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Impacto do Programa Bolsa Família sobre as decisões de trabalho das crianças: uma análise utilizando os microdados da PNAD; Impact of the conditional cash transfer Bolsa Familia on the decisions of child labor: an analysis using microdata from PNAD

Nascimento, Adriana Rosa do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/01/2014 PT
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66.54%
O trabalho infantil foi amplamente estudado sob diferentes enfoques como seus efeitos sobre a educação, seus determinantes, trabalho infantil e saúde, persistência do trabalho infantil entre gerações e avaliações de impacto de programas sociais sobre o trabalho infantil. No entanto, ainda se verifica incidência de trabalho infantil no Brasil.Em 2011, 4,33% das crianças entre 5 e 15 anos trabalhavam ou exerciam atividade para consumo próprio ou construção para uso próprio sendo a agropecuária, pesca e silvicultura o ramo de atividade que mais emprega a mão-de-obra infantil. A maior parte das crianças trabalhadoras em 2011 eram meninos de 11 a 15 anos, mais de 10% das crianças deste gênero nesta faixa etária. A jornada média de trabalho ultrapassa 20 horas semanas sendo que 4,34% das crianças brasileiras trabalhadoras também estudam. Além de tecer um panorama atualizado da situação do trabalho infantil no Brasil, o objetivo principal deste trabalho é examinar o impacto do Programa Bolsa Família sobre o trabalho infantil. O impacto foi estimado através do método de Propensity Score Matching. Também se estimaram regressões utilizando, alternativamente, a renda proveniente de transferência social como variável explicativa. Os dados utilizados são os da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) de 2011 e 2009. O resultado mostra que o programa não tem impacto significativo sobre a probabilidade de a criança trabalhar e sobre as horas trabalhadas. Adicionalmente...

O trabalho de crianças e adolescentes com ênfase nas piores formas: uma análise dos censos demográficos do Brasil de 2000 e 2010; Child labor with emphasis on its worst forms: an analysis of the 2000 and 2010 Brazilian demographic census

Costa Júnior, Geraldo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
O trabalho infantil é hoje bastante discutido nas agendas de governo do mundo inteiro. Desde que as primeiras discussões e debates acerca do tema começaram, obteve-se um grande avanço a partir da ratificação da convenção nº. 182 da OIT, que versa sobre as piores formas de trabalho infantil. Cerca de 87% dos Estados membros já ratificaram a Convenção n.º 182, incluindo o Brasil. Em 2010, firmou-se um compromisso, no âmbito da OIT, que estabelece como prioridade a eliminação das piores formas de trabalho infantil até 2016. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa é identificar os determinantes da redução do trabalho infantil no Brasil, especificamente entre os anos 2000 e 2010, tendo como foco o trabalho nas atividades enquadradas na categoria "piores formas de trabalho infantil". Buscou-se identificar as características atuais deste tipo de trabalho no que se refere à: características da própria criança, isto é, gênero, cor e idade; características regionais de onde a criança trabalhadora está inserida, abrangendo as cinco grande regiões do Brasil, e características locais, em termos de zona rural e urbana e zona metropolitana e não-metropolitana, entre outras. Dentre os modelos econométricos disponíveis na literatura...

Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the effect of these differences on child labor statistics. This paper presents the results from a randomized survey experiment in Tanzania focusing on two survey aspects: different questionnaire design to classify children work and proxy response versus self-reporting. Use of a short module compared with a more detailed questionnaire has a statistically significant effect, especially on child labor force participation rates, and, to a lesser extent, on working hours. Proxy reports do not differ significantly from a child s self-report. Further analysis demonstrates that survey design choices affect the coefficient estimates of some determinants of child labor in a child labor supply equation. The results suggest that low-cost changes to questionnaire design to clarify the concept of work for respondents can improve the data collected.

Does Child Labor Always Decrease with Income? An Evaluation in the Context of a Development Program in Nicaragua

Del Carpio, Ximena V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper investigates the relationship of household income with child labor. The analysis uses a rich dataset obtained in the context of a conditional cash transfer program in a poor region of Nicaragua in 2005 and 2006. The program has a strong productive emphasis and seeks to diversify the work portfolio of beneficiaries while imposing conditionalities on the household. The author develops a simple model that relates child labor to household income, preferences, and production technology. It turns out that child labor does not always decrease with income; the relationship is complex and exhibits an inverted-U shape. Applying the data to the model confirms that the relationship is concave when all children (8-15 years of age) are included in the sample. Expanding the analysis by stratifying the sample by age and gender shows that the relationship holds only for older children, both genders. The author investigates the effect of the conditional cash transfer program on child labor. The results show that the program has a decreasing effect on total hours of work for the full sample of children. Disentangling labor into two types - physically demanding labor and non-physical labor - reveals that the program has opposite effects on each type; it decreases physically demanding labor while increasing participation in non-physical (more intellectually oriented) tasks for children.

