Página 1 dos resultados de 3197 itens digitais encontrados em 0.023 segundos

Working with the Private Sector for Child Health

Waters, Hugh; Hatt, Laurel; Axelsson, Henrik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.21%
This document assesses the current importance and potential of the private sector in contributing to child health. In many countries private and non-governmental providers are more commonly consulted for child health illnesses than public providers are. Even poor families often use private sector services. Families spend relatively large amounts of money for curative services in the private sector, even when there are cheaper public sector alternatives available. However, in many settings private providers are poorly regulated and the technical quality of the services they provide is questionable. This document focuses on the role of the private sector in the direct provision of child health services. The private sector clearly has a much broader potential role in many other areas related to and supporting the provision of child health services-including the provision of ancillary services, training of health professionals (both pre-service and in-service), communication services, and financing of health care. The potential of the private sector in each of these areas is touched on in this document...

Maternal Health Out-of-Pocket Expenditure and Service Readiness in Lao PDR : Evidence for the National Free Maternal and Child Health Policy from a Household and Health Center Survey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
Although Lao PDR has made notable progress in improving maternal and child health (MCH), attainment of the Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG5) still remains a challenge. This is largely due to the barriers imposed by financial restrictions. In order to address these financial barriers, the Government of Lao PDR has introduced a national free MCH policy. However, certain non-financial barriers are also impediments to the achievement of this goal, such as physical access to remote communities, especially during rainy season, cultural practices and beliefs, and poor educational outcomes. In seeking to inform the implementation and scale-up of this national free MCH policy at this crucial initial stage, this paper reports on findings from a household, village and health center survey The policy implications of the findings from the survey are: 1) although financial protection implied by the national free MCH policy is strong, reducing financial barriers alone would not be sufficient to increase the utilization of services...

Maternal and Child Survival : Findings from Five Countries Experience in Addressing Maternal and Child Health Challenges

Cortez, Rafael; Saadat, Seemeen; Chowdhury, Sadia; Sarker, Intissar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
Considerable progress has been made towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since 1990. Although advances in improving MDG 4 and MDG 5a (reducing child and maternal mortality, respectively) have been made, progress is some countries have been insufficient. While some countries have made substantial gains, others have not. This paper is part of a larger study that aims to address this gap in knowledge. The paper discusses the findings from qualitative case studies of five countries that are either on track to meet MDGs 4 and 5a by 2015 or have made significant progress to this end (Bolivia, China, Egypt, Malawi and Nepal). Although they have different socio-economic characteristics, all have made significant advancements due to a strong commitment to improving maternal and child health. To do this, strong political commitment, through policies backed by financial and programmatic support, was critical. In addition, focusing on the most vulnerable populations helped increase access to and use of services. Empowering women and families through education...

The determinants of use of maternal and child health services in Metro Cebu, the Philippines

Becker, Stan; Peters, David H; Gray, Ronald H; Gultiana, Connie; Black, Robert E
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 49308 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.97%
The determinants of the use of family planning, prenatal care, childhood immunizations and oral rehydration salts (ORS) were studied with survey data of 8000 women in Metro Cebu, the Philippines. Polytomous logistic regression methods were used. The level of maternal education was the most consistent and important determinant of use of these four health services in both urban and rural areas. For example, the estimated odds of using modern contraception increased by six and eleven per cent for each additional year of schooling in urban and rural strata respectively. Economic status and access to service variables had less consistent patterns: women’s work status, for example, was associated only with contraceptive use.; no

Approaches to delivering child and adolescent mental health services: The South Australian experience

Sawyer, M.; Kosky, R.
Fonte: Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Publicador: Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.15%
Approximately 10% of children and adolescents experience mental health programs, however only a small proportion receive specialised help. Identifying approaches which can provide a balanced and effective service for the large number of children and adolescents with problems is currently a major challenge for child and adolescent mental health services in Australia. In South Australia, following a review in 1983, child and adolescent services were reorganised into two separate but closely related services. This paper draws on experience in South Australia over the last decade to identify approaches which can be employed in six key areas that significantly influence the effectiveness of child and adolescent mental health services. The paper also describes the specific features which were included in the South Australian child and adolescent mental health service to address these issues.

