and social factors largely determining the initiation of adulthood. The study uses an "ecological" framework to demonstrate the linkages between a) the under-lying risk and protective factors of youth behaviors, b) youth outcomes, and c) subsequent adult outcomes. It is termed "ecological" because the framework shows the relationship between the individual adolescent and his or her environment. Risk factors are those factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing negative outcomes. Protective factors counterbalance the risk factors.

Youth in the Maldives : Shaping a New Future for Young Women and Men through Engagement and Empowerment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
This report responds to the growing concern over issues facing Maldivian youth today, and specifically, to a request made by the Ministry of Youth and Sports to examine the status of youth in the Maldives. Such concerns are certainly warranted, particularly in light of a regional youth bulge which is taking place in South Asia, as well as an observed increase in at risk behavior such as youth drug use and membership in gangs. While a number of studies have sought to examine youth issues in the Maldives, a comprehensive and holistic assessment is lacking. This report was aimed at helping to fill this knowledge gap. This report examines issues affecting young people in the Maldives as they transition from adolescence to adulthood, and based on this analysis and a review of international good practice, recommends a number of actions for the Government s consideration. The analysis focused on youth experiences as they pertain to: health, education, labor, family structure, gangs and violence, and civic engagement and participation. A youth development framework...

The relationship between birth weight and blood pressure amplifies from childhood to adulthood

Moore, V.; Cockington, R.; Ryan, P.; Robinson, J.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
Objective: To investigate relationships between birth characteristics and blood pressure at age 20 years and to assess whether effects of birth weight on blood pressure are amplified from childhood to adulthood. Design: A longitudinal study of 584 men and women from Adelaide, Australia, examined previously at 8 years and followed up at age 20 years. Results: Birth weight was negatively associated with systolic pressure at age 20 years in men (regression coefficient 2.6 mmHg per kg; 95% confidence interval 0.7, 4.4) and women (regression coefficient 4.6 mmHg per kg; 95% confidence interval 2.9, 6.4), after adjustment for current weight. There was an interaction with current size (P = 0.05 for men and P = 0.09 for women), such that effects were enhanced among individuals with relatively high weight or weight for height. Shortness at birth, thinness at birth, and low birth weight relative to placental weight were also associated with elevated systolic pressure at age 20 years. Effects of birth weight on blood pressure were stronger at age 20 than at age 8 years (P < 0.01 for men and P = 0.03 for women). This was not due simply to increased variability of blood pressure in adulthood. There were greater rises in blood pressure with age among individuals of relatively low birth weight. Conclusions: These findings are further evidence that poor fetal growth is associated with elevated blood pressure in later life. The results support the hypothesis that the relationship is amplified with increasing age.; Moore...

A longitudinal study of the relative importance of factors related to use of dental services among young adults

Roberts-Thomson, K.; Stewart, J.; Do, L.
Fonte: Blackwell Munksgaard Publicador: Blackwell Munksgaard
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Background: The decline in the appropriate use of dental services from childhood to adulthood is of concern. The relative importance of factors influencing use of dental services in young adulthood should inform strategies to address this issue. Aim: To develop models predictive of inadequate utilisation of dental care in young adults and to determine the relative importance of health behaviours, need for dental care, and socio-demographic factors. Inadequate utilisation of dental care was determined as lack of visit for dental care during the study period and as problem-based care-seeking behavior. Methods: A random sample of Adelaide young adults was selected from the electoral roll. Participants were interviewed and offered a dental examination at baseline. Two and a half years later participants were contacted again and interviewed on the use of dental services and usual reason for visiting and a number of explanatory factors. The population attributable fractions for the explanatory variables which were significant in the model for this cohort of young adults were calculated using the log-binomial method. Results: There were 819 participants at follow-up a response rate of 65% of baseline participants. In the two and a half year period between baseline and follow-up about one quarter of young adults did not make a dental visit and over one third reported that they usually made a dental visit for a problem. The attributable fraction calculation indicated that 30% of infrequent visiting was attributed to reporting no need for dental care...

Systematic Review of the Influence of Childhood Socioeconomic Circumstances on Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Adulthood

Galobardes, B.; Davey-Smith, G.; Lynch, J.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
PURPOSE: Adverse socioeconomic circumstances in childhood may confer a greater risk for adult cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate evidence for an association between socioeconomic circumstances during childhood and specific CVD subtypes, independent of adult socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: We systematically retrieved individual-level studies of morbidity and mortality from CVD and specific CVD subtypes linked to early life influences, including coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, peripheral vascular disease, markers of atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness and stenosis), and rheumatic heart disease. Indicators of socioeconomic position in childhood varied, although most studies relied on father's occupation. RESULTS: We located 40 studies (24 prospective, 11 case-control, and 5 cross-sectional) reported in 50 publications. Thirty-one studies (19 prospective, 7 case-control, and all 5 cross-sectional) found a robust inverse association between childhood circumstances and CVD risk, although findings sometimes varied among specific outcomes, socioeconomic measures, and sex. Case-control studies reported mixed results. The association was stronger for stroke and...

