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Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area

CARVALHO, Wladithe Organ de; CESAR, Chester Luiz Galvao; CARANDINA, Luana; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; ALVES, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; GOLDBAUM, Moises
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes. Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in municipalities located within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. For children under 1 year of age, the two periods were compared in terms of outpatient services utilization and hospital admission; for the mothers, the periods were compared in terms of prenatal care and deliveries. In both surveys, stratified and multiple-stage conglomerate sampling was employed, with standardization of interview questions. Results. The most important changes observed were regarding the location of services used for prenatal care, deliveries, and hospitalization of children less than 1 year of age. There was a significant increase in the use of services in the surrounding region or hometown, and decrease in the utilization of services in the city of Sao Paulo (in 1990...

A integralidade no ensino da atenção à saúde da criança em cursos de Graduação em Enfermagem; Comprehensive in teaching child health care in undergraduate nursing

Cursino, Emília Gallindo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/03/2012 PT
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66.23%
Introdução: A formação do profissional constitui um desafio para a transformação das práticas e melhoria da saúde da população. A integralidade da atenção é um princípio norteador da política de saúde. Cabe, pois, perguntar se o ensino da saúde da criança, no âmbito da graduação, contempla a integralidade na formação dos enfermeiros. Objetivo: Analisar se o ensino da saúde da criança incorpora o princípio da integralidade na formação de enfermeiros. Método: estudo qualitativo com 16 docentes envolvidos com o ensino da saúde da criança, na atenção básica e hospitalar, em oito instituições públicas de graduação em enfermagem, localizadas em quatro estados das regiões sudeste e nordeste do Brasil. A captação dos dados deu-se por meio de consulta aos planos pedagógicos e análise dos planos de ensino e entrevistas semi-estruturadas. As entrevistas gravadas e transcritas foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. As categorias analíticas tiveram suporte no referencial teórico da integralidade. Resultados: A análise das entrevistas levou à construção de seis categorias. Quatro evidenciaram aproximações do ensino com o princípio da integralidade: a gente trabalha a questão das políticas públicas; atuação na atenção básica...

Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the São Paulo metropolitan area

de Carvalho, Wladithe Organ; Galvao Cesar, Chester Luiz; Carandina, Luana; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Goi Porto Alves, Maria Cecilia; Goldbaum, Moises
Fonte: Pan Amer Health Organization Publicador: Pan Amer Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 314-323
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the São Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes.Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in municipalities located within the São Paulo metropolitan area. For children under 1 year of age, the two periods were compared in terms of outpatient services utilization and hospital admission; for the mothers, the periods were compared in terms of prenatal care and deliveries. In both surveys, stratified and multiple-stage conglomerate sampling was employed, with standardization of interview questions.Results. The most important changes observed were regarding the location of services used for prenatal care, deliveries, and hospitalization of children less than 1 year of age. There was a significant increase in the use of services in the surrounding region or hometown, and decrease in the utilization of services in the city of São Paulo (in 1990...

Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area

CARVALHO, Wladithe Organ de; CESAR, Chester Luiz Galvao; CARANDINA, Luana; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; ALVES, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; GOLDBAUM, Moises
Fonte: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION Publicador: PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes. Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in municipalities located within the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. For children under 1 year of age, the two periods were compared in terms of outpatient services utilization and hospital admission; for the mothers, the periods were compared in terms of prenatal care and deliveries. In both surveys, stratified and multiple-stage conglomerate sampling was employed, with standardization of interview questions. Results. The most important changes observed were regarding the location of services used for prenatal care, deliveries, and hospitalization of children less than 1 year of age. There was a significant increase in the use of services in the surrounding region or hometown, and decrease in the utilization of services in the city of Sao Paulo (in 1990...

The Economic Benefits of Investing in Child Health

Belli, Paolo C.; Appaix, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
This paper presents a survey of the theory and the evidence on the economic impact of investing in child health. It shows that investing in the health of children is justified not only because it fulfills a basic human right, but also because it is an investment with high social and private returns. A central theme of this paper is that the relationship that links child health with economically relevant dimensions is circular-poverty contributes to disease, and poor health contributes to perpetuating poverty. The available evidence shows that almost 11 million children die every year from largely preventable diseases, and it unveils what the principal determinants of child illness are. The vast majority of children who die belong to the more disadvantaged socioeconomic groups within each country. Furthermore, the literature identifies several interventions and programs that could significantly contribute to improved child health, particularly in the areas of nutrition, communicable disease prevention and control...