Coverage of child health services in rural districts of Ethiopia with the Health Services Extension Program

Woldie, M.; Morankar, S.N.; Feyissa, G.T.; Labonte, R.; Sanders, D.
Fonte: Academic Journals Publicador: Academic Journals
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.09%
Improving access to health care services has been advocated widely since the Declaration of Alma-Ata. Despite the efforts to realize this in Ethiopia, it is only in the year 2003 that the intention to take the package of essential health services to the kebele level (smallest administrative unit) was realized through the introduction of the Health Services Extension Program (HSEP). The objective of this study was to explore whether introduction of HSEP has improved the coverage of child health services in the rural areas of Jimma Zone. A cross sectional study was conducted in three randomly selected districts of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. The data collection was undertaken during the months of May, June and July, 2009. A structured questionnaire was used to interview female heads of sampled households from nine kebeles randomly selected in three Woredas (districts). Data were collected on the socio-demographic characteristics, use of health posts, child vaccination and childhood diarrhea. Checklists were used for record review. Data obtained were analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) V14. Only 64.0% of the kebeles had functional health posts, although another 32.0% of the kebeles in the zone had health posts under construction. However...

Improving Coverage and Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services in Lao PDR; Impact Evaluation of the Community Nutrition Project

Tanner, Jeffery; Hayashi, Ryotaro; Li, Yunsun
Fonte: Washington, DC: Independent Evaluation Group Publicador: Washington, DC: Independent Evaluation Group
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
The World Bank supported the community nutrition project (CNP) in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) from 2009 to 2013, ostensibly to respond to the global food crisis of 2007-08. The evaluation finds an attributable effect on only one of the six formal project indicators: children in intervention areas were more likely to receive full diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) vaccines. This impact evaluation seeks to address whether the CNP can make causal claims to improving indicators related to its six stated project development objective measurements for mothers and children under two years old: antenatal care visits, institutional delivery, well-child checkups, breastfeeding, immunization, and diarrhea oral rehydration solutions. The results of quasi-experimental impact evaluation methods indicate that although general effects for these outcomes are mixed, the project shows improvements for the poorest 40 percent of the population.

Delivering Better Health Services to Pakistan's Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Health Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
Pakistan is not on track to achieve most Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to health, nutrition and population. Given its current rate of progress, in 2015 Pakistan's infant mortality rate (IMR) will be 65 deaths per 1,000 live births and the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) will be 78, considerably above the MDG4 targets of 33 and 43 deaths per 1000 births respectively. Pakistan will not achieve the MDG related to nutrition. The review aims to develop a limited set of practical options that will allow the government and other stakeholders to improve the availability and use of health services, especially for the poor. The report mainly focuses on synthesizing the available body of knowledge through review of existing studies, reports and research. The report starts with a description of the health and nutrition status of the population, Pakistan's fertility and growth rates and potential to benefit from a demographic dividend, the burden of diseases and trends in the past few years. The second and third chapters describe the performance of the public health care system over time...

Maternal Health, Child Health and Nutrition in Lao PDR : Evidence from a Household Survey in Six Central and Southern Provinces

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
Despite being on-track on the child- and maternal-health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Lao PDR continues to have some of the worst maternal and child health (MCH) and nutrition outcome indicators, both globally as well as in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region. This report presents results from a household, village, and facility survey on Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and nutrition in mostly rural areas of six central and southern provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The information in this report localizes MCH and nutrition-related information that are typical for sampled catchment areas of selected health centers in six central and southern provinces of the country. In addition, the report summarizes data on service availability and readiness of health centers in terms of their ability to provide key MCH & nutrition-related services. The results from this survey thus shed light on what it would take to attain the health-related MDGs. In order to improve the level and equity of maternal and child health indicators...

Health, Nutrition, and Population in Madagascar 2000-09

Sharp, Maryanne; Kruse, Ioana
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
With an income per capita US$400 in 2008, Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Poverty is widespread but with significant urban-rural differences (52 percent versus 74 percent). Health, nutrition, and the fight against communicable diseases and HIV/AIDS are key goals of the country's poverty reduction strategy, the Madagascar Action Plan 2007-2012. The National Health Sector and Social Protection Development Plan 2007-2011 was developed to strengthen the health system and improve service delivery to reduce neonatal, child and maternal mortality, address malnutrition and control communicable illnesses. The health sector has benefited from increasing investment over the last years, and a number of studies and surveys have been carried out, providing a wealth of information that is yet to be analyzed in a complementary way. This Country Status Report (CSR) seeks to capitalize on all of the existing data in the health sector, compare Madagascar to countries of similar income levels and assess the results achieved by the health system. The CSR provides an analysis of the population's health and nutrition status by linking health outcomes...