Why Should We Care About Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Although there is extensive literature on the determinants of child labor and many initiatives aimed at combating it, there is limited evidence on the consequences of child labor on socioeconomic outcomes such as education, wages, and health. The authors evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy. Five years subsequent to the child labor experience, they find significant negative effects on school participation and educational attainment, but also find substantially higher earnings for those (young) adults who worked as children. The authors find no significant effects on health. Over a longer horizon, they estimate that from age 30 onward the forgone earnings attributable to lost schooling exceed any earnings gain associated with child labor and that the net present discounted value of child labor is positive for discount rates of 11.5 percent or higher. The authors show that child labor is prevalent among households likely to have higher borrowing costs, that are farther from schools, and whose adult members experienced negative returns to their own education. This evidence suggests that reducing child labor will require facilitating access to credit and will also require households to be forward looking.

The Global Child Labor Problem : What Do We Know and What Can We Do?

Basu, Kaushik; Tzannatos, Zafiris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
The problem of child labor has moved from a matter of regional and national concern to one of international debate and possible global persuasion and policy intervention. In crafting policy for mitigating this enormous problem of our times, it is important to start with a proper theoretical and empirical understanding of the phenomenon. What gives rise to child labor, and what are its consequences? What interventions might end child labor without hurting children? A well-meaning but poorly designed policy can exacerbate the poverty in which these laboring children live, even leading to starvation. The article surveys the large and rapidly growing literature on this subject, focusing mainly on the new literature based on modern economic theory and econometrics. It also looks at some of the broad policy implications of these new findings, with the objective of contributing to better informed discussion and policy design.

Targeting Child Labor in Debt Bondage : Evidence, Theory, and Policy Implications

Basu, Arnab K.; Chau, Nancy H.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Despite recent multilateral efforts to single out child labor in debt bondage as one of the worst forms of child labor, several important questions have yet to be addressed: How pervasive is the phenomenon? Are there systematic correlations between the incidence of children in debt bondage and the economic, legislative, and financial development indicators of the economy? How does an understanding of these correlates affect the way national and international policy measures aimed at targeting this form of child labor are perceived? This article addresses each of these questions. The empirical findings suggest strong correlation between the likelihood of the incidence of child labor in debt bondage with the stage of development of an economy, the stage of financial development, and enforcement of core labor rights. Building on this evidence, the article presents a theoretical model that highlights the drawbacks and merits of a number of policies aimed at putting checks on child labor in debt bondage.

Child Labor, Income Shocks, and Access to Credit

Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev H.; Gatti, Roberta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
Although a growing theoretical literature points to credit constraints as an important source of inefficiently high child labor, little work has been done to assess its empirical relevance. Using panel data from Tanzania, the authors find that households respond to transitory income shocks by increasing child labor, but that the extent to which child labor is used as a buffer is lower when households have access to credit. These findings contribute to the empirical literature on the permanent income hypothesis by showing that credit-constrained households actively use child labor to smooth their income. Moreover, they highlight a potentially important determinant of child labor and, as a result, a mechanism that can be used to tackle it.

Child Labor, School Attendance, and Intrahousehold Gender Bias in Brazil

Emerson, Patrick M.; Souza, André Portela
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
Child Labor, School Attendance, and Intrahousehold Gender Bias in Brazil Patrick M. Emerson and Andre Portela Souza An extensive survey data set of Brazilian households is used to test whether intrahousehold gender bias affects the decisions of mothers and fathers to send their sons and daughters to work and to school. An intrahousehold allocation model is examined in which fathers and mothers may affect the education investment and the child labor participation of their sons and daughters differently because of differences in parental preferences or differences in how additional schooling affects sons' and daughters' acquisition of human capital. The results suggest that fathers generally have a greater impact on decisions about sons and mothers generally have a greater impact on decisions about daughters. These results support models of intrahousehold bargaining in the child labor and schooling decisions of a family, even though most theoretical work on child labor has assumed a unitary family model. This study uses Brazilian household survey data to estimate the impact of fathers' and mothers' education on the labor market status and school attendance of their sons and daughters separately. Bargaining models assume that household allocation outcomes reflect a bargaining process in which household members seek to allocate the resources they control to the goods that they individually prefer. 2 As male and female household heads may have different preferences in general...

