Página 1 dos resultados de 1121 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos

How many die? A set of demographic estimates of the annual number of infant and child deaths in the world.

Gwatkin, D R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Estimates concerning the annual number of infant and child deaths in the world range from around 15 million to well over 30 million. Although infant and child mortality is difficult to measure with any precision, the range of uncertainty can be narrowed considerably through the application of standard demographic techniques to readily available population data. A set of estimates based on the most recent and authoritative data compilations points to a range of from 12-13 million to about 17-18 million infant and child deaths annually during the late 1970s, with an average of around 15 million. On the basis of what is known about mortality conditions of the world today, a figure much larger than the 17-18 million at the high end of this range would be extremely difficult to substantiate.

Social autopsy for maternal and child deaths: a comprehensive literature review to examine the concept and the development of the method

Kalter, Henry D; Salgado, Rene; Babille, Marzio; Koffi, Alain K; Black, Robert E
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
"Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability.

Prevalence and Determinants of the Gender Differentials Risk Factors of Child Deaths in Bangladesh: Evidence from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011

Hossain, Md. Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K. C.; Islam, Md. Rafiqul
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Children are a significant asset of a country. Child deaths are an important way to determine the health sector development. The effectiveness of the interventions is required to prevent child deaths. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh. Data were collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. The results indicate that in Bangladesh there is an association with child deaths and mothers’ age, mothers’ education, social-economic status, birth interval, birth order, baby size and place delivered. For Bangladesh, this study recommends expanding female education to increase mothers’ knowledge, an awareness program about birth order (take one child) and an increase in the birth interval.

Child Mortality Estimation: Accelerated Progress in Reducing Global Child Mortality, 1990–2010

Hill, Kenneth H.; You, Danzhen; Inoue, Mie; Oestergaard, Mikkel Z.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Monitoring development indicators has become a central interest of international agencies and countries for tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. In this review, which also provides an introduction to a collection of articles, we describe the methodology used by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation to track country-specific changes in the key indicator for Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4), the decline of the under-five mortality rate (the probability of dying between birth and age five, also denoted in the literature as U5MR and 5q0). We review how relevant data from civil registration, sample registration, population censuses, and household surveys are compiled and assessed for United Nations member states, and how time series regression models are fitted to all points of acceptable quality to establish the trends in U5MR from which infant and neonatal mortality rates are generally derived. The application of this methodology indicates that, between 1990 and 2010, the global U5MR fell from 88 to 57 deaths per 1,000 live births, and the annual number of under-five deaths fell from 12.0 to 7.6 million. Although the annual rate of reduction in the U5MR accelerated from 1.9% for the period 1990–2000 to 2.5% for the period 2000–2010...

Designing and Implementing an Innovative SMS-Based Alert System (RapidSMS-MCH) to Monitor Pregnancy and Reduce Maternal and Child Deaths in Rwanda

Ngabo, Fidele; Nguimfack, Judith; Nwaigwe, Friday; Mugeni, Catherine; Muhoza, Denis; Wilson, David R; Kalach, John; Gakuba, Richard; Karema, Corrine; Binagwaho, Agnes
Fonte: The African Field Epidemiology Network Publicador: The African Field Epidemiology Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Introduction: With the continuous growth of mobile network coverage and unprecedented penetration of mobile devices in the developing world, several mHealth initiatives are being implemented in developing countries. This paper aims to describe requirements for designing and implementing a mobile phone-based communication system aiming at monitoring pregnancy and reducing bottlenecks in communication associated with maternal and newborn deaths; and document challenges and lessons learned. Methods: An SMS-based system was developed to improve maternal and child health (MCH) using RapidSMS(^®), a free and open-sourced software development framework. To achieve the expected results, the RapidSMS-MCH system was customized to allow interactive communication between a community health worker (CHW)following mother-infant pairs in their community, a national centralized database, the health facility and in case of an emergency alert, the ambulance driver. The RapidSMS-MCH system was piloted in Musanze district, Nothern province of Rwanda over a 12-month period. Results: A total of 432 CHW were trained and equipped with mobile phones. A total of 35,734 SMS were sent by 432 CHW from May 2010 to April 2011. A total of 11,502 pregnancies were monitored. A total of 362 SMS alerts for urgent and life threatening events were registered. We registered a 27% increase in facility based delivery from 72% twelve months before to 92% at the end of the twelve months pilot phase. Major challenges were telephone maintenance and replacement. Disctrict heath team capacity to manage and supervise the system was strengthened by the end of pilot phase. Highly committed CHWs and effective coordination by the District health team were critical enablers. Conclusion: We successully designed and implemented a mobile phone SMS-based system to track pregnancy and maternal and child outcomes in limited resources setting. Implementation of mobile-phone systems at community level could contribute to improving emergency obstetric and neonatal care...