Private Sector Participation in Child Health : A Review of World Bank Projects, 1993-2002

Axelsson, Henrik; Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
There is an increasing amount of evidence to support the view that the private sector significantly influences child health and nutrition outcomes through both service provision and supply of health related goods. In this context, this paper analyzes World Bank projects in Health, Nutrition and Population between fiscal years 1993-2002. The paper identifies the range of approaches taken to involve the private sector in improving child health outcomes; the actors involved; the type of activities supported by the projects; and examples of successful private sector participation. The paper's concludes: As measured by the proportion of projects (more than 50 perccent) that involved the private sector in child health, private sector participation was significant. As measured by the magnitude of involvement (budget amounts and stated project objectives), the degree of private sector participation was relatively small for most projects. Since most projects did not mention a systematic assessment of potential and opportunities to engage the private sector...

Tajikistan - Quality of Child Health Services

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Health Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.23%
The Government of Tajikistan has identified Primary Heath Care (PHC), and Maternal and Child Health (MCH) as top priorities in its first Comprehensive National Health Sector Strategy (2010-2020). The study findings which closely mirror those of the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nation children's Fund (UNICEF) Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) survey will be of great concern to the Ministry of Health and should provide the impetus to take immediate remedial actions. Much remains to be done to improve the overall quality of primary health care services for under-five children. Two main issues are highlighted by this study. Firstly, the quality of primary health care services provided to children is lacking in many areas, irrespective of the PHC provider's type of training. Second, is that the family medicine and IMCI training programs and methods require further enhancement to ensure that the service quality for children improves. The study also finds that supervision of PHC workers is irregular...

The Impact of Price Subsidies on Child Health Care Use : Evaluation of the Indonesian Healthcard

Somanathan, Aparnaa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.2%
Financial barriers to seeking care are frequently cited as one of the main causes of underutilization of child health care services. This paper estimates the impact of Indonesia's healthcard on health care use by children. Evaluation of the healthcard effect is complicated by the fact that card allocation was non-random. The analysis uses propensity score matching to control for systematic differences between treatment and control groups. A second potential source of bias is related to contemporaneous, exogenous influences on health care use unrelated to the healthcard itself. Using panel data collected prior to and after the introduction of the healthcard, a difference-in-differences estimator is constructed to eliminate the effects of exogenous changes over time. The author finds that although health care use declined for all children during the crisis years of 1997-2000, use of public sector outpatient services declined much less for children with healthcards. The protective effect of the healthcard on public sector use was concentrated among children aged 0-5 years. The healthcard had no significant impact on use of private sector services. The results highlight the need to provide adequate protection against the financial burden of health care costs...

Child Health

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.19%
The largest global equity gap in health, is among children, and concentrated in communicable diseases. This note examines the work of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) - a strategy to improve child health outcomes, developed by the World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Fund - whose aim is to reduce childhood deaths, illnesses, and disabilities, while improving children's growth, and development. IMCI's three main components are to: improve family, and community practices related to child health, and nutrition; improve the health system for effective management of childhood illnesses; and, improve health workers' skills. Finally, the note highlights further needs, e.g., creating working groups to develop national plans in accordance with the three IMCI components, adapting national guidelines, with the IMCI training material, and include the major causes of child deaths, and conditions; targeting poor communities, and disadvantaged children; and, linking health facilities with communities...

Multisectoral Preventive Health Services in Sri Lanka : Lessons for Developing Countries in Providing Public Goods in Health

Das Gupta, Monica; Dalpatadu, K.C.S.; Shanmugarajah, C.K.; Herath, H.M.S.S.D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.18%
What can other developing countries learn from Sri Lanka on achieving good health at low cost? While its well-organized medical and maternal-child health services have been documented elsewhere, this paper fills a gap in documenting how it organizes services to reduce the population's exposure to disease -- a pure public good. The key factors underlying the effectiveness of these services are (1) strong focal points in the central Health Ministry for supporting preventive services; (2) pro-active outreach by the health line agency to collaborate with other sectors / agents whose work influences public health outcomes; and (3) community-level delivery institutions with well-trained multivalent Public Health Inspectors -- all underpinned by (4) assured tax-based financing. This paper describes this system in some detail such that other countries can learn from Sri Lanka's successful approach to improving population health. It also makes some recommendations for strengthening the system in response to changing conditions.

