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Os produtores de algodão no noroeste de Moçambique

Vidal, Maia Marjolaine
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; Cotton in Mozambique remains an important crop in many regions, where it’s produced on a joint venture basis. The yield of this cash crop is particularly low in the whole country, including in the Niassa province where this study took place. A better knowledge of the producer’s life and constraints that rules their decision makings in the breeding process could help the joint venture company to reinforce its policy. This point is essential to improve cotton breeding profitability and consequently the living standards of farmer families. The present work includes a socioeconomic characterization of the small cotton producer’s population of a concession area, together with a brief description of the agricultural production system. In addition, a study was made on the cotton production cycle in order to try understanding the reasons why small producers don’t always follow the company’s recommendations. The low yield is mainly due to late sowing and insufficient protection against insects and weeds; added to the problem of small-sized fields. The cotton’s price fall in the international market leads to a reduction of the small producers’ incomes...

Differential exploitation of cashew - a low conflict crop - by sympatric humans and chimpanzees

Sousa, Cláudia
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Modification of natural areas by human activities mostly has a negative impact on wildlife by increasing the geographical and ecological overlap between people and animals. This can result in escalating levels of competition and conflict between humans and wildlife, for example over crops. However, data on specific crops and crop parts that are unattractive to wildlife yet important for human livelihoods are surprisingly scarce, especially considering their potential application to reducing crop damage by wildlife. Here we examine the co-utilization of a nationally important and spatially abundant cash crop, cashew Anacardium occidentalis, by people and chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus inhabiting a forested–agricultural matrix in Cantanhez National Park in Guinea-Bissau. In this Park people predominantly harvest the marketable cashew nut and discard the unprofitable fruit whereas chimpanzees only consume the fruit. Local farmers generally perceive a benefit of raiding by chimpanzees as they reportedly pile the nuts, making harvesting easier. By ensuring that conflict levels over crops, especially those with high economic importance, remain low, the costs of living in proximity to wildlife can potentially be reduced. Despite high levels of deforestation associated with cashew farming...

Increased Productivity of a Cover Crop Mixture Is Not Associated with Enhanced Agroecosystem Services

Smith, Richard G.; Atwood, Lesley W.; Warren, Nicholas D.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Cover crops provide a variety of important agroecological services within cropping systems. Typically these crops are grown as monocultures or simple graminoid-legume bicultures; however, ecological theory and empirical evidence suggest that agroecosystem services could be enhanced by growing cover crops in species-rich mixtures. We examined cover crop productivity, weed suppression, stability, and carryover effects to a subsequent cash crop in an experiment involving a five-species annual cover crop mixture and the component species grown as monocultures in SE New Hampshire, USA in 2011 and 2012. The mean land equivalent ratio (LER) for the mixture exceeded 1.0 in both years, indicating that the mixture over-yielded relative to the monocultures. Despite the apparent over-yielding in the mixture, we observed no enhancement in weed suppression, biomass stability, or productivity of a subsequent oat (Avena sativa L.) cash crop when compared to the best monoculture component crop. These data are some of the first to include application of the LER to an analysis of a cover crop mixture and contribute to the growing literature on the agroecological effects of cover crop diversity in cropping systems.

Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon

van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Deforestation for tree cash crop plantations such as oil palm, rubber, and cacao agroforest in the tropics results in strong decreases in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, with much of this carbon lost through carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and leaching. We found that SOC stock losses in oil palm, rubber, and cacao agroforestry plantations in Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru could be predicted by the amount of SOC in the original forests: the more SOC present initially, the more SOC lost after conversion. When natural forests were replaced by tree cash crop plantations, SOC losses of up to 50% were found. We recommend that these SOC losses be incorporated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tier 1 method for carbon accounting.

Crop Production and Road Connectivity in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Spatial Analysis

Dorosh, Paul; Wang, Hyoung-Gun; You, Liang; Schmidt, Emily
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This study examines the relationship between transport infrastructure and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa using new data obtained from geographic information systems (GIS). First, the authors analyze the impact of road connectivity on crop production and choice of technology. Second, they explore the impact of investments that reduce road travel times. Finally, they show how this type of analysis can be used to compare cost-benefit ratios for alternative road investments in terms of agricultural output per dollar invested. The authors find that agricultural production is highly correlated with proximity (as measured by travel time) to urban markets. Likewise, adoption of high-productive/high-input technology is negatively correlated with travel time to urban centers. There is therefore substantial scope for increasing agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in more remote areas. Total crop production relative to potential production is 45 percent for areas within four hours travel time from a city of 100...

Finding Missing Markets (and a Disturbing Epilogue) : Evidence from an Export Crop Adoption and Marketing Intervention in Kenya

Ashraf, Nava; Giné, Xavier; Karlan, Dean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
In much of the developing world, many farmers grow crops for local or personal consumption despite export options that appear to be more profitable. Thus many conjecture that one or several markets are missing. This paper reports on a randomized controlled trial conducted by DrumNet in Kenya that attempts to help farmers adopt and market export crops. DrumNet provides smallholder farmers with information about how to switch to export crops, makes in-kind loans for the purchase of the agricultural inputs, and provides marketing services by facilitating the transaction with exporters. The experimental evaluation design randomly assigns pre-existing farmer self-help groups to one of three groups: (1) a treatment group that receives all DrumNet services, (2) a treatment group that receives all DrumNet services except credit, or (3) a control group. After one year, DrumNet services led to an increase in production of export oriented crops and lower marketing costs; this translated into household income gains for new adopters. However...

Gauging the Welfare Effects of Shocks in Rural Tanzania

Christiaensen, Luc; Hoffmann, Vivian; Sarris, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Studies of risk and its consequences tend to focus on one risk factor, such as a drought or an economic crisis. Yet 2003 household surveys in rural Kilimanjaro and Ruvuma, two cash-crop-growing regions in Tanzania that experienced a precipitous coffee price decline around the turn of the millennium, identified health and drought shocks as well as commodity price declines as major risk factors, suggesting the need for a comprehensive approach to analyzing household vulnerability. In fact, most coffee growers, except the smaller ones in Kilimanjaro, weathered the coffee price declines rather well, at least to the point of not being worse off than non-coffee growers. Conversely, improving health conditions and reducing the effect of droughts emerge as critical to reduce vulnerability. One-third of the rural households in Kilimanjaro experienced a drought or health shocks, resulting in an estimated 8 percent welfare loss on average, after using savings and aid. Rainfall is more reliable in Ruvuma, and drought there did not affect welfare. Surprisingly...

Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa

Herrero, Mario; Jones, Peter G; Karanja, Stanley; Mutie, Ianetta; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. A recent study by Jones and Thornton (2009) points to the possibility of such climate-induced livelihood transitions in the mixed crop-livestock rainfed arid-semiarid systems of Africa. These mixed systems cover over one million square kilometers of farmland in West Africa, Eastern Africa, and Southeastern Africa. Their characteristically scant rainfall usually causes crop failure in one out of every six growing seasons and is thus already marginal for crop production. Under many projected climate futures, these systems will become drier and even more marginal for crop production. This will greatly increase the risk of cropping and among the several possible coping and adaptation mechanisms, (e.g. totally abandoning farming, diversification of income-generating activities such as migration and off-farm employment, etc.) agro-pastoralists may alter the relative emphasis that they currently place on the crop and livestock components of the farming system in favor of livestock. There has been only limited analysis on what such climate induced transitions might look like...

Up in Smoke? Agricultural Commercialization, Rising Food Prices and Stunting in Malawi

Wood, Benjamin; Nelson, Carl; Kilic, Talip; Murray, Siobhan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
Diversification into high-value cash crops among smallholders has been propagated as a strategy to improve welfare in rural areas. However, the extent to which cash crop production spurs projected gains remains an under-researched question, especially in the context of market imperfections leading to non-separable production and consumption decisions, and price shocks to staple crops that might be displaced on the farm by cash crops. This study is a contribution to the long-standing debate on the links between commercialization and nutrition. It uses nationally-representative household survey data from Malawi, and estimates the effect of household adoption of an export crop, namely tobacco, on child height-for-age z-scores. Given the endogenous nature of household tobacco adoption, the analysis relies on instrumental variable regressions, and isolates the causal effect by comparing impact estimates informed by two unique samples of children that differ in their exposure to an exogenous domestic staple food price shock during the early child development window (from conception through two years of age). The analysis finds that household tobacco production in the year of or the year after child birth...

The Impact of Exogenous Shocks on Households in the Pacific : A Micro-Simulation Analysis

Cororaton, Caesar B.; Knight, David S.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
This paper seeks to provide evidence on the extent of household vulnerability to exogenous economic shocks in the Pacific region and consider policy options that help to manage this risk. Characteristics of the region such as remoteness, small size, dispersion, and urbanizing populations lead to pronounced vulnerabilities. The paper presents macroeconomic and distributional analysis and complements it with results of a micro-simulation model customized for this work based on a model used previously by the World Bank to analyze the impacts of the Food and Fuel Price Crisis. The results of micro-simulations serve to highlight the very high levels of economic vulnerability faced in the region. Impacts of economic shocks are not confined to well-off individuals, but have major impacts on the poor. Even moderate shocks are likely to push sizeable fractions of the population below the poverty line. The shocks considered are not worst case scenarios, but those that can and have occurred frequently. The results show that households are hard hit by increases in oil prices...

Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

Catarino,Luís; Menezes,Yusufo; Sardinha,Raul
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentale)cultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term...

Development at the Border : Policies and National Integration in Cote d'Ivoire and its Neighbors

Cogneau, Denis; Mesple-Somps, Sandrine; Spielvogel, Gilles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
Regression discontinuity designs applied to a set of household surveys from the 1980-90s allow to examine whether Cote d'Ivoire's aggregate wealth was translated at the borders of neighboring countries. At the border of Ghana and at the end of the 1980s, large discontinuities are detected for consumption, child stunting, and access to electricity and safe water. Border discontinuities in consumption can be explained by differences in cash crop policies (cocoa and coffee). When these policies converged in the 1990s, the only differences that persisted were those in rural facilities. In the North, cash crop (cotton) income again made a difference for consumption and nutrition (the case of Mali). On the one hand, large differences in welfare can hold at the borders dividing African countries despite their assumed porosity. On the other hand, border discontinuities seem to reflect the impact of reversible public policies rather than intangible institutional traits.

Commitments to Save : A Field Experiment in Rural Malawi

Brune, Lasse; Giné, Xavier; Goldberg, Jessica; Yang, Dean
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
This paper reports the results of a field experiment that randomly assigned smallholder cash crop farmers formal savings accounts. In collaboration with a microfinance institution in Malawi, the authors tested two primary treatments, offering either: 1) "ordinary" accounts, or 2) both ordinary and "commitment" accounts. Commitment accounts allowed customers to restrict access to their own funds until a future date of their choosing. A control group was not offered any account but was tracked alongside the treatment groups. Only the commitment treatment had statistically significant effects on subsequent outcomes. The effects were positