Página 1 dos resultados de 335 itens digitais encontrados em 0.015 segundos

Laws for Fiscal Responsibility for Subnational Discipline : International Experience

Liu, Lili; Webb, Steven B.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Fiscal responsibility laws are institutions with which multiple governments in the same economy -- national and subnational --can commit to help avoid irresponsible fiscal behavior that could have short-term advantages to one of them but that would be collectively damaging. Coordination failures with subnational governments in the 1990s contributed to macroeconomic instability and led several countries to adopt fiscal responsibility laws as part of the remedy. The paper analyzes the characteristics and effects of fiscal responsibility laws in seven countries -- Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, India, and Peru. Fiscal responsibility laws are designed to address the short time horizons of policymakers, free riders among government units, and principal agent problems between the national and subnational governments. The paper describes how the laws differ in the specificity of quantitative targets, the strength of sanctions, the methods for increasing transparency, and the level of government passing the law. Evidence shows that fiscal responsibility laws can help coordinate and sustain commitments to fiscal prudence...

Fiscal Federalism in Switzerland : Relevant Issues for Transition Economies in Central and Eastern Europe

Dafflon, Bernard; Tóth, Krisztina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Its highly fragmented structure of local governments and serious horizontal fiscal imbalances make Switzerland a surprisingly powerful model for Eastern European countries that are currently facing the challenge of fiscal decentralization. In spite of the substantial differences in the tradition and current practice of intergovernmental fiscal relations, transition economies may learn valuable lessons from the Swiss case in the fields of direct democracy, horizontal cooperation, expenditure and revenue assignment, and fiscal discipline. Among other conclusions, the authors suggest that subnational authorities can effectively fend off recentralization attempts of the central government if they engage in spontaneous cooperation to enhance the efficiency of public service provision. Together with an adequate fiscal equalization scheme, interjurisdictional cooperation also permits the reconciliation of the objective of an increasing devolution of powers with the existing regional disparities. The authors also show that the principle of subsidiarity can best be safeguarded by anchoring the expenditure and revenue powers of subnational governments in the constitution or in a similarly strong law. With regard to fiscal discipline, the combination of a "golden rule" with direct democratic instruments of budget control is proven to be successful in enhancing the accountability of local politicians toward their constituencies.

Risk Management Systems for Contingent Infrastructure Liabilities : Applications to Improve Contract Design and Monitoring

Lewis, Christopher M.; Mody, Ashoka
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Government guarantees for private infrastructure projects represent real liabilities, and their costs can average as much as a third of the amount guaranteed. The authors show how governments can use a risk valuation process to analyze the distribution of risks, decide which risks they should bear and which should be borne by the private sector, and reduce the frequency and size of calls on guarantees.

Government at Risk : Contingent Liabilities and Fiscal Risk

Polackova Brixi, Hana; Schick, Allen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Conventional fiscal analysis fails to address contingent fiscal risk. The government budget process and documentation generally fail to scrutinize the substantial claims on public resources that are associated with government contingent liabilities, realized and potential. This report fills gaps on our understanding of fiscal risks and develops suitable frameworks for managing them. It offers new analytical concepts, presents country case studies, and based on country case studies, provides a menu of practical ideas for policymakers and scholars to bring fiscal risk within the ambit of public finance. The book is divided into two parts: Part I of this book gives an overview of different approaches to dealing with government fiscal risks. The country examples in this part offer additional conceptual approaches and illustrate some of the discussion in the earlier chapters. Part II presents analytical and institutional approaches that governments might consider when facing risks in specific government programs or sectors. The book indicates that countries differ greatly in their treatment of contingent liabilities and other fiscal risks. In this respect...

Debt Management Performance Assessment : Republic of Moldova

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) comprises a set of fifteen debt performance indicators (DPIs), which aim to encompass the complete spectrum of government debt management (DeM) operations as well as the overall environment in which these operations are conducted. While the DeMPA does not specify recommendations on reforms and/or capacity and institution building needs, the performance indicators do stipulate a minimum level that should be met under all conditions. Consequently, if the assessment shows that the minimum requirements are not met, this will clearly indicate an area requiring attention or priority reform. The scope of the DeMPA is central government debt management activities and closely related functions such as issuance of loan guarantees, on-lending, and cash flow forecasting and cash balance management. Thus, the DeMPA does not assess the ability to manage the wider public debt, including implicit contingent liabilities (such as liabilities of the pension system, losses of state-owned enterprises (SOE)...