The Determinants of Child Health and Nutrition : A Meta-analysis

Charmarbagwala, Rubiana; Ranger, Martin; Waddington, Hugh; White, Howard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The reduction of infant and child death is one of the eight millennium development goals (MDGs). In addition, one of the goal one indicators is child malnutrition. A central question for the development community is to understand the factors underlying child health and nutritional status. What are the determinants of these indicators, which of these determinants are amenable to policy intervention, and which are the most effective channels for influencing health and nutrition outcomes? Potentially more insightful is analysis using data collected from household surveys which can include such variables. This paper summarizes the conclusions from these statistical studies of the determinants of child health (infant and child mortality) and nutritional status. The results from the various studies are combined using meta-analysis, which calculates the statistical significance of a variable included in more than one study by combining the results of those studies. In this context, the report is structured as follows: part one gives introduction. Part two briefs review of theory to introduce the relevant variables and their classification. Part three discusses data and variable definition and econometric issues...

Place and Child Health : The Interaction of Population Density and Sanitation in Developing Countries

Hathi, Payal; Haque, Sabrina; Pant, Lovey; Coffey, Diane; Spears, Dean
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
A long literature in demography debates the importance of place for health. This paper assesses whether the importance of dense settlement for child mortality and child height is moderated by exposure to local sanitation behavior. Is open defecation, without a toilet or latrine, worse for infant mortality and child height where population density is greater? Is poor sanitation an important mechanism by which population density in?uences health outcomes? The paper uses newly assembled data sets to present two complementary analyses, which represent di?erent points in a trade-o? between external and internal validity. The first analysis concentrates on external validity by studying infant mortality and child height in a large, international child-level data set of 172 Demographic and Health Surveys, matched to census population density data for 1,800 subnational regions. The second analysis concentrates on internal validity by studying child height in Bangladeshi districts, with a new data set constructed with Geographic Information System techniques...

Female work participation and child health: an investigation in rural Tamil Nadu, India

Sivakami, M
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 43564 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.09%
This paper seeks to examine the linkage between mothers’ work and child health. The data are from a survey of 75 working and 75 non-working women in a village in Tamil Nadu, India. The results show that the working women spend on an average 1.7 hours less than the non-working women on child care. The duration of breastfeeding also is shorter among the working women. The morbidity rates were higher for the children of working women than for the children of nonworking women. Logistic regression analysis showed that the children of working women are at a significantly greater risk of morbidity even when socio-economic factors are controlled. The results, however, do not show a significant variation in morbidity by sex.; no

Maternal schooling and child health: preliminary analysis of the intervening mechanisms in rural Nepal

Joshi, Arun R
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 91784 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
This article provides evidence from a community-level study in rural Nepal of the mechanisms by which schooling affects maternal behaviour and infant and child health. Two hypotheses concerning the mechanisms are identified and tested. It was found that schooling equips women with specific skills and dispositions or identity which significantly predict two principal domains of health-care behaviour: use of medical services; and changes in household health behaviour. It was also found that women with schooling had healthier children using height-for-age as an indicator of health.; no

Fathers' perception of child health: a case study in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan

Jahn, Albrecht; Aslam, Asif
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 51467 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.19%
This study looks at child health from a father’s perspective. While the close relationship between children and mothers has been acknowledged, and brought about the concept of Mother and Child Health (MCH), little attention has been paid to the role of fathering. In Pakistan, where the study was undertaken, a high infant and under-five mortality coincides with a low acceptance of MCH services and a tradition of female seclusion, , which severely limits women’s movements in public. Purdah is often cited as an important cause for the low MCH-coverage, indicating an inappropriate design of established MCH-services with its exclusive focus on mothers, and prompting the questions taken up in this study: what is the role of fathers in child health, how do they define child health needs and how do they participate in child care? The study was undertaken in the squatter settlement Orangi in Karachi where the Aga Khan University is involved in a PHC program. A set of qualitative methods was used including key informant interviews, focus group interviews with fathers, group interviews with women and community health workers with a total of 61 informants, and observation of father-child interaction. Apart from their basic role as breadwinners...