Maternal and Child Health Inequalities in Ethiopia

Ambel, Alemayehu; Andrews, Colin; Bakilana, Anne; Foster, Elizabeth; Khan, Qaiser; Wang, Huihui
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.19%
Recent surveys show considerable progress in maternal and child health in Ethiopia. The improvement has been in health outcomes and health services coverage. The study examines how different groups have fared in this progress. It tracked 11 health outcome indicators and health interventions related to Millennium Development Goals 1, 4, and 5. These are stunting, underweight, wasting, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality, measles vaccination, full immunization, modern contraceptive use by currently married women, antenatal care visits, and skilled birth attendance. The study explores trends in inequalities by household wealth status, mothers’ education, and place of residence. It is based on four Demographic and Health Surveys implemented in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2014. Trends in rate differences and rate ratios are analyzed. The study also investigates the dynamics of inequalities, using concentration curves for different years. In addition, a decomposition analysis is conducted to identify the role of proximate determinants. The study finds substantial improvements in health outcomes and health services. Although there still exists a considerable gap between the rich and the poor...

A importância da participação cidadã nas políticas de saúde: o caso da reestruturação dos serviços de saúde materno-infantil em Portugal; Citizen Participation relevance in health policies: the case of the maternal and child health services restructuring in Portugal

Matos, Ana Raquel
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.94%
In the so-called democratic societies citizens' participation has become a central issue to the analysis of decision making processes. However, in this scope the major difficulty is related to a broad definition of what can be considered as participatory modalities. In this paper protest actions are assumed as legitimate forms of participation in public decision making processes. Accordingly, this work describes and analyses the maternity wards closure in Portugal, one of the measures of the recent restructuring of the maternal and child health services that was implemented between May 2006 and December 2007, and the consequent protest actions developed by the local populations affected by the measure. It is also evaluated how a non-informed and communicated measure based on criteria such as security and quality of the provided health care can trigger protest movements, particularly as a strategy of citizens to participate in a public policy (re)formulation.; As questões em torno da participação cidadã tornaram-se indiscutivelmente centrais na análise dos processos públicos de decisão das sociedades ditas democráticas. Uma das maiores dificuldades tem, no entanto, residido na ampla definição das modalidades participativas a considerar neste domínio. Neste trabalho assume-se que as ações de protesto são uma modalidade legítima de participar nos processos públicos de decisão. Analisa-se...

Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

Bustreo,Flavia; Harding,April; Axelsson,Henrik
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.05%
The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations...

Child health in complex emergencies

Moss,William J; Ramakrishnan,Meenakshi; Storms,Dory; Henderson Siegle,Anne; Weiss,William M; Lejnev,Ivan; Muhe,Lulu
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.96%
Coordinated and effective interventions are critical for relief efforts to be successful in addressing the health needs of children in situations of armed conflict, population displacement, and/or food insecurity. We reviewed published literature and surveyed international relief organizations engaged in child health activities in complex emergencies. Our aim was to identify research needs and improve guidelines for the care of children. Much of the literature details the burden of disease and the causes of morbidity and mortality; few interventional studies have been published. Surveys of international relief organizations showed that most use World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and ministry of health guidelines designed for use in stable situations. Organizations were least likely to have formal guidelines on the management of asphyxia, prematurity, and infection in neonates; diagnosis and management of children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; active case-finding and treatment of tuberculosis; paediatric trauma; and the diagnosis and management of mental-health problems in children. Guidelines often are not adapted to the different types of health-care workers who provide care in complex emergencies. Evidence-based...

The evolution of child health programmes in developing countries: from targeting diseases to targeting people

Claeson,Mariam; Waldman,Ronald J.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.93%
Mortality rates among children and the absolute number of children dying annually in developing countries have declined considerably over the past few decades. However, the gains made have not been distributed evenly: childhood mortality remains higher among poorer people and the gap between rich and poor has grown. Several poor countries, and some poorer regions within countries, have experienced a levelling off of or even an increase in childhood mortality over the past few years. Until now, two types of programmes - short-term, disease-specific initiatives and more general programmes of primary health care - have contributed to the decline in mortality. Both types of programme can contribute substantially to the strengthening of health systems and in enabling households and communities to improve their health care. In order for them to do so, and in order to complete the unfinished agenda of improving child health globally, new strategies are needed. On the one hand, greater emphasis should be placed on promoting those household behaviours that are not dependent on the performance of health systems. On the other hand, more attention should be paid to interventions that affect health at other stages of the life cycle while efforts that have been made to develop interventions that can be used during childhood continue.