Malaria Booster Program for Africa : Gaining Ground against a Major Challenge to Health and Development

Qamruddin, Jumana; Constantinou, Nansia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Malaria is a treatable and preventable disease yet it remains a major challenge to achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Africa. It is not only a serious health problem, but an issue that cripples development. Every year, malaria infects more than 500 million people around the world and is one of the leading causes of child deaths on in Africa, with 3,000 children dying from it every day. It is estimated that malaria costs Africa $12 billion a year in direct costs and lost productivity. The key features of the Booster Program are the following: (i) support for country-led operations to reduce illnesses and avoidable deaths from malaria while improving the capacity for service delivery; (ii) emphasis on both effective scale-up of critical disease control interventions and the strengthening of health systems; (iii) partnerships to broker global agreements and support country led programs; (iv) monitoring results against monies spent; and v) knowledge generation and innovations to finance global public goods for malaria control. Due in part to the efforts of the Booster Program...

Combating Malnutrition : Time to Act

Gillespie, Stuart; McLachlan, Milla; Shrimpton, Roger
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and UNICEF Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and UNICEF
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Nutrition has been sidelined for too long. Reducing malnutrition is central to reducing poverty. Malnutrition is implicated in half of all child deaths, and causes much illness and cognitive underdevelopment. As the growing evidence demonstrates, fetal and young children malnutrition, threatens survival, growth, and development in childhood, and, it increases the risk of chronic diseases in later life. The Millennium Development Goals cannot be reached without significant efforts to eliminate malnutrition. The book looks at ways to combat malnutrition, by positioning nutrition directly on the poverty and human development policy agenda, to ensure large-scale nutrition actions, and develop capacity to address malnutrition. It provides key findings on the nutritional status, and the broad consensus on what needs to be done, through the analyses of the evolution of policy narratives, country case studies, and workshops, that are behind the headlines, in order to show how policy changes in nutrition happen, what influences these processes...

Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality in Rural China : A Competing Risks Approach

Jacoby, Hanan; Wang, Limin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
We use a competing risk model to analyze environmental determinants of child mortality using the 1992 China National Health Survey, which collects information on cause of death. Our primary question is whether taking into account of cause of death using a competing risk model, compared with a simple model of all-cause mortality, affects conclusions about the effectiveness of policy interventions. There are two potential analytical advantages in using cause of death information: (1) obtaining more accurate estimates and (2) validating causal relationships. Although, we do not find significant differences between estimates obtained from the competing risk model and those from simpler hazard models, we do find evidence supporting the causal interpretations of the effect of access to safe water on child mortality. Our analysis also suggests that a respondent-based health survey can be used to collect relatively reliable information on cause of death. Modifying future demographic and health survey (DHS) instruments to collect cause of death information inexpensively may be worthwhile for enhancing the analytical strength of the DHS.

Maternal and Child Mortality Development Goals : What Can the Transport Sector Do?

