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Development of 13 Mozambican Municipalities in Central and Northern Mozambique : Summary report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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46.13%
The objective of this study on the Development of 13 Mozambican Municipalities in Central and Northern Mozambique is to assess the impact that the 2008 reforms on own-source revenues is having on the municipal revenue potential. To do so, it calculates the revenue potential of four fiscal and three non-fiscal revenue sources. The analysis shows that there is substantial untapped revenue potential at the municipal level, with estimates indicating that -in the case of the most buoyant local revenue sources- municipalities are only collecting about half of the revenue potential. In the worst cases, municipalities are collecting far less than 10 percent of the total revenue potential of a local revenue source. The fact that a revenue gaps exists is not only an indication of weak municipal performance. Municipalities have relatively recently been created and it takes time, capacity, and effort, to consolidate their revenue functions. Tax administration is overall still weak and a series of vacuums exist on the municipal fiscal legislation. The analysis reveals that the current revenue instruments at the disposal of municipalities are generally appropriate municipal revenue instruments...

Fiscal Federalism in Switzerland : Relevant Issues for Transition Economies in Central and Eastern Europe

Dafflon, Bernard; Tóth, Krisztina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.01%
Its highly fragmented structure of local governments and serious horizontal fiscal imbalances make Switzerland a surprisingly powerful model for Eastern European countries that are currently facing the challenge of fiscal decentralization. In spite of the substantial differences in the tradition and current practice of intergovernmental fiscal relations, transition economies may learn valuable lessons from the Swiss case in the fields of direct democracy, horizontal cooperation, expenditure and revenue assignment, and fiscal discipline. Among other conclusions, the authors suggest that subnational authorities can effectively fend off recentralization attempts of the central government if they engage in spontaneous cooperation to enhance the efficiency of public service provision. Together with an adequate fiscal equalization scheme, interjurisdictional cooperation also permits the reconciliation of the objective of an increasing devolution of powers with the existing regional disparities. The authors also show that the principle of subsidiarity can best be safeguarded by anchoring the expenditure and revenue powers of subnational governments in the constitution or in a similarly strong law. With regard to fiscal discipline, the combination of a "golden rule" with direct democratic instruments of budget control is proven to be successful in enhancing the accountability of local politicians toward their constituencies.

Towards Inclusive and Sustainable Development in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Kostner, Markus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.04%
In early 1998, the World Bank prepared a paper on the decentralization and participation policies outlined but not fully implemented by the Congolese government in the early days of the third republic. If the country has since receded into war, it is perhaps in part because these ideas were never properly put into practice. Rather than de-legitimizing them, the renewed war makes it even more important that these ideas be heard. Centralization has a long history in the Congo. Though with different justifications and characteristics, central government dominated decision-making and execution during both the colonial period and the second republic. Regarding decision-making, "everything came from above without any explanations". Though local authorities had certain powers, these were more often than not abused rather than used in the interest of the population. Infrequent contact between central authorities and the population resulted in many provinces and territories being, and remaining, enclaved without access to neighboring regions...

Designing Community Based Development

Narayan, Deepa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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45.94%
When properly designed, community based programs can be highly effective in managing natural resources, providing basic infrastructure or ensuring primary social services. Participation in community based development (CBD) depends on reversing control and accountability from central authorities to community organizations. Successful design requires tapping into local needs, understanding and building on the strengths of existing institutions, and defining the changes needed in intermediary implementing agencies to support community action.

Central-Local Government Relations in Thailand : Improving Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
EN_US
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36.08%
Addressing regional disparities in access to public services is an emerging development challenge for Thailand. A well-functioning system of Central-Local Government Relations and proactive expenditure policy can help achieve this goal. Providing responsive and accountable public services are necessary for maintaining trust of the citizens in government and fostering cohesion within a unitary state like Thailand. Without a reversal of current regional disparities in access to public services and addressing tensions that are present in the central-local architecture, Thailand runs the risk of eroding public trust in government and leading to further polarization. Thailand has a significant opportunity to improve delivery of public services by: (i) making access to public services more uniform across the country; (ii) transitioning fully to a unitary decentralized form of government with clearly demarcated roles and accountability structures between different levels of government (especially within health and education sectors) and to administratively consolidate Laos into larger more financially viable entities; and (iii) establishing national service delivery standards...