Maternal Health, Child Health and Nutrition in Lao PDR : Evidence from a Household Survey in Six Central and Southern Provinces

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Despite being on-track on the child- and maternal-health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Lao PDR continues to have some of the worst maternal and child health (MCH) and nutrition outcome indicators, both globally as well as in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region. This report presents results from a household, village, and facility survey on Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and nutrition in mostly rural areas of six central and southern provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The information in this report localizes MCH and nutrition-related information that are typical for sampled catchment areas of selected health centers in six central and southern provinces of the country. In addition, the report summarizes data on service availability and readiness of health centers in terms of their ability to provide key MCH & nutrition-related services. The results from this survey thus shed light on what it would take to attain the health-related MDGs. In order to improve the level and equity of maternal and child health indicators...

Transport for Health : The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport

Global Road Safety Facility, The World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Fonte: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Publicador: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.99%
This report summarizes the findings of a long and meticulous journey of data gathering and analysis to quantify the health losses from road deaths and injuries worldwide, as part of the path-finding Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. It is important, first, to acknowledge the profound contribution made by the lead authors and global team of injury prevention professionals to estimate the disease burden of road trauma, before absorbing their findings and recommendations. Without their dedication and tenacity, the way forward would be less certain. The first GBD study, published nearly two decades ago, signaled an emerging road safety crisis in developing regions of the world. It triggered a remarkable program of global advocacy that culminated in the United Nations decade of action for road safety and global plan to bring road safety outcomes under control in these regions by 2020. However, limited investment has been mobilized so far to implement the UN initiative. The second GBD studies, and related analyses presented in this report...

Private Sector Participation in Child Health : A Review of World Bank Projects, 1993-2002

Axelsson, Henrik; Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
There is an increasing amount of evidence to support the view that the private sector significantly influences child health and nutrition outcomes through both service provision and supply of health related goods. In this context, this paper analyzes World Bank projects in Health, Nutrition and Population between fiscal years 1993-2002. The paper identifies the range of approaches taken to involve the private sector in improving child health outcomes; the actors involved; the type of activities supported by the projects; and examples of successful private sector participation. The paper's concludes: As measured by the proportion of projects (more than 50 perccent) that involved the private sector in child health, private sector participation was significant. As measured by the magnitude of involvement (budget amounts and stated project objectives), the degree of private sector participation was relatively small for most projects. Since most projects did not mention a systematic assessment of potential and opportunities to engage the private sector...

Tajikistan - Quality of Child Health Services

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Health Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
The Government of Tajikistan has identified Primary Heath Care (PHC), and Maternal and Child Health (MCH) as top priorities in its first Comprehensive National Health Sector Strategy (2010-2020). The study findings which closely mirror those of the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nation children's Fund (UNICEF) Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) survey will be of great concern to the Ministry of Health and should provide the impetus to take immediate remedial actions. Much remains to be done to improve the overall quality of primary health care services for under-five children. Two main issues are highlighted by this study. Firstly, the quality of primary health care services provided to children is lacking in many areas, irrespective of the PHC provider's type of training. Second, is that the family medicine and IMCI training programs and methods require further enhancement to ensure that the service quality for children improves. The study also finds that supervision of PHC workers is irregular...

Child Health

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
The largest global equity gap in health, is among children, and concentrated in communicable diseases. This note examines the work of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) - a strategy to improve child health outcomes, developed by the World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Fund - whose aim is to reduce childhood deaths, illnesses, and disabilities, while improving children's growth, and development. IMCI's three main components are to: improve family, and community practices related to child health, and nutrition; improve the health system for effective management of childhood illnesses; and, improve health workers' skills. Finally, the note highlights further needs, e.g., creating working groups to develop national plans in accordance with the three IMCI components, adapting national guidelines, with the IMCI training material, and include the major causes of child deaths, and conditions; targeting poor communities, and disadvantaged children; and, linking health facilities with communities...