Babinard, Julie; Roberts, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
The reduction of child mortality and the improvement of maternal health are two of the Millennium Development Goals. Child and maternal mortalities continue to represent severe burdens in many developing countries. Every year, 527,000 women in developing countries die of pregnancy-related complications and nearly 4 million children die during their first month (accounting for 40 percent of all deaths under 5 years of age) with nearly all (98 percent) of them in developing countries. The risks of dying from pregnancy-related complications and a child dying under the age of five are highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The risk of a mother or an infant dying can be significantly reduced by a continuum of basic care, which should include preventive measures and a skilled attendant during childbirth with access to the necessary equipment, drugs, and other supplies for effective management of any pregnancy-related complications. Yet, many women spend excessive time trying to reach a health facility with the capacity to treat obstetric or infant complications. It is estimated that 75 percent of maternal deaths might be prevented through timely access to essential emergency childbirth-related care. This paper focuses on the ways in which transport and road infrastructure play key roles in the overall delivery of and access to health services...

Malnutrition in Afghanistan : Scale, Scope, Causes, and Potential Response

Levitt, Emily; Kostermans, Kees; Laviolette, Luc; Mbuya, Nkosinathi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
This book has the potential to contribute to a reversing of this trend, whereby activities in not only the health sector but also in other sectors relevant to nutrition will gain increased support and prominence in national development planning. South Asia has by far the largest number of malnourished women and children, and no other region of the world has higher rates of malnutrition. Malnutrition in childhood is the biggest contributor to child mortality; a third of child deaths have malnutrition as an underlying cause. For the surviving children, malnutrition has lifelong implications because it severely reduces a child's ability to learn and to grow to his or her full potential. Malnutrition thus leads to less productive adults and weaker national economic performance. Therefore, the impact of malnutrition on a society's productivity and well being and a nation's long-term development is hard to underestimate. For the South Asia region of the World Bank, malnutrition is a key development priority...

Water and Sanitation to Reduce Child Mortality : The Impact and Cost of Water and Sanitation Infrastructure

Gunther, Isabel; Fink, Gunther
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Using household survey data, this paper estimates the mortality impact of improved water and sanitation access in order to evaluate the potential contribution of water and sanitation investment toward achieving the child mortality targets defined in Millennium Development Goal 4. The authors find that the average mortality reduction achievable by investment in water and sanitation infrastructure is 25 deaths per 1,000 children born across countries, a difference that accounts for about 40 percent of the gap between current child mortality rates and the 2015 target set in the Millennium Development Goals. According to the estimates, full household coverage with water and sanitation infrastructure could lead to a total reduction of 2.2 million child deaths per year in the developing world. Combining this analysis with cost data for water and sanitation infrastructure, the authors estimate that the average cost per life-year saved ranges between 65 and 80 percent of developing countries' annual gross domestic product per capita. The results suggest that investment in water and sanitation is a highly cost-effective policy option...

India - Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in India's Poor States : Reducing Child Mortality in Orissa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This report builds on the World Bank's earlier report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in India (2004 report number 30266), which highlighted the challenges India faces in meeting a number of the MDGs. The report focuses on the state of Orissa and is organized as follows: the second chapter provides a brief background on Orissa. This is followed by a review of recent trends with infant and child mortality in the state. Chapter 4 introduces a framework for assessing the multitude of factors which have a bearing on infant and child mortality, dividing them into four groups: the individual woman/mother; the family; the community and service provision. Chapter 5 applies the analytical framework to Orissa and this is followed by a chapter 6 which looks at district level patterns. The final chapter of the report pulls it altogether and attempts to answer three questions: what is needed to bring down child mortality rates in Orissa and achieve the 11" Five Year Plan and MDG goal; how well are existing interventions placed to do the job; and where are the gaps and how can they best be filled. The report ends with an outline of a possible multi-sectoral program designed to reduce child mortality in Orissa.