Gender Dimensions of Child Labor and Street Children in Brazil

Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Pyne, Hnin Hnin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
The authors review child labor and the situation of street children in Brazil from a gender perspective. Relying primarily on Brazil's national household survey for 1996, the authors examine various dimensions of child labor by gender, including participation, intensity, and type of activities; the relationship between child labor, education, and future earnings; and the risks of child labor to health and well-being. They also summarize approaches to prevent and eliminate child labor and street children in Brazil. The authors find that more boys than girls work in Brazil especially in rural areas where boys are concentrated in the agricultural sector, that many children both work and attend school, and that girls attain higher levels of education than boys on average, even when considering number of hours worked. The exception is the 11-14 category. They also find that an individual's earnings are correlated with age of entry into the labor market. The earlier a child begins to work, the lower his or her earnings. And girls are more adversely affected by early labor force entry than boys...

Child Labor in Bolivia and Colombia

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Grootaert, Christiaan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
According to the International Labor Organization, 120 million children work full-time worldwide. Virtually all live in poor countries. Legislation has been passed to ban child labor, but it is not enforced or does not address the root causes of the practices such as low income and the opportunity costs of a child's attending school rather than contributing to household income. "A Four-Country Comparative Study of Child Labor" by Christiaan Grootaert and Harry Anthony Patrinos was presented at the Economics of Child Labor Conference in Oslo, in May 2002. The paper was based on a longer study focused on the labor supply decision by the household and identified the key factors affecting child labor, most notably household size and composition, education and employment status of parents, the household's ability to cope with fluctuations on the supply side, and the functioning of the labor market and the prevailing technologies on the demand side.

Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One such program is the Child Labor Eradication Program - PETI - unique in that it provides a conceivable strategy to address by 2002, the incidence of child labor. The assessments demonstrate that the program has been successful in reducing child labor rates, school attendance has increased as a result of the program, and, attitudinal and other changes have occurred as a result of the program. The report outlines the political, and legal debate on child labor, examining indicators and trends in Brazil, as well as the determinants of child labor, linking child labor and poverty to its structural determinants, and how economic crises affect child labor. A description of child labor outcomes follows...

Child Labor : Lessons from the Historical Experience of Today's Industrial Economies

Humphries, Janes
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Child labor was more prevalent in 19th-century industrializers than it is in developing countries today. It was particularly extensive in the earliest industrializers. This pattern may be a source of optimism signaling the spread of technologies that have little use for child labor and of values that endorse the preservation and protection of childhood. Today and historically, orphaned and fatherless children and those in large families are most vulnerable. Efficient interventions to curb child labor involve fiscal transfers to these children and active policies toward street children. Changes in capitalist labor markets (including technology), family strategies, state policies, and cultural norms are examined to shed light on the causes, chronology, and consequences of child labor.

Cash Transfers and Child Labor

de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidence that cash transfer interventions increase child labor in practice. On the contrary, there is broad evidence that conditional and unconditional cash transfers lower both children's participation in child labor and hours worked and cushion the effect of economic shocks that may lead households to use child labor as a coping strategy. Boys experience particularly strong decreases in economic activities, girls in household chores. The findings underline the usefulness of cash transfers as a relatively safe policy instrument to improve child welfare, but also point to knowledge gaps, for instance regarding the interplay between cash transfers and other interventions...

Revisiting the Link between Poverty and Child Labor : The Ghanaian Experience

Verner, Dorte; Blunch, Niels-Hugo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
The link between poverty, and child labor has traditionally been regarded as well established. But recent research has questioned the validity of this link, claiming that poverty is not a main determinant of child labor. Starting from the premise that child labor is not necessarily harmful, the authors analyze the determinants of harmful child labor, viewed as child labor that directly conflicts with children's accumulation of human capital, in an effort to identify the most vulnerable groups. Identifying these groups might enable policymakers to take appropriate action. The authors estimate the positive relationship between poverty, and child labor. Moreover, they find evidence of a gender gap in child labor, linked to poverty. Girls as a group (as well as across urban, rural, and poverty sub-samples) are consistently found to be more likely to engage in harmful child labor, than boys. This gender gap may reflect cultural norms (an issue that calls for further research). The incidence of child labor increases with age...