Youth Well-Being in Brazil : An Index for Cross-Regional Comparisons

Dell'Aglio, Debora; Cunningham, Wendy; Koller, Silvia; Cassepp Borges, Vicente; Severo Leon, Joana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
This study constructs three indices to measure how well Brazil's young people are surviving their transition to adulthood. Youth development is difficult to quantify because of the multi-dimensionality of youth behavior. Most monitoring use individual indicators in specific sectors, making it difficult to track overall progress. The study adapts to the Brazilian case a methodology developed by Duke University to measure the well-being of U.S. children and youth. It uses readily available data to construct three indices for each Brazilian state based on 36 indicators encompassing the health, behavior, school performance, institutional connectedness, and socioeconomic conditions. The indices conclude that young people in the states of Santa Catarina and the Federal District are doing particularly well and those in Alagoas and Pernambuco are the worst off. While these rankings are expected to continue into the next generation, young people in other states have a brighter (Espiritu Santo) or more dismal (Rio Grande de Sul...

Thailand Social Monitor on Youth : Development and the Next Generation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
This Thailand Social Monitor provides an overview of the challenges facing Thai youth today, identifying the factors that make them vulnerable and outlining possible policy directions in moving forward. This Social Monitor studies three key transitions faced by Thai youth, using the youth development model proposed by the World Development Report 2007. This model helps provide an understanding of the interactions among the various factors that affect youth development and how they influence in three important life transitions, namely: growing up healthy, learning for work and life and moving from school to work. In this model, the role of public policy is to help youth succeed in the transition to adulthood by broadening their opportunities, expanding their capacity and providing them with second chances to overcome negative outcomes. These areas are the three youth policy lenses through which policy priorities are assessed throughout this report. This report stresses that building the next generation of Thailand human capital requires a concerted effort. The four main ministries responsible for promoting the country's youth development agenda-Ministry of Social Development and Human Security...

Child and Adolescent Predictors of Personality in Early Adulthood

W?ngqvist, Maria; Lamb, Michael E.; Fris?n, Ann; Hwang, C. Philip
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
This is the accepted manusript. It's currently embargoed until 20/03/2016. The final version is available from Wiley at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12362/abstract; This study investigated development of the Big Five personality traits from early childhood into adulthood. An initial group of 137 Swedish children were assessed eight times between ages 2 and 29 years. Initial decreases in extraversion levelled off in early adulthood; agreeableness and conscientiousness increased from age 2 to 29; neuroticism initially increased, levelled off in later childhood and adolescence, and decreased throughout early adulthood; while openness to experience showed an initial increase, then decreased and levelled off in early adulthood. Individual developmental trajectories varied significantly, particularly in relation to gender. Personality traits became increasingly stable, and the fact that childhood scores predicted scores in adulthood indicated that personalities are fairly stable across this portion of the life span.

Idealization and omnipotence in contemporary youth: the addiction to drugs as an illustration; Idealização e onipotência na juventude contemporânea: a drogadicção como ilustração

Savietto, Bianca Bergamo; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Cardoso, Marta Rezende; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Fonte: Eduff Publicador: Eduff
Tipo: ; ; ; Avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.59%
The central focus of this paper, dedicated to the uniqueness of contemporary youth, is the issue of possible hindrances to the process of subjectivation in the experience of transition from childhood to adulthood. Starting from the assumption of possible imbrications of the narcissistic dimension of parents and children, we emphasize the formation of the ideal agencies, particularly the relationship between ideal ego and ego ideal, complemented by an analysis of idealization and sublimation. As an illustration of the propositions developed, are also explored the role of the ideal agencies and the prevalence of the ego ideal in the phenomenon of addiction to drugs. The increase of this phenomenon is seen as articulated to the peculiarities that mark the subjectivation processes of contemporary youth.; O foco deste trabalho, dedicado à singularidade da juventude contemporânea, são os possíveis entraves aos processos de subjetivação na passagem da infância à vida adulta. Partindo-se da suposição de possíveis imbricações da dimensão narcísica parental com a filial, é enfatizada a formação das instâncias ideais, particularmente a relação entre ego ideal e ideal do ego, complementada por análise da idealização e da sublimação. Como ilustração das proposições desenvolvidas...