Child Health and the 1988-92 Economic Crisis in Peru

Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The effect of economic crises on child health is a topic of great policy importance. The authors use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to analyze the impact of the profound 1988-92 economic crisis in Peru on infant mortality and anthropometrics. They show that there was an increase in the infant mortality rate of about 2.5 percentage points for children born in late 1989 and 1990, implying that about 17,000 more children died than would have in the absence of the crisis. The authors also present suggestive evidence that the crisis affected children's nutritional status. In 1992 children under the age of 6 who had been exposed to the crisis were shorter than same-aged children in 1996 and 2000. The authors do not have data on child height prior to the crisis, but the age profile of changes in nutritional status and the fact that the 1996 and 2000 height-for-age schedules are very similar to each other both suggest that the 1992 values represent declines from previous levels. Accounting for the precise source of the increase in infant mortality and in malnutrition is difficult...

Brazil : Maternal and Child Health; Brasil - Saude Materno Infantil

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
The health care system in Brazil has established the important principle of universal coverage, yet, it faces several key challenges: its expenditure patterns favor the regions that are already better off, and healthier, and, needs to take into account diverse practices, and cultures, in addition to considerations for the weak referral system. The report focuses on the health care system, particularly on enhancing maternal and prenatal health, certain health care interventions, such as immunizations, oral rehydration therapy, and case management. Chapter 1 argues that the major reason for the maternal and child health risks is the concentration of illness and death among the poor : infant mortality rates jump 80-100 percent from the next to lowest income quintile, to the lowest. Several interventions, such as strategies to promote productivity, increase economic opportunities, and enhance maternal education among the poor, could help reduce inequalities. Chapter 2 uses estimates of avoidable child deaths to prioritize health interventions in the country...

Tajikistan - Improving Statistics for Children's Births and Deaths

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
The Government of Tajikistan has identified improving maternal and child health (MCH) as key priorities in its new Health Sector Strategy for 2010-2020. The Government recognizes that improving MCH outcomes is critical to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for maternal and child health over the next four years. Tajikistan's data on most of the MDG indicators for maternal and child health can be improved significantly. The Government's ability to track its progress and to take action to ensure the achievement of its MDGs will be considerably bolstered by access to reliable data on childbirths, child mortality and others factors that affect these outcomes. To improve data reporting, data collection needs to be consistent in its methods and sources, which is currently not the case. As a result, health facilities and national agencies' reports diverge significantly from the results of nationally representative surveys. With this in mind, the study therefore set out to identify the main factors affecting two specific areas of Tajikistan's Health Information System-namely the child birth and death registration system as well as the possible steps to address them. The analysis reveals a number of issues that are key constraints to the further development of the vital statistics system in Tajikistan...

Tajikistan - Quality of Child Health Services

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Health Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The Government of Tajikistan has identified Primary Heath Care (PHC), and Maternal and Child Health (MCH) as top priorities in its first Comprehensive National Health Sector Strategy (2010-2020). The study findings which closely mirror those of the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nation children's Fund (UNICEF) Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) survey will be of great concern to the Ministry of Health and should provide the impetus to take immediate remedial actions. Much remains to be done to improve the overall quality of primary health care services for under-five children. Two main issues are highlighted by this study. Firstly, the quality of primary health care services provided to children is lacking in many areas, irrespective of the PHC provider's type of training. Second, is that the family medicine and IMCI training programs and methods require further enhancement to ensure that the service quality for children improves. The study also finds that supervision of PHC workers is irregular...

A Closer Look at Child Mortality among Adivasis in India

Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Kapoor, Soumya; Nikitin, Denis
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
The authors use data from the National Family Health Survey 2005 to present age-specific patterns of child mortality among India's tribal (Adivasi) population. The analysis shows three clear findings. First, a disproportionately high number of child deaths are concentrated among Adivasis, especially in the 1-5 age group and in those states and districts where there is a high concentration of Adivasis. Any effort to reduce child morality in the aggregate will have to focus more squarely on lowering mortality among the Adivasis. Second, the gap in mortality between Adivasi children and the rest really appears after the age of one. In fact, before the age of one, tribal children face more or less similar odds of dying as other children. However, these odds significantly reverse later. This calls for a shift in attention from infant mortality or in general under-five mortality to factors that cause a wedge between tribal children and the rest between the ages of one and five. Third, the analysis goes contrary to the conventional narrative of poverty being the primary factor driving differences between mortality outcomes. Instead...