Gender Issues in Child Labor; Temas de genero en trabajo infantil La problematique hommes-femmes dans le travail des enfants

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
This note reviews the available evidence on developing effective policies against child labor, outlining it requires attention to gender differences among working children. This is so because standard definitions of child labor tend to underestimate girls' work, because economic activities of boys and girls differ by country and industry; because determinants of child labor may differ by gender; and, because the consequences of child labor may differ by gender. A number of policy implications stem from evidence presented in this note, i.e., that including time use modules in household surveys would capture unpaid household chores performed by children, thereby providing more accurate estimates of total work time; interventions to reduce child labor should address its specific causes, and should recognize that these causes may differ by gender. The determinants of child labor should be examined by running separate regressions for boys and girls, or by interacting the gender dummy, with the main explanatory variables. Furthermore...

Understanding Child Labor in Ghana Beyond Poverty : The Structure of the Economy, Social Norms, and No Returns to Rural Basic Education

Krauss, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
One in six children age 6-14 are engaged in labor activities in Ghana, with child employment being the leading alternative to schooling. By exploring structural, institutional, geographic, monetary, demographic, and cultural factors affecting household decisions about child labor, the paper's main purpose is to identify the conditions and characteristics of working children, the root causes of their vulnerability, and thus help to inform decision-makers and actors who draft and implement public policy of possible ways to tackle child labor in Ghana. The paper empirically assesses the effects of individual, household, community, regional, and national factors on child labor simultaneously. Findings from the analysis indicate that the underlying causes of child labor vary from factors as widespread in their influence as the structure of the economy (which is largely shaped by family farming), demographics and relevant social norms to those as specific in their manifestation as the geographic isolation of particular groups in the North...

The Impact of Wealth on the Amount and Quality of Child Labor

Del Carpio, Ximena V.; Loayza, Norman V.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
This paper analyzes to what extent, and under what conditions, an increase in household wealth affects the use of child labor in poor households. It develops a simple theoretical model, which uses child labor, training, and schooling to maximize household income over time, subject to resource constraints. Then, it conducts an empirical analysis using randomized trial data, which were collected for the evaluation of the 2006 Nicaragua conditional cash transfer program. This social program transfers wealth to poor families in rural areas, conditional on children's school attendance and health check-ups. In addition, for one third of the beneficiaries, there is a further wealth transfer to start a non-agricultural business. The paper finds that the conditional cash transfer program affected the volume and quality of child labor, reducing it in the aggregate and steering it towards skill-forming activities. Specifically, the program appears to have reduced the use of child labor for household chores and farm work...

Child Labor in Africa : Issues and Challenges; Le travail des enfants en Afrique : Problematique et defis

Andvig, Jens; Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Kielland, Anne
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
How serious is the issue of child labor in Sub-Saharan Africa? Many African experts consider it to be no problem, while others believe it to be more serious than anywhere else in the world. A cursory glance at the statistics supports either view. ILO data indicate that more than 40 percent of African children work--almost twice as many as in Asia. On the other hand, household surveys suggest that over 95 percent of child labor takes place in and around private households. African society places a high value on children working at home or the family farm. This is not seen as "harmful" or as a welfare issue--a view opposed by many Western countries. This article explores the normative and factual basis for the different perceptions of child labor in Africa, and provides grounds effective social protection policies. Both welfare economic research and findings of sociological and anthropological studies have been reviewed.

Child Labor in Transition in Vietnam

Edmonds, Eric; Turk, Carrie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Vietnam experienced a dramatic decline in child labor during the 1990s. The authors explore this decline in detail and document the heterogeneity across households in both levels of child labor and in the incidence of this decline in child labor. The authors find a strong correlation between living standards improvements and child labor so that much of the variation in declines in child labor can be explained by variation in living standards improvements. Ethnic minority children and the children of recent migrants appear to remain particularly vulnerable even by the late 1990s. Children of all ethnicities in the Central Highlands appear to have missed many of the improvements in the 1990s, while children in the rural Mekong and in Provincial Towns have experienced the largest declines in child labor. The results suggest embedding efforts against child labor within an overall antipoverty program. The authors find that the opening or closing of household enterprises seems to be associated with increases in child labor. So attention should be devoted to the activities of children in the government's current program to stimulate nonfarm enterprises.