Multi-Tier Targeting of Social Assistance : The Role of Intergovernmental Transfers

Alderman, Harold
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Albania provides a small amount of social assistance to nearly 20 percent of its population through a system that allows some community discretion in determining distribution. This study investigates how well this social assistance program is targeted to the poor. Relative to other safety net programs in low-income countries, social assistance in Albania is fairly well targeted. Nevertheless, the system is hampered by the absence of a clear, objective criterion to determine the size of the grants from the central government to communes as well as limited information that could be used to implement this criterion. Substantial gains in targeting could be achieved if the central government better allocated transfers to local governments, even holding local targeting at base levels.

Debt Management Performance Assessment : Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Ethiopia in 2013, and provides an overview of strengths and weaknesses in government debt management. The following are the significant findings of this assessment: 1) no formal debt management strategy in place, although significant progress has been made over time; 2) there is good coordination and information sharing between the fiscal and monetary authorities and the debt managers; 3) There are documented procedures for external and domestic borrowings as well as for on-lending and loan guarantees; 4) an efficient single treasury account is not yet in place, and surplus cash is invested at low rates; 5) there is an understanding of operational risk but not yet a formal framework for operational risk management; and 6) there are complete and timely debt records for all central government debt and guarantees...

Stock Market Responses to Bank Restructuring Policies during the East Asian Crisis

Klingebiel, Daniela; Kroszner, Randy; Laeven, Luc; van Oijen, Pieter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The East Asian crisis began in Thailand in mid-1997 when an ailing financial sector, a slowdown in exports, and large increases in central bank credit to weak financial institutions, triggered a run on the baht. Then the crisis spread to other countries in the region, as common vulnerabilities, and revaluations of risk in emerging markets, triggered large capital flows. To better understand the impact of different policy responses to financial crises, the authors investigate how stock markets in East Asian countries reacted to the initial policy announcements of bank, and financial restructuring - especially how banking, and non-financial sectors in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and Thailand, fared in response to announcements of different restructuring measures. They find that prices of bank stocks, responded positively to announcements about government guarantees of bank liabilities. Non-financial companies gained in value when guarantees were announced, but their stock prices were negatively affected by announcements favoring public re-capitalization schemes...

The Role of the Integrated Financial Adviser in the Government of India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
The research paper compares the various thoughts and models of the finance function in the Indian Central Government with those that exist worldwide, presents the analytical underpinnings of why some aspects of a particular model may be suitable to the Indian position, and provides the Government of India with options and courses of action. The paper offers historical and current perspective (chapters two and three) on the development of the role of Financial Adviser (FA), comparative lessons from other countries on how they have structured this position (chapter four), suggestions on appropriate training and certification programmes for financial advisers and their key support staff and opportunities for commensurate career development that makes the FA position more attractive for Government of India (GoI) officers and talented applicants (chapters five and six).

Stabilization and Fiscal Empowerment : The Twin Challenges Facing India's States, Volume 1. Executive Summary and Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
India, home to more than one billion people, has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, averaging about six percent per year between 1992/93 and 2003/04. The agenda backed in this report is one that receives widespread support from both the central and state governments in India. The fiscal stress of the late nineties gave rise to an intense state-level reform effort. Six years on, this report documents the many initiatives undertaken by the states to restore fiscal sustainability, and become more effective agents of development. It outlines successes, lessons learnt, and highlights further challenges, on both the expenditure side (chapter two) and the revenue side (chapter three). It also looks at the incentive framework within which the states operate (chapter four), and asks whether there is a feasible reform package that will take the states not only out of fiscal crisis, but strengthened to meet the development challenges which confront them. This chapter provides the context for what follows by outlining the role and increasingly divergent performance of the state governments (section two)...

