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Análise da margem de comercialização do arroz gaúcho no mercado de São Paulo no período pós Plano Real; Analysis of the marketing margin of the gaucho rice in the Sao Paulos market in the period after the Real Plan

Zanin, Vanclei
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2011 PT
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O comportamento da margem de comercialização como indicador de eficiência e desempenho do sistema de comercialização agrícola foi alvo de diversas pesquisas, principalmente, nos anos 1970 e início dos anos 1990, período de elevadas taxas de inflação na economia brasileira. Diversas alterações no cenário macroeconômico do período pós Plano Real (estabilização monetária, abertura econômica, modificações no regime cambial, etc.), concomitantemente com a diminuição da intervenção estatal, justificam que o tema seja novamente abordado, o que foi feito nesta dissertação considerando um produto essencial na alimentação do povo brasileiro, notadamente daqueles com menor poder aquisitivo o arroz. Em relação a esse cereal, constata-se crescimento da produção nacional, principalmente em razão a ganhos de produtividade, destacando-se a concentração da sua produção no Rio Grande do Sul. Pelo lado da demanda, observa-se uma lenta diminuição do consumo per capita, devido a fatores como aumento da renda, da taxa de urbanização e mudanças nos hábitos de consumo. Entretanto, o arroz ainda é um produto básico na alimentação do brasileiro, sendo o estado de São Paulo o maior centro de consumo do cereal. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi examinar os fatores que afetam a margem de comercialização do arroz produzido no Rio Grande do Sul e consumido na cidade de São Paulo de agosto de 1994 até março de 2011. Para tanto foi estimado um modelo econométrico para captar as relações entre as variáveis que afetam essa margem. Esse modelo...

Mudanças nos uso e preços de terras do Estado de São Paulo - período de 1995 a 2010; Changes in land use and farmland prices in São Paulo State: from 1995 to 2010

Chang, Flora Lee Nien Caetano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2012 PT
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55.81%
Este estudo examinou as principais transformações ocorridas na forma de ocupação do solo em diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo, entre os anos de 1995 e 2010, tendo como objetivo geral determinar quais os principais vetores das mudanças observadas nos preços de terras agrícolas. Esse período abrange tanto a fase de retração e desregulamentação do setor sucroalcooleiro, após o abandono do Proálcool, quanto a nova etapa de investimentos que adentraram o setor na última década, visando, principalmente, restituir a cadeia de produção de etanol, oportunamente esteado no calor das discussões sobre combate às mudanças climáticas. Tais investimentos, juntamente com o cenário econômico internacional de preços vantajosos para as commodities agrícolas, dentre elas o açúcar, deram origem a uma nova fase de expansão da lavoura canavieira no estado. Por outro lado, a rápida incursão das culturas agroenergéticas nos espaços agrícolas levantou diversas opiniões exprobatórias, segundo as quais tal avanço pressionaria tanto os preços de terras como os de alimentos. Concomitantemente, o crescimento econômico de países emergentes, durante a segunda metade da última década, impulsionou não apenas a demanda por combustíveis e alimentos (dentre eles...

Taxa de cambio e preços no Brasil : analise dos impactos das variações cambiais sobre os preços industriais domesticos e das exportações no periodo 1995-2005; Exchange rte and prices in Brazil : an analysis of the impacts of changes in exchange rate on domestic and export industrial prices during 1995-2005 period

Andre Luiz Correa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/03/2008 PT
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Esta tese analisa empiricamente os impactos de variações cambiais sobre os preços de exportação e os preços industriais domésticos, desagregados setorialmente, no Brasil durante o período 1995-2005, levando em consideração a inserção externa da economia em um contexto de ampliação da internacionalização após o processo de reestruturação produtiva implementado ao longo da década de 1990. O referencial teórico incorpora trabalhos sobre o tema do exchange rate pass-through que privilegiam aspectos ligados à estrutura de comércio e à estratégias de empresas estrangeiras operando em diversos mercados. Os coeficientes de pass-through referentes aos preços de exportação indicam que os maiores repasses ocorrem em setores produtores de bens de menor conteúdo tecnológico em que o Brasil possui posição comercial relativamente forte, ao passo que parte dos setores produtores de manufaturados apresentam coeficientes de repasse cambial reduzido. Em relação ao preçõs industriais domésticos, os maiores coeficientes de passthrough foram observados em setores produtores de manufaturados, geralmente importadores de componentes intermediários dotados de maior conteúdo tecnolóico. Os resultados refletem em grande medida a inserção comercial brasileira...

Potential Implications of a Special Safeguard Mechanism in the WTO : The Case of Wheat

Hertel, Thomas W.; Martin, Will; Leister, Amanda M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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The Special Safeguard Mechanism was a key issue in the July 2008 failure to reach agreement in the World Trade Organization negotiations under the Doha Development Agenda. It includes both price and quantity-triggered measures. This paper uses a stochastic simulation model of the world wheat market to investigate the effects of policy makers implementing policies based on the Special Safeguard Mechanism rules. As expected, implementation of the quantity-triggered measures is found to reduce imports, raise domestic prices, and boost mean domestic production in the Special Safeguard Mechanism regions. However, rather than insulating countries that use it from price volatility, it would actually increase domestic price volatility in developing countries, largely by restricting imports when domestic output is low and prices high. This paper estimates that implementation of the quantity-triggered measures would shrink average wheat imports by nearly 50 percent in some regions, with world wheat trade falling by 4.7 percent. The price measures discriminate against low price exporters -- many of whom are developing countries -- and tend to increase producer price instability.

How Do Governments Respond to Food Price Spikes? Lessons from the Past

Anderson, Kym; Nelgen, Signe
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Food prices in international markets spiked upward in 2008, doubling or more in a matter of months. Evidence is still being compiled on policy responses over the following two years, but lessons can be learned from the price spike in 1973, the magnitude and speed of which were similar to those experienced around the 2008 spike. In developing countries, policy responses to the earlier spike lowered the (negative) nominal assistance coefficient for agriculture by one-third between 1972 and 1974 before it was returned to the same level by 1976. That was twice the extent of the fall and recovery of the (positive) nominal assistance coefficient for high-income countries. However, the trade and welfare effects of those changes were much less for developing than high-income countries, suggesting the dispersion of distortion rates among farm industries decreased in developing countries. The adjustments were virtually all due to suspension and then reinstatement of import restrictions, with changes in export taxation by developing countries playing an additional (but minor) role during 1972-74. This beggar-thy-neighbor dimension of each government s food policies is worrying because it reduces the role that trade between nations can play in bringing stability to the world s food markets. More effort appears to be needed before a multilateral agreement to desist can be reached.

Implications of Higher Global Food Prices for Poverty in Low-Income Countries

Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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55.81%
In many poor countries, the recent increases in prices of staple foods raise the real incomes of those selling food, many of whom are relatively poor, while hurting net food consumers, many of whom are also relatively poor. The impacts on poverty will certainly be very diverse, but the average impact on poverty depends upon the balance between these two effects, and can only be determined by looking at real-world data. Results using household data for ten observations on nine low-income countries show that the short-run impacts of higher staple food prices on poverty differ considerably by commodity and by country, but, that poverty increases are much more frequent, and larger, than poverty reductions. The recent large increases in food prices appear likely to raise overall poverty in low income countries substantially.

Forest Cover Change in Space and Time : Combining the von Thünen and Forest Transition Theories

Angelsen, Arild
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper presents a framework for analyzing tropical deforestation and reforestation using the von Thunen model as its starting point: land is allocated to the use which yields the highest rent, and the rents of various land uses are determined by location. Forest cover change therefore becomes a question of changes in rent of forest versus non-forest use. While this is a simple and powerful starting point, more intriguing issues arise when this is applied to analyze real cases. An initial shift in the rent of one particular land use generates feedbacks which affect the rent of all land uses. For example, a new technology in extensive agriculture should make this land use more profitable and lead to more forest clearing, but general equilibrium effects (changes in prices and local wages) can modify or even reverse this conclusion. Another issue is how a policy change or a shift in broader market, technological, and institutional forces will affect various land use rents. The paper deals with three such areas: technological progress in agriculture...

Implications of WTO Agreements and Unilateral Trade Policy Reforms for Poverty in Bangladesh : Short versus Long-Run Impacts

Annabi, Nabil; Khondker, Bazlul; Raihan, Selim; Cockburn, John; Decaluwe, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The authors examine the effects of WTO agreements and domestic trade policy reforms on production, welfare, and poverty in Bangladesh. They use a sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, which takes into account accumulation effects, allowing for long-run analysis. The study is based on the 2000 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Bangladesh including 15 production sectors, four factors of production (skilled and unskilled labor, agricultural and nonagricultural capital), and nine household groups (five in rural areas and four in urban areas). To examine the link between the macroeconomic effects and microeconomic effects in terms of poverty, the authors use the representative household approach with actual intra-group income distributions. The study presents five simulations for which the major findings are: (1) The Doha scenario has negative implications for the overall macroeconomy, household welfare, and poverty in Bangladesh. Terms of trade deteriorate and consumer prices, particularly food prices, increase more than nominal incomes, especially among poor households. (2) Free world trade has similar, but larger, impacts. (3) Domestic trade liberalization induces an expansion of agricultural and light manufacturing sectors...

The Impact of Commodity Price Changes on Rural Households : The Case of Coffee in Uganda

Bussolo, Maurizio; Godart, Olivier; Lay, Jann; Thiele, Rainer
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Policies and external shocks affecting agriculture, the main source of income for rural households, can be expected to have a significant impact on poverty. The authors study the case of Uganda. Throughout the 1990s, more than 90 percent of its poor lived in rural areas and, during the same period, large international price fluctuations as well as an extensive domestic deregulation affected the coffee sector, its main source of export revenues. Using data from three household surveys covering the 1990s, the authors confirm a strong correlation between changes in coffee prices (in a liberalized market) and poverty reduction. This is highlighted by comparing the performance of different households grouped according to their dependence on coffee farming. Regression analysis (based on pooled data from the three surveys) of consumption expenditure on coffee-related variables, other controls, and time-fixed effects corroborates that the mentioned correlation is not spurious. The authors also find that while both poor and rich farmers enter the coffee sector, the price boom benefits the poorer households relatively more, whereas the liberalization seems to create more opportunities for richer farmers. Finally, notwithstanding the importance of the coffee price boom...

Understanding Changes in Poverty

Inchauste, Gabriela; Azevedo, João Pedro; Essama-Nssah, B.; Olivieri, Sergio; Van Nguyen, Trang; Saavedra-Chanduvi, Jaime; Winkler, Hernan
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Understanding Changes in Poverty brings together different methods to decompose the contributions to poverty reduction. A simple approach quantifies the contribution of changes in demographics, employment, earnings, public transfers, and remittances to poverty reduction. A more complex approach quantifies the contributions to poverty reduction from changes in individual and household characteristics, including changes in the sectoral, occupational, and educational structure of the workforce, as well as changes in the returns to individual and household characteristics. Understanding Changes in Poverty implements these approaches and finds that labor income growth that is, growth in income per worker rather than an increase in the number of employed workers was the largest contributor to moderate poverty reduction in 21 countries experiencing substantial reductions in poverty over the past decade. Changes in demographics, public transfers, and remittances helped, but made relatively smaller contributions to poverty reduction. Further decompositions in three countries find that labor income grew mainly because of higher returns to human capital endowments...

Krueger/Schiff/Valdes Revisited : Agricultural Price and Trade Policy Reform in Developing Countries since 1960

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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A study of distortions to agricultural incentives in 18 developing countries during 1960-84, by Krueger, Schiff and Valdes (1988; 1991), found that policies in most of those developing countries were directly or indirectly harming their farmers. Since the mid-1980s there has been a substantial amount of policy reform and opening up of many developing countries, and indicators of that progress have been made available recently by a new study that has compiled estimates for a much larger sample of developing countries and for as many years as possible since 1955. The new study also covers Europe s transition economies and comparable estimates for high-income countries, thereby covering more than 90 percent of world agricultural output and employment. This paper summarizes the methodology used in the new study (pointing out similarities and differences with those used by the OECD and by Krueger, Schiff and Valdes), compares a synopsis of the indicators from Krueger, Schiff and Valdes and the new study for the period to 1984...

Short- and Long-Run Impacts of Food Price Changes on Poverty

Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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55.79%
This study uses household models based on detailed expenditure and agricultural production data from 31 developing countries to assess the impacts of changes in global food prices on poverty in individual countries and for the world as a whole. The analysis finds that food price increases unrelated to productivity changes in developing countries raise poverty in the short run in all but a few countries with broadly-distributed agricultural resources. This result is primarily because the poor spend large shares of their incomes on food and many poor farmers are net buyers of food. In the longer run, two other important factors come into play: poor workers are likely to benefit from increases in wage rates for unskilled workers from higher food prices, and poor farmers are likely to benefit from higher agricultural profits as they raise their output. As a result, higher food prices appear to lower global poverty in the long run.

Trading Away from Conflict : Using Trade to Increase Resilience in Fragile States

Cali, Massimiliano
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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55.83%
While economic growth in developing countries over the last ten years has lifted more people out of poverty than in any previous time, more than one billion people still live in countries affected by violent conflict. Conflict weakens governance, undermines economic development and threatens both national and regional stability. Trade shocks, in particular, can have widely varying impacts on conflict. This report sets out to empirically test these linkages between trade shocks and conflict via cross-country and intra-country analysis. On the basis of the analysis, it offers trade-related policy directions to reduce this risk in fragile economies. The results provide convincing evidence that trade and trade policy have a large impact on the risk and intensity of conflict. This report is composed of three main chapters. Chapter 1 develops a conceptual framework mapping the different channels through which trade may affect conflict and political stability. The framework is based on simple economic theory and the available empirical evidence on the impact of trade related changes on conflict and stability. It then tests this framework empirically through the analysis of cross-country data and through case studies of Nigeria and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The hope is that these types of intra-country analyses could be replicated in other countries...

Competition in Kenyan Markets and Its Impact on Income and Poverty : A Case Study on Sugar and Maize

Argent, Jonathan; Begazo, Tania
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper investigates the link between competitive, well-functioning food markets and consumer welfare. The paper explores two key food markets in Kenya -- sugar and maize -- and argues that a variety of factors conspire to distort market prices upward. Distortionary factors include import tariff policy, nontariff barriers, potential anticompetitive conduct by firms, and direct state intervention in markets. Changes in sugar and maize prices are shown to have significant welfare effects on consumers. Equivalent income effects are estimated using the most recent available representative household survey data -- the Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey 2005/06. The paper shows that relaxing trade barriers to allow sugar prices to fall by 20 percent could reduce poverty by 1.5 percent. Similarly, adjusting government interventions in the maize market, which have been shown to inflate maize prices by 20 percent on average, could reduce poverty by 1.8 percent. The magnitude of the estimated income effects may vary based on updated household-level consumption data...

Understanding Poverty Reduction in Sri Lanka; Evidence from 2002 to 2012/13

Ceriani, Lidia; Inchauste, Gabriela; Olivieri, Sergio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper quantifies the contributions to poverty reduction observed in Sri Lanka between 2002 and 2012/13. The methods adopted for the analysis generate entire counterfactual distributions to account for the contributions of demographics, labor, and non-labor incomes in explaining poverty reduction. The findings show that the most important contributor to poverty reduction was growth in labor income, stemming from an increase in the returns to salaried nonfarm workers and higher returns to self-employed farm workers. Although some of this increase in earnings may point to improvements in productivity, defined as higher units of output per worker, some of it may simply reflect increases in food and commodity prices, which have increased the marginal revenue product of labor. To the extent that there have been no increases in the volumes being produced, the observed changes in poverty are vulnerable to reversals if commodity prices were to decline significantly. Finally, although private transfers (domestic and foreign) helped to reduce poverty over the period...

The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Household Welfare in Vietnam

Seshan, Ganesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
What is the effect of trade liberalization on households in developing countries? To what extent do the poor benefit when local markets are made more accommodative to international trade? The author empirically analyzes the distributional impact of trade policies on households in a low-income country with a large rural economy where labor markets are imperfect. The methodology in this paper, which can be applied to various types of labor market conditions, relates changes in prices attributed to trade reforms to changes in household welfare, income distribution, and poverty using theoretically consistent measures of producer and consumer welfare. The author investigates the effects on poverty and income distribution of national and international market integration in Vietnam's rice sector and fertilizer market between 1993 and 1998, a period of ongoing market reforms when the national poverty rate fell sharply from 59 percent to 37 percent. He finds that when the effects of opening the rice and fertilizer market are isolated, Vietnam's agricultural trade reforms did not contribute to a significant improvement in overall household welfare or decline in poverty over this period. Nonetheless, the liberalization exercise can explain about half of the reduction in poverty incidence among farm households. The results also show that liberalization did not exacerbate income inequality...

Tracking Distortions in Agriculture : China and Its Accession to the World Trade Organization

Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott; Chang, Min
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.77%
This article examines the impacts of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on prices in its agricultural sector. The analysis uses a new methodology to estimate nominal protection rates in China's agricultural sector before its accession to the WTO. These new measures account for differences in commodity quality within China and between China and world markets. The analysis shows that some of China's agricultural commodities are well above world market prices and others are well below. The article also assesses market integration and efficiency in China. It finds high degrees of integration between coastal and inland markets and between regional and village markets. The remarkable improvements in market performance in recent years mean that if increased imports or exports affect China's domestic price near the border, producers throughout most of China will feel the price shifts.

Who Benefited from Trade Liberalization in Mexico? Measuring the Effects on Household Welfare

Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.76%
This study performs an ex-post analysis of the effects of the trade liberalization in Mexico between 1989 and 2000, taking into account regional differences in the Mexican economy. The effects of trade liberalization are first translated into changes in regional prices and wages. Those estimates are plugged into a farm-household model to estimate the effect on households' welfare. The findings suggest that trade liberalization has affected domestic prices and labor income differently both across income groups and geographically across the country, hence producing diverse outcomes on different households. Regarding prices, the results indicate that trade liberalization has lowered relative prices of most non-animal agricultural products and, while reducing the cost of consumption, has reduced households' agricultural income, widening the income gap between urban and rural areas. The findings also show that trade liberalization has had diverse effects on wage rates. Skilled workers, for which trade liberalization has produced an increase in wages...

Distributional Implications of Climate Change in India

Jacoby, Hanan; Rabassa, Mariano; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Global warming is expected to heavily impact agriculture, the dominant source of livelihood for the world's poor. Yet, little is known about the distributional implications of climate change at the sub-national level. Using a simple comparative statics framework, this paper analyzes how changes in the prices of land, labor, and food induced by modest temperature increases over the next three decades will affect household-level welfare in India. The authors predict a substantial fall in agricultural productivity, even allowing for farmer adaptation. Yet, this decline will not translate into a sharp drop in consumption for the majority of rural households, who derive their income largely from wage employment. Overall, the welfare costs of climate change fall disproportionately on the poor. This is true in urban as well as in rural areas, but, in the latter sector only after accounting for the effects of rising world cereal prices. Adaptation appears to primarily benefit the non-poor, since they own the lion's share of agricultural land. The results suggest that poverty in India will be roughly 3-4 percentage points higher after thirty years of rising temperatures than it would have been had this warming not occurred.

How Will Changes in Globalization Impact Growth in South Asia?

Ghani, Ejaz; Anand, Rahul
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The current global crisis may change globalization itself, as both developed and developing countries adjust to global imbalances that contributed to the crisis. Will these changes help or hinder economic recovery and growth in South Asia? This is the focus of this paper. The three models of globalization--trade, capital, and economic management--may not be the same in the future. Changes in globalization could change the composition of trade flows, capital flows, and economic management, which in turn, could accelerate or restrain growth. South Asia is somewhat peculiar and different from other regions in how it has globalized, although there is a lot of diversity within the region. Its trade characteristics are different. India's growth has been spearheaded by exports of modern services and less by goods exports. Modern service trade tends to be more resilient compared with goods trade. Globalization of services is still at an early stage. So, as consumers pull back in the United States, service trade is likely to be less impacted compared to goods trade. Trade also contributes to growth through knowledge spillovers...