Tajik Child Health : All Hands on Deck

Bakilana, Anne; Msisha, Wezi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Promoting and protecting the health of their families is a high priority of households in Tajikistan-half of all households identify health as the aspect of life that is of greatest concern to them. Thirty five percent, or 2.5 million of the total estimated population of 7.2 million people in the country, are under 15 years of age. The median age of the population is just 21.6 years (UN, 2008). Although fertility has fallen in recent years, the total fertility rate remains above three. Thus, policies to improve maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes are central to improving the health of the nation. Tajikistan faces considerable challenges in its quest to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for MCH over the next six years. The fourth MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in child mortality calls for Tajikistan to decrease its current under-five mortality rate (U5MR) of 79 deaths per 1000 live births to less than 30 per 1000, and the current Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) of 65 deaths per 1000 to under 25 per 1000. Countries with GDP levels similar to Tajikistan have made significantly better progress towards reaching their MDG targets. For instance...

Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

Bustreo,Flavia; Harding,April; Axelsson,Henrik
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.15%
The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations...

Child health in complex emergencies

Moss,William J; Ramakrishnan,Meenakshi; Storms,Dory; Henderson Siegle,Anne; Weiss,William M; Lejnev,Ivan; Muhe,Lulu
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
Coordinated and effective interventions are critical for relief efforts to be successful in addressing the health needs of children in situations of armed conflict, population displacement, and/or food insecurity. We reviewed published literature and surveyed international relief organizations engaged in child health activities in complex emergencies. Our aim was to identify research needs and improve guidelines for the care of children. Much of the literature details the burden of disease and the causes of morbidity and mortality; few interventional studies have been published. Surveys of international relief organizations showed that most use World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and ministry of health guidelines designed for use in stable situations. Organizations were least likely to have formal guidelines on the management of asphyxia, prematurity, and infection in neonates; diagnosis and management of children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; active case-finding and treatment of tuberculosis; paediatric trauma; and the diagnosis and management of mental-health problems in children. Guidelines often are not adapted to the different types of health-care workers who provide care in complex emergencies. Evidence-based...

Coping with changing conditions: alternative strategies for the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning services in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Routh,Subrata; Arifeen,Shams El; Jahan,Shamim Ara; Begum,Anwara; Thwin,Aye Aye; Baqui,Abdullah  Hel
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
The door-to-door distribution of contraceptives and information on maternal and child health and family planning (MCH-FP) services, through bimonthly visits to eligible couples by trained fieldworkers, has been instrumental in increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate and immunization coverage in Bangladesh. The doorstep delivery strategy, however, is labour- intensive and costly. More cost-effective service delivery strategies are needed, not only for family planning services but also for a broader package of reproductive and other essential health services. Against this backdrop, operations research was conducted by the Centre for Health and Population Research at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) from January 1996 to May 1997, in collaboration with government agencies and a leading national nongovernmental organization, with a view to developing and field-testing alternative approaches to the delivery of MCH-FP services in urban areas. Two alternative strategies featuring the withdrawal of home-based distribution and the delivery of basic health care from fixed-site facilities were tested in two areas of Dhaka. The clinic-based service delivery strategy was found to be a feasible alternative to the resource-intensive doorstep system in urban Dhaka. It did not adversely affect programme performance and it allowed the needs of clients to be addressed holistically through a package of essential health and family planning services.

The evolution of child health programmes in developing countries: from targeting diseases to targeting people

Claeson,Mariam; Waldman,Ronald J.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.08%
Mortality rates among children and the absolute number of children dying annually in developing countries have declined considerably over the past few decades. However, the gains made have not been distributed evenly: childhood mortality remains higher among poorer people and the gap between rich and poor has grown. Several poor countries, and some poorer regions within countries, have experienced a levelling off of or even an increase in childhood mortality over the past few years. Until now, two types of programmes - short-term, disease-specific initiatives and more general programmes of primary health care - have contributed to the decline in mortality. Both types of programme can contribute substantially to the strengthening of health systems and in enabling households and communities to improve their health care. In order for them to do so, and in order to complete the unfinished agenda of improving child health globally, new strategies are needed. On the one hand, greater emphasis should be placed on promoting those household behaviours that are not dependent on the performance of health systems. On the other hand, more attention should be paid to interventions that affect health at other stages of the life cycle while efforts that have been made to develop interventions that can be used during childhood continue.