Página 1 dos resultados de 1426 itens digitais encontrados em 0.018 segundos

Characterization and classification of strains of Francisella tularensis isolated in the central Asian focus of the Soviet Union and in Japan.

Sandström, G; Sjöstedt, A; Forsman, M; Pavlovich, N V; Mishankin, B N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The two subspecies of Francisella tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) and F. tularensis subsp. palaearctica (type B), differ from each other in biochemistry and virulence. Strains of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis are believed to be confined to North America, whereas strains of F. tularensis subsp. palaearctica occur in Europe, in Asia, and in North America. Moreover, the existence of two other subspecies, designated F. tularensis subsp. mediaasiatica and F. tularensis subsp. palaearcitica japonica, has been suggested for strains of F. tularensis isolated in the central Asian focus of the Soviet Union and in Japan, respectively. In the present study, strains biochemically classified as F. tularensis subsp. mediaasiatica or F. tularensis subsp. palaearctica japonica have been investigated by hybridization with probes specific to 16S rRNAs of the two main subspecies. Furthermore, the virulence and biochemical characteristics of the strains were compared with those of strains belonging to F. tularensis subsp. palaearctica and F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. It was found that 16S rRNAs of F. tularensis subsp. mediaasiatica and F. tularensis subsp. palaearctica japonica hybridize with the probe specific to a genotype proposed herein...

Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor

Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Chaix, Raphaëlle; Wells, R. Spencer; Behar, Doron M.; Sayar, Hamid; Scozzari, Rosaria; Rengo, Chiara; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Coppa, Alfredo; Ayub, Qasim; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Tyler-Smi
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
The southwestern and Central Asian corridor has played a pivotal role in the history of humankind, witnessing numerous waves of migration of different peoples at different times. To evaluate the effects of these population movements on the current genetic landscape of the Iranian plateau, the Indus Valley, and Central Asia, we have analyzed 910 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 23 populations of the region. This study has allowed a refinement of the phylogenetic relationships of some lineages and the identification of new haplogroups in the southwestern and Central Asian mtDNA tree. Both lineage geographical distribution and spatial analysis of molecular variance showed that populations located west of the Indus Valley mainly harbor mtDNAs of western Eurasian origin, whereas those inhabiting the Indo-Gangetic region and Central Asia present substantial proportions of lineages that can be allocated to three different genetic components of western Eurasian, eastern Eurasian, and south Asian origin. In addition to the overall composite picture of lineage clusters of different origin, we observed a number of deep-rooting lineages, whose relative clustering and coalescent ages suggest an autochthonous origin in the southwestern Asian corridor during the Pleistocene. The comparison with Y-chromosome data revealed a highly complex genetic and demographic history of the region...

Trading genes along the silk road: mtDNA sequences and the origin of central Asian populations.

Comas, D; Calafell, F; Mateu, E; Pérez-Lezaun, A; Bosch, E; Martínez-Arias, R; Clarimon, J; Facchini, F; Fiori, G; Luiselli, D; Pettener, D; Bertranpetit, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Central Asia is a vast region at the crossroads of different habitats, cultures, and trade routes. Little is known about the genetics and the history of the population of this region. We present the analysis of mtDNA control-region sequences in samples of the Kazakh, the Uighurs, the lowland Kirghiz, and the highland Kirghiz, which we have used to address both the population history of the region and the possible selective pressures that high altitude has on mtDNA genes. Central Asian mtDNA sequences present features intermediate between European and eastern Asian sequences, in several parameters-such as the frequencies of certain nucleotides, the levels of nucleotide diversity, mean pairwise differences, and genetic distances. Several hypotheses could explain the intermediate position of central Asia between Europe and eastern Asia, but the most plausible would involve extensive levels of admixture between Europeans and eastern Asians in central Asia, possibly enhanced during the Silk Road trade and clearly after the eastern and western Eurasian human groups had diverged. Lowland and highland Kirghiz mtDNA sequences are very similar, and the analysis of molecular variance has revealed that the fraction of mitochondrial genetic variance due to altitude is not significantly different from zero. Thus...

Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists

Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; King, Roy; Mehdi, S. Q.; Edmonds, Christopher A.; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Lin, Alice A.; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K.; Ramesh, A.; Usha Rani, M. V.; Thakur, Chitra M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Majumder, Pa
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000–15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era—not Indo-European—expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.

Mass incarceration can explain population increases in TB and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries

Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10–0.58%, P < 0.01), after controlling for TB infrastructure; HIV prevalence; and several surveillance, economic, demographic, and political indicators. Net increases in incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes...

In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations

Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern...

Asian-White disparities in short sleep duration by industry of employment and occupation in the US: a cross-sectional study

Jackson, Chandra L; Kawachi, Ichiro; Redline, Susan; Juon, Hee-Soon; Hu, Frank B
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Background: Although short sleep is associated with an increased risk of morbidity as well as mortality and has been shown to vary by industry of employment and occupation, little is known about the relationship between work and sleep among Asian Americans. Methods: Using a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 125,610) in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004–2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for self-reported short sleep duration (<7 hours) in Asians compared to Whites by industry of employment and occupation using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Results: Asians were more likely to report short sleep duration than Whites (33 vs. 28%, p < 0.001), and the Asian-White disparity was widest in finance/information and healthcare industries. Compared to Whites after adjustments, short sleep was also more prevalent among Asians employed in Public administration (PR = 1.35 [95% CI: 1.17,1.56]), Education (PR = 1.29 [95% CI: 1.08,1.53]), and Professional/Management (PR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.03,1.36]). Short sleep, however, was lower among Asians in Accommodation/Food (PR = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.66, 0.99]) with no difference in Retail. In professional and support-service occupations, short sleep was higher among Asians...

Landlockedness, Infrastructure and Trade : New Estimates for Central Asian Countries

Grigoriou, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
This paper assesses the impact of internal infrastructure and landlockedness on Central Asian trade using a panel gravity equation estimated on a large sample of countries (167 countries over 1992-2004). The panel structure of the dataset makes it possible to control for country-pair specific effects (as opposed to the usual importer and exporter effects) that would otherwise be captured by the coefficients of time-invariant variables such as distance or landlockness. Our findings highlight the need to pursue a dual policy agenda. First, transit corridors are regional public goods and should be managed as such through international cooperation. International Financial Institutions can -and do- play a key role in this regard through assistance, coordination and policy dialogue. Second, the Central Asian countries should actively seek diversification of their transit corridors to prevent the creation or maintenance of monopoly positions in transit and bottleneck points such as trans-shipment platforms.

Drought : Management and Mitigation Assessment for Central Asia and the Caucasus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
The objective of this study is to raise awareness and understanding of exposure and vulnerability to drought in Central Asian countries and the Caucasus and to introduce a strategic, pro-active framework of mitigation and prevention. The audiences of the report are the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the Caucasus and Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic in Central Asia. The report will further be of interest to NGOs and civil society, as well as donors. More specifically, the report should help the ministries of, agriculture, irrigation and water resource management, environment, meteorological services, emergency services, and regional and local government (including municipalities) to improve their preparedness for future droughts. The report explores the ways that effective management and mitigation can soften the impact of drought in Central Asia and the Caucasus and reduce damage and relief and recovery costs. The inquiry begins with an examination of types of drought and exposure to them. Chapter 2 contains an analysis of vulnerabilities to drought, as well as the capacity of the disaster management structure to mitigate and respond to slow-onset natural disasters of this nature. The ensuing chapter covers different types of drought in 2000-01 (meteorological...

Vulnerability to poverty in selected Central Asian countries

Jha, Raghbendra; Dang, Ngoc
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 34 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household’s sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.; Article written under name Tu Dang. ISSN on article is 1722-4667

Trade and transport in Central Asia

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Until 1991 Central Asia was part of the integrated economic space of the Soviet Union without borders and with a relatively effi cient transport network, but oriented toward the needs of the Soviet economy. The role of the Central Asian republics in the Soviet division of labor was as providers of raw materials, primarily cotton, minerals, and energy products; roads and railways led north or west to the Russian republic, and eastern and southern borders were effectively closed to trade. Since independence the Central Asian countries have continued to exploit their comparative advantage in raw material exports, but their trade has been hampered by poor transport facilities and by failure to improve the soft infrastructure of trade. Being landlocked exacerbates these weaknesses, but location could be turned to advantage as Central Asia is adjacent to the world’s most dynamic large economies. To benefi t from this the hard and soft infrastructure of transport and trade need upgrading, and regional cooperation to facilitate transit is needed to stimulate intra- and extra-regional trade.; Richard Pomfret

How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) in the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian cities

BERTOLDI PAOLO; PIERS DE RAVESCHOOT RONALD; PAINA FEDERICA; MELICA GIULIA; GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; JANSSENS-MAENHOUT Greet; MEIJIDE ORIVE Ana; IANCU ANDREEA
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Since 2010 the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative has come to involve 11 Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries in the implementation of local sustainable energy policies. The specific situation which characterises these countries compels to adapt the methodology for the preparation of the Sustainable Energy Action Plans which has been developed to address the European context and which has been widely described in the Guidebook "How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP)". The present outline aims to complement the above mentioned Guidebook by presenting the main adaptations to the methodology as they are proposed for Eastern Partnership and Central Asian cities. It does this by presenting first an overview of the key principles these signatories should keep in mind when preparing a SEAP, and secondly by indicating the main critical aspects of the methodological adaptation. In this framework Eastern Partnership and Central Asian signatories are given the possibility to commit to an emission reduction target by 2020 based on their projections of emissions for this year following a Business-As-Usual scenario.; JRC.F.7-Renewables and Energy Efficiency

Policing the silk road do the Central Asian states need the United States and Russia to create and maintain stability?

Charamut, William J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
This thesis argues that U.S. and Russian influence in the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, aids in regional stability. By embracing the assistance of both the United States and Russia, the Central Asian states will be better able to deal effectively with regional flashpoints such as border disputes and water management issues. The economic and counterterrorism assistance at its current level is aiding in the combating of Islamic fundamentalism in the region. The economic impact the United States and Russia have on Central Asia is significant in terms of trade and financial assistance. The United States and Russia have ongoing business enterprises and governmental interactions with the countries of Central Asia, indicative of a future interest in investment in the region. As a region, Central Asia needs not just to maintain but also to increase its cooperation with both the United States and Russia if it is to help its struggling economies and establish regional stability.

Relationship between ecology and security shown by the example of the Central Asian region and policy-oriented global approaches to prevent ecologically induced conflicts

Moskopp, Rainer
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In order to ensure future security, the nations of the world must deal putatively with global-wide ecological problems. These problems include; ecological degradation and scarcity of resources, they demonstrate the explosive force of ecologically induced conflict. Many conflicts in the Central Asian region are the result of ecological transformation in combination with other sources of conflict. Preventive measures should be created at the international, regional, and national level for dealing with these ecologically induced risks and settling already existing conflicts. This study addresses the role and significance of these risks in the sense of security and conflict studies. The study examines the current situation in the Central Asian region and the relationships between existing ecologically induced risks and security. Preventive measures for the region are analyzed and assessed. Finally an approach to a comprehensive global system of policy-oriented measures to prevent ecologically caused conflicts will be discussed and developed. An increased sensitivity to ecologically induced conflict and a general review of the meaning of security is needed. International law, a renunciation of sovereignty and international institution-building are necessary for the creation of a global approach to meet this new global challenge

Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Central Asian Languages and Linguistics (ConCALL)

Özçelik, Öner; Kent, Amber Kennedy
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Livro
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The Conference on Central Asian Languages and Linguistics (ConCALL) was founded in 2014 at Indiana University by Dr. Öner Özçelik, the residing director of the Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region (CeLCAR). As the nation’s sole U.S. Department of Education funded Language Resource Center focusing on the languages of the Central Asian Region, CeLCAR’s main mission is to strengthen and improve the nation’s capacity for teaching and learning Central Asian languages through teacher training, research, materials development projects, and dissemination. As part of this mission, CeLCAR has an ultimate goal to unify and fortify the Central Asian language learning community by facilitating networking between linguists and language educators, encouraging research projects that will inform language instruction, and provide opportunities for professionals in the field to both showcase their work and receive feedback from their peers. Thus ConCALL was established to be the first international academic conference to bring together linguists and language educators in the languages of the Central Asian region, including both the Altaic and Eastern Indo-European languages spoken in the region, to focus on research into how these specific languages are represented formally...

How to develop a sustainable energy action plan (SEAP) in the eastern partnership and central Asian cities. PART II Baseline emission inventory update of emission factors

CERUTTI ALESSANDRO; JANSSENS-MAENHOUT Greet; IANCU ANDREEA; GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; BERTOLDI PAOLO
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This technical update is a necessary compendium of the Guidebook 'How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) in the Easter Partnership and Central Asian Cities', focusing on the calculation of updated Emission Factor for electricity in partner countries. This report provides the tables with country-specific emission factors and calculation procedures for power and heat plants and completes the emission factor time series up to 2012. In this way the signatories of the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian Cities can establish baseline emission inventories for recent years with updated emission factors.; JRC.H.2-Air and Climate

Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

Kausrud, K.L.; Begon, M.; Ben Ari, T.; Viljugrein, H.; Esper, J.; Buntgen, U.; Leirs, H.; Junge, C.; Yang, B.; Yang, M.; Xu, L.; Stenseth, N.C.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
Background: Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis) infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results: We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions: Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries...

Trade policies in Central Asia after EU enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and integration into the world economy

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Elsevier BV, North Holland Publicador: Elsevier BV, North Holland
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements signed by the Central Asian countries had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for these countries of WTO accession. The Central Asian countries’ relationship to the WTO became more pressing after China's WTO accession in December 2001 and with imminent Russian accession. The push towards regionalism is also affected by external events, such as the introduction of the euro, and the EU's eastward expansion in 2004.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/621171/description#description; Copyright © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pivot or periphery? Xinjiang's regional development and Chinese-Central Asian relations at the century's end

Zhao, Yueyao
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Xinjiang, once described by Owen Lattimore as the "pivot of Asia", has played a strategically important role in China's national defense and security. Historically linked on the famous Silk Road with Central Asia, Xinjiang was crucial to East-West economic and cultural exchanges. During the period of Russian/Soviet expansion into Central Asia and Sino-Soviet rivalry, China's need for Xinjiang's defense and territorial integrity became paramount, and consequently Xinjiang's economy was relegated to the periphery.^ The demise of the Soviet Union--which resulted in the independence of five Central Asian states--and China's reform suggest dramatic new possibilities for Xinjiang's regional development as well as interregional cooperation. As China has begun to shift regional emphasis to the interior, Xinjiang's economic development will be accelerated. With the growth of Sino/Xinjiang-Central Asian relations, Xinjiang's importance will not only be borne out in terms of defense and security, but more significantly in terms of trade and economics. At the century's end and the beginning of the 21st century, Xinjiang will likely move away from the periphery and play an increasingly pivotal role in the economy. ^

Europe and Central Asia's Great Post-Communist Social Health Insurance Experiment : Impacts on Health Sector and Labor Market Outcomes

Wagstaff, Adam; Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
The post-communist transition to social health insurance in many of the Central and Eastern European and Central Asian countries provides a unique opportunity to try to answer some of the unresolved issues in the debate over the relative merits of social health insurance and tax-financed health systems. This paper employs a regression-based generalization of the difference-in-differences method and instrumental variables on panel data from 28 countries for the period 1990-2004. The authors find that, controlling for any concurrent provider payment reforms, adoption of social health insurance increased national health spending and hospital activity rates, but did not lead to better health outcomes. The authors also find that adoption of social health insurance reduced employment in the economy as a whole and increased unemployment, although it did not apparently increase the size of the informal economy.