Analysis and Options for Namibia's Medium-Term Debt Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Since gaining its independence 23 years ago, Namibia has established an enviable track record of political stability, prudent macroeconomic policies, moderate growth, poverty reduction, and natural resource conservation. The country has achieved these gains while facing constraints imposed by geography, legacies of apartheid and colonialism, and the challenges of constructing a national government. Daunting challenges remain, however. Namibia suffers from chronic high unemployment, the ravages of HIV/AIDS, and one of the world most skewed distributions of income. The structure of the economy has remained fundamentally unchanged since Independence: minerals and metals make up the majority of exports; the public sector remains the largest employer; and there has been little investment in labor-intensive manufacturing, which in many countries has absorbed low-skilled labor exiting traditional agriculture. This report uses the Medium-Term Debt Management Strategy (MTDS) framework developed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to analyze options facing the GRN as it prepares the new Sovereign Debt Management Strategy (SDMS). This framework emphasizes the explicit analysis of relative costs and risks in a debt management strategy...

Public-Private Partnerships in Europe and Central Asia : Designing Crisis-Resilient Strategies and Bankable Projects

Cuttaree, Vickram; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
This study aims to help governments design sustainable Public-Private Partnership (PPP) strategies and projects in the context of the changed circumstances brought on by the global financial and economic crisis that began in the fall of 2008. The study analyses the impact and implication of the crisis on PPP infrastructure projects across the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. In the research undertaken for this study, it appears that most crisis-specific issues are cross-sectoral, therefore requiring cross-sectoral responses. The intended audience for this report includes national government stakeholders involved in infrastructure financing, including Ministries in charge of infrastructure, especially transport, energy, and water; state-owned enterprises with operational responsibilities, such as road directorates; and Ministries of Finance and development banks involved in PPP. This report reviewed the region's experience in PPPs in infrastructure before and during the financial crisis period (from late 2006 to 2010). Since not all ECA countries have had successful or ongoing PPP projects during this time...

How Do Countries Measure, Manage, and Monitor Fiscal Risks Generated by Public-Private Partnerships? Chile, Peru, South Africa, Turkey

Aslan, Cigdem; Duarte, David
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
The topic of managing fiscal risks arising from public-private partnerships is receiving increased attention as more governments turn toward this type of financing for large infrastructure projects. Governments can manage balance sheet exposure to public-private partnerships by quantifying and capturing direct obligations and provisions for potential calls on government guarantees associated with public-private partnership projects in the preparation of the medium term fiscal framework and annual budget. This working paper examines how four countries with active public-private partnership projects manage the costs and risks of financial obligations generated by these investments throughout the lifetime of the contracts. The paper seeks to complement the existing literature with a practitioner's point of view while exploring if and how these countries monitor and evaluate the fiscal risks generated by the portfolio of public-private partnerships (as well as individual projects). The countries covered are Chile...

Debt Management Performance Assessment : Albania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Debt Management Performance Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
From November 8 to 17, 2010, a World Bank team undertook a Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) mission to Tirana, Albania. The mission's objective was to prepare a comprehensive assessment of government debt management functions by applying the DeMPA methodology. This report presents the results of the assessment, based on the December 2009 version of the DeMPA tool. The assessment reveals that Albania meets the requirements for the A score in eleven dimensions assessed the B score in five dimensions, the C score in twelve dimensions, and the D score in five dimensions. Of more than 50 countries assessed by the World Bank under the DeMPA program so far, Albania stands out as one of the few which has sound debt management practices in the largest number of areas as defined by the DeMPA methodology. Albanian economy is highly dependent on remittances. Sectors that rely on remittances construction, wholesale and retail, and other services together account for over 60 percent of the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and has been the backbone of the country's strong growth. Large capital inflows (remittances...

Debt Management Performance Assessment : Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Debt Management Performance Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) is a methodology for assessing government debt management (DeM) performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of DeM functions. The assessment reveals that Mozambique has points of strength in most areas evaluated by the DeMPA, but that it meets the minimum requirements only in the fields of the legal framework and managerial structure. Mozambique does not meet the minimum requirements with respect to the other indicators, although in many cases work is underway that would lead to meeting the requirements (e.g., debt strategy, debt reporting) or only small improvements would be required in order to meet those requirements (e.g., the annual report, coordination with fiscal policy). The concluding section of this paper outlines areas in which the minimum requirement could be met over the short run with minimal adjustments, and areas where progress would require stronger efforts. Mozambique benefited from debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative in 2001 and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) in 2006. The government has remained committed to seeking new financing with at least 35 percent concessionality...

Debt Management Performance Assessment : Papua New Guinea

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Debt Management Performance Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
At the request of the Government of Papua New Guinea (PNG), a mission comprised of Jeff Chelsky (PRMVP, mission lead), Tomas Magnusson (BDM, consultant), Greg Horman (BDM, consultant) and Tim Bulman (EAP, country economist), visited Port Moresby between November 22nd and December 3rd to undertake a DeMPA exercise. The team met with officials from the Department of Treasury, Bank of Papua New Guinea, Department of Finance, Department of National Planning and Monitoring, State Solicitor's Office, Auditor General's Office, Independent Public Business Corporation (IPBC), AUSAid, Asian Development Bank, ANZ Bank, Nambawan Super, and Bank South Pacific (BSP). This report reflects comments received from the PNG authorities in February 2011. The mission found that, in a number of areas, PNG meets or exceeds minimum DeMPA requirements. Strengths include the quality of the debt management strategy, the framework for domestic debt issuance, coordination with monetary policy, and the legal framework (except for the issuance of T-bills for which the law contains no explicit borrowing purposes). Looking ahead...

Albania Local Finance Policy Note : Programmatic Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Albania has undertaken major reforms in its system of local government finance since 2000. What had been a system in which local functions were ambiguous and financing was largely provided through tightly controlled earmarked grants is now one in which functions are relatively clear and local governments have more autonomy over the allocation of funds. A new system of competitive grants for infrastructure investment has been introduced. Parliament has enacted a new law on local borrowing. Within this framework, however, several controversies remain which are addressed in this policy note. In the long term Albania must also grapple with certain organizational issues. One is the role of regional governments, which now lack any major clearly defined function. While the Government's decentralization strategy proposes a range of possible functions for regional governments, most of these roles could be carried out through other means. The other organizational issue is the consolidation of small communes. The Government's decentralization strategy proposes the eventual consolidation of small local governments into larger units. International experience...

The Growth in Government Domestic Debt : Changing Burdens and Risks

Hanson, James A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
This paper analyzes the recent growth of government domestic debt, including central bank debt, using a new data base on government domestic debt in developing countries with large, open financial systems. On average, government domestic debt grew much faster than GDP between 1994 and 2004 and became larger than foreign debt. The rapid growth of domestic debt reflects financial crises, the growth of central bank debt and the greater attractiveness to governments of issuing domestic debt as well as the recent increase in demands for it. Both its attractiveness and the increased demands for it reflect the current benign international environment to some degree. The main risk of government debt, domestic or foreign, remains its overall size relative to a country's fiscal, financial, and political institutions. While government domestic debt can help the domestic private capital market, large domestic debt, like large external debt, has risks. For example, there can be "sudden stops" in the demand for domestic debt as well as in foreign lending. Governments need to be aware of the risks and burdens in domestic debt issue-crowding out small borrowers...

Deposit Insurance Database

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Kane, Edward; Laeven, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This paper provides a comprehensive, global database of deposit insurance arrangements as of 2013. The authors extend their earlier dataset by including recent adopters of deposit insurance and information on the use of government guarantees on banks' assets and liabilities, including during the recent global financial crisis. They also create a Safety Net Index capturing the generosity of the deposit insurance scheme and government guarantees on banks' balance sheets. The data show that deposit insurance has become more widespread and more extensive in coverage since the global financial crisis, which also triggered a temporary increase in the government protection of non-deposit liabilities and bank assets. In most cases, these guarantees have since been formally removed but coverage of deposit insurance remains above pre-crisis levels, raising concerns about implicit coverage and moral hazard going forward.

Madagascar : Debt Management Performance Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Debt Management Performance Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Madagascar's central government debt stood at around 30 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011. Due to political developments in 2008-2009, the Acting government of Madagascar has limited borrowing opportunities from both external and domestic lenders. This situation is expected to change after the upcoming general elections planned for mid-2013. The legal framework for government debt management is unclear in some parts and in general underdeveloped. Thus, for 2013 fiscal year, the Parliament has authorized the government to borrow internally and externally for the implementation of various development projects. There are no specific debt management objectives, no requirement to develop a debt management strategy, and no evaluation process reflected in the primary legislation. An important step has been taken by reorganizing the Public Debt Directorate (PDD) of the Ministry of Finance and Budget as the Principal DeM entity of the government. It manages both external and domestic debt, and takes part in all loan negotiations. Yet to be prepared is a debt statistical bulletin and a comprehensive DeM strategy. There was one external compliance audit prepared in 2011 for the period of 2006-2008...