Child Health

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
The largest global equity gap in health, is among children, and concentrated in communicable diseases. This note examines the work of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) - a strategy to improve child health outcomes, developed by the World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Fund - whose aim is to reduce childhood deaths, illnesses, and disabilities, while improving children's growth, and development. IMCI's three main components are to: improve family, and community practices related to child health, and nutrition; improve the health system for effective management of childhood illnesses; and, improve health workers' skills. Finally, the note highlights further needs, e.g., creating working groups to develop national plans in accordance with the three IMCI components, adapting national guidelines, with the IMCI training material, and include the major causes of child deaths, and conditions; targeting poor communities, and disadvantaged children; and, linking health facilities with communities...

Improving child survival: Malnutrition Task Force and the paediatrician's responsibility

Jackson, A A; Ashworth, A; Khanum, S
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Malnutrition (underweight) contributes to approximately 60% of all child deaths, yet health professionals, policy makers, and donor agencies often fail to recognise its relevance to child survival. There is a need for the paediatric community to champion the importance of adequate nutrition for normal growth and development, and of placing sufficient emphasis on the prevention and treatment of malnutrition. Many severely malnourished children die from inappropriate treatment. Case fatality rates of 25–30% are commonly found and in some hospitals as many as 50–70% will die. Many of these deaths are avoidable. Weaknesses in health systems, inappropriate training of doctors and nurses, inadequate supervision, and lack of support for staff all contribute to compromised quality of care. The International Union of Nutritional Sciences, with support from the International Pediatric Association, Launched a global Malnutrition Task Force in 2005. The main objective is to ensure that an integrated system of prevention and treatment of malnutrition is actively supported as a fundamental aspect of care, and becomes an integral part of all training programmes.

Mortalidade infantil nos últimos quinquênios em Porto Velho, Rondônia – Brasil; Child mortality in the last five-year periods in the city of Porto Velho, RO, Brazil

Moreira, Kátia Fernanda Alves; Oliveira, Tathiane Souza de; Gonçalves, Ticiana Albuquerque; Moura, Cleson de Oliveira; Maluf, Sâmia Nagib; Tavares, Rosalina Semedo de Andrade; Tavares, Carlos Mendes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Objetivo: Analisar a evolução de mortalidade infantil. Método: Estudo ecológico e descritivo. Utilizaram-se os bancos de dados de óbitos fornecidos pelo Sistema de Informações sobre mortalidade, durante o período de 2006 a 2010. Selecionaram-se apenas os registros em que o município de residência e de ocorrência dos óbitos correspondiam ao município de Porto Velho e os que apresentavam idade menor de 12 meses no momento do óbito. Analisaram apenas os óbitos por causas evitáveis neonatal e pós-neonatal. Resultados: No município de Porto Velho, em período estudado há um predomínio de mães com idade entre 20 a 34 anos, cujos percentuais de óbitos infantis variaram entre 26,0% em 2006 a 29,0% em 2010, com oscilações percentuais nos demais anos. Houve uma tendência crescente de óbitos prematuros, exceto no ano de 2009, cujo percentual foi de 45,0%. Entre os anos de 2006 e 2007 esse percentual manteve-se em 50,0%, aumentou para 53% em 2008 e em 2010 representou 54,0% dos óbitos em menores de 1 ano. Conclusão: A estimativa de incidência de mortalidade infantil foi sempre mais elevada, ao longo do período estudado, do que o valor esperado para o Brasil até 2015.; Objective: To analyze the evolution of child mortality. Methods: A descriptive ecological study was conducted. The database of deaths provided by the Mortality Information System between 2006 and 2010 was used. Only records in which the city of residence and occurrence of deaths corresponded to the city of Porto Velho and whose children were younger than 12 months at the time of death were included in this study. In addition...