Fiscal Federalism and Regional Growth : Evidence from the Russian Federation in the 1990s

Desai, Raj M.; Freinkman, Lev M.; Goldberg, Itzhak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.01%
Subnational fiscal autonomy-the basis for fiscal federalism in modern federations-is meant to serve two roles. First, local control over revenue collection is meant to provide a check on the capacity of central authorities to tax arbitrarily local capital. Second, retention of taxes raised locally is meant to establish incentives for subnational governmental authorities to foster endemic economic growth as a way of promoting local tax bases. But in the Russian Federation, fiscally autonomous regions have often resisted market-oriented reforms, the enactment of rules protecting private property, and the dismantling of price controls and barriers to trade. The authors find statistical evidence in support of the hypothesis that fiscal incentives of the Russian regions represent an important determinant of regional economic performance. The authors also seek to understand the conditions under which fiscal autonomy prompts regional growth and recovery, and the conditions under which it has adverse economic effects. They argue that the presence of "unearned" income streams-particularly in the form of revenues from natural resource production or from budgetary transfers from the central government-has turned regions dependent on these income sources into "rentier" regions. As such...

Decentralization and Local Governance in MENA : A Survey of Policies, Institutions, and Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.22%
Entering the 21st century, the 1999-2000 World Development Report (WDR), identifies two main forces that are shaping the world in which development policy is being defined and implemented: (i) globalization, the increasing worldwide integration of private sector interaction and commercial relationships; and (ii) localization, a process of devolving fiscal and administrative roles and responsibilities from central to sub-national tiers of government. It goes on to note that these global-private and local-public pressures are not only reinforcing, but also challenging traditional paradigms and forms of intergovernmental systems. Political decentralization, often associated with pluralistic politics and representative government, aims to give citizens more say in public policy and decision-making. Its advocates assume that decisions made with greater participation will be better informed and more relevant to diverse interests in society than those made only by national political authorities. The concept implies that the selection of representatives from local electoral jurisdictions allows citizens to know better their political representatives and allows elected officials to know better the needs and desires of their constituents. Administrative decentralization aims to redistribute authority...

Kingdom of Lesotho Local Governance, Decentralization, and Demand-Driven Service Delivery, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.26%
After more than 35 years, the elected local government system in Lesotho was reestablished in 2005 through the election of the Local Authorities, i.e. the Community and District Councils (CCs and DCs). Across the political spectrum, the political will to move forward was at its peak. An exemplary campaign to educate the entire population as to the purposes and functioning of the new Local Authorities, and the electoral process preceded the election. The purposes of the new system are the improvement in services and access to government, broad participation of the local population in their own development combined with enhanced accountability to them, and promotion of equitable development in all parts of the country. The establishment of the Local Authorities and their election was received by even the remotest populations with great enthusiasm, and the elected Councilors have taken up their job with energy and commitment. The objectives of this report derive from the general priorities of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) of Lesotho which emphasizes pro-poor growth...

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Oversight and Supervision of Financial Market Infrastructures and Risk Assessment of Central Securities Depositories

International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.04%
The approach taken by authorities in the oversight and supervision of FMIs is important in promoting and maintaining financial stability in Moldova. While well-functioning FMIs can greatly improve the efficiency, transparency, and safety of financial systems, they can also concentrate systemic risk, which requires effective oversight and supervision to achieve public policy objectives. In the context of Moldova, the authorities are confronted with a national decision to create a single CSD that has good governance, robust risk management practices, and financial soundness. Vulnerabilities in FMIs could potentially undermine the implementation of monetary policy, or generate systemic disruptions in the financial markets, and more widely across the economy. A problem may be initiated by the inability of a participant to settle its obligations, or by operational failures of the system as a whole. The resulting default may be passed on to other participants, and get transmitted across financial systems and markets...

Sophia City Strategy

Zeijlon, Anders
Fonte: Sofia Municipality and the Cities Alliance/World Bank, Sofia Publicador: Sofia Municipality and the Cities Alliance/World Bank, Sofia
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.22%
The purpose of the Sofia City Strategy (SCS) is to combat poverty and provide the basis for sustainable development of the local economy and the welfare of city residents. SCS is driven by the need to reevaluate the increased role of Bulgarian local authorities that resulted from the country's transition from socialism to a market economy. Launching a long-term strategy for Sofia will provide the municipality with an opportunity to effectively implement the goals that it set out to achieve in the three to five year period ahead. Sofia's city management initiated work on the strategy in 2000 after cities alliance committed to support the initiative. The strategy draws upon the preferences and expectations of the population that were identified through analyses, consultations and surveys undertaken by international organizations and experts during strategy development. Five broad areas have been identified as key components of the strategy: i) the role of the municipality in the development and growth of the city economy; ii) the provision of infrastructure...

Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya : A Public Expenditure Review, Volume 1. Synthesis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.01%
Libya's 2008-12 development programs is the biggest and most ambitious Public Investment Program (PIP) ever. Public expenditure has also been pro-poor. Past outcomes show that Libyan authorities have worked on their macroeconomic and social fundamentals, so as to have a solid base to sustain its steady progress toward building a market-based economy and reintegrating into the world economy. Making optimal use of a sizable public expenditure, and especially public investment, is an essential component of achieving this strategy. The reports built upon the framework of fiscal management in oil-dependent economies, which features three parts. The first deals with collecting and saving oil revenues, leading to one stream of a large literature exploring both fiscal sustainability and the pros and cons of alternative models of an oil stabilization fund. The second deals with development spending, leading to a second stream of a large literature assessing standards in public investment and the many effects of sizable public investment programs. The third deals with financing current spending...

Moldova Public Expenditure Review : Reforming Local Public Finance for More Efficient, Equitable, and Fiscally Sustainable Subnational Spending

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.2%
This report reviews intergovernmental fiscal relations in Moldova and recommends ways to improve the efficiency and equity of local public finance, while maintaining fiscal sustainability. Local public authorities are responsible for meeting key public service delivery needs. They play a major role in education and bear primary responsibility for urban and rural functions such as water supply and local road construction and maintenance. But local authorities are unable to fulfill this role due to sub-optimal size, inadequate financial capacity, and low administrative capacity. The Government of Moldova is reforming intergovernmental fiscal relations, as part of broader commitments under the national decentralization strategy (2012). They set new rates for sharing national taxes with the two tiers of local government, introduce formulas for transfers to local governments, and remove subordination in financial relations between top and bottom tiers of local government. This report reviews recent reforms in local public finance and makes suggestions to further improve subnational expenditures...

Migrant Remittance Flows : Findings from a Global Survey of Central Banks

Irving, Jacqueline; Mohapatra, Sanket; Ratha, Dilip
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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36.12%
Drawing on the findings from responses to a survey conducted in 2008-09 from 114 central banks worldwide (of which 33 are in Africa), this paper aims to better understand how central banks and other national institutions regulate and collect data and other information on cross-border remittance flows. Findings indicate that, although the vast majority of countries, in both sending and receiving countries, collect data on remittances, and 43 percent of receiving countries estimate informal remittances, there is a need for more frequent and better coordinated data collection, both across national institutions and among different divisions within the same national institution, as well as between countries. Survey results also indicate that many new market entrants' transfer activities are unregulated. Countries must take into account new channels and technologies, such as mobile phone service providers, in monitoring remittance flows. It will be important for national regulatory authorities to work closely with mobile telecoms network operators to strike the right regulatory balance...

The Fiscal Framework and Urban Infrastructure Finance in China

Su, Ming; Zhao, Quanhou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.04%
China has experienced more than 25 years of extraordinary economic growth. Underlying this growth has been a decentralized fiscal system, in which provinces and large cities are given the freedom to make infrastructure investments to stimulate local development, and are allowed to retain a large part of the fiscal revenues that are generated from economic activity. Although successful as a growth strategy, this policy created two problems for national fiscal management. First, it significantly reduced the central government's share of fiscal revenues, which fell from 34.8 percent in 1980 to 22 percent in 1992. Second, it widened economic and fiscal disparities between the rapidly growing urban coastal region and the rest of the country. Rapid growth in subnational debt (which rose 23-fold in a decade) and subnational nonperforming loans (estimated by the authors to range between US$100 billion and US$150 billion) has placed pressure on China's financial system. Traditionally, China has favored bank lending as a source of finance because the banking system has provided a vehicle for central political control over local debt. But as China's financial system matures, creditworthiness standards must become more important. The authors recommend greater use of the revenue streams from infrastructure assets as a financing source...

Mali - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Main Report; Mali - Revue des depenses publiques et de la responsabilite financiere de l'etat

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
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36.02%
The public financial management (PFM) performance assessment in Mali covered all central government revenues and expenditures and the institutions responsible for their management. This means that the assessment covered central government ministries and institutions, along with their de concentrated units in the regions (governors' staff); and autonomous government agencies, of which there were 82 at the time of the assessment. The report consists of: a brief review of Mali's economic situation and the legal and institutional framework for public financial management (section two); a description of the background and the scores attributed to each PEFA performance indicator (section three); and a summary of the Government's reform program and the institutional factors that are likely to impact planning and implementation of reforms (section four).

Mali - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Public Financial Management Performance Report; Mali - Revue des depenses publiques et de la responsabilite financiere de l'etat

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The public financial management (PFM) performance assessment in Mali covered all central government revenues and expenditures and the institutions responsible for their management. This means that the assessment covered central government ministries and institutions, along with their de concentrated units in the regions (governors' staff); and autonomous government agencies, of which there were 82 at the time of the assessment. The report consists of: a brief review of Mali's economic situation and the legal and institutional framework for public financial management (section two); a description of the background and the scores attributed to each PEFA performance indicator (section three); and a summary of the Government's reform program and the institutional factors that are likely to impact planning and implementation of reforms (section four).

Revising Vietnam's State Budget Law (2002) : Proposals Drawing on International Experience

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Vietnam Publicador: World Bank, Vietnam
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This Policy Note is designed to inform the Government of Vietnam and National Assembly (notably the Committee on Finance and Budgetary Affairs, CFBA) discussions on the revision of the State Budget Law (SBL) (2002) by drawing on good international practices in budget management. It is part of the World Bank s ongoing policy dialogue with and advice to the Government and the National Assembly on revisions to the SBL (2002). The SBL (2002) has provided a strong basis for regulating Public Finance Management (PFM) in Vietnam since 2004, when the Law became effective. It has helped the government to allocate and spend public resources in an effective manner, thereby contributing to delivery of important public service outcomes. The SBL (2002), however, needs to be revised to enhance Vietnam s fiscal regulatory framework and accountability. The Policy Note covers seven broad areas including: (i) the coverage and layout of the SBL (2002); (ii) the budget framework for fiscal policy making; (iii) budget approval processes at the National Assembly and Provincial People s Councils; (iv) specific budget classification and definition issues; (v) intergovernmental fiscal relations; (vi) budget execution...

Workers' Remittances to Developing Countries : A Survey with Central Banks on Selected Public Policy Issues

de Luna Martínez, José
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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36.01%
This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted by the World Bank of central banks in 40 developing countries across different regions in the world. The survey focused on the following topics: (1) coverage of national statistics on remittances, (2) cost of transferring and delivering remittances, (3) regulatory regime for remittance transactions, and (4) efforts of developing countries to channel remittance flows through formal financial institutions. The study finds that in most countries existing data do not reflect the full amount of remittance inflows that they receive every year. Coverage of instruments and financial institutions through which remittances take place is limited. Moreover, only a few countries measure remittances that take place through informal channels. It also finds that the scope of financial authorities in developing countries to reduce remittance fees is limited because a large part of the fees charged to customers are set by financial institutions located in the countries where transactions originate. Cooperation between sending and recipient countries is needed to reduce remittance costs. The survey finds that in several countries money transfer companies are not properly supervised. Given the increasing international concerns with money laundering and terrorism financing issues...

Indonesia : Budget Reform Strategy Priorities

Allen, R.; Eckardt, S.; Jacobs, D.; Kristensen, J.; Lienert, I.; Schiavo-Campo, S.
Fonte: International Monetory Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: International Monetory Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This report is designed to assist the authorities develop an overall road map for reforming budget preparation. A specific focus is on the steps to be taken to introduce a medium-term framework for the central government's budget and a performance-based budget. These reforms require important preconditions to be in place, and a substantial change in the culture, incentives and behavior of the public service, and are likely to take several years to complete. Successive Indonesian governments have embarked on various reforms in the budget and public financial management system. New laws for governing budget and planning processes were adopted during 2003-04, which are gradually being implemented. The national development planning agency (BAPPENAS) and spending ministries have developed strategic government and ministerial plans that provide a basis for elaborating the framework for performance measurement and evaluation. Reforms are thus starting from a secure base and can also take advantage of the improved and stable macroeconomic and fiscal conditions...

A spatial equity analysis of a public health intervention: A case study of an outdoor walking group provider within local authorities in England

Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andy
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from BioMed Central via http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-015-0256-x; Introduction: If an intervention is not well spatially targeted, appropriate levels of uptake, efficacy, long-term compliance and improved health outcomes are unlikely to be attained. Effective health interventions should seek to achieve not only absolute improvements in health but also to reduce inequity. There is often a disparity whereby preventative interventions are more likely to be successful amongst the more affluent, a process which has been coined the ?inverse prevention law?. Physical inactivity is known to be socially patterned and disproportionately prevalent in disadvantaged communities yet there is a lack of clear evidence on which interventions have the potential to influence inequity. Walking groups have been found to have multiple health benefits and increase physical activity. In England the major facilitator is a not for profit organisation which has 70,000 regular walkers and is lay led with 10,000 volunteers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which walking groups operated in those places with the greatest health need and whether consequently the scheme has the potential to influence health inequity. Method: The work used a spatial approach whereby geographical variations in walking group provision within the 326 local authorities in England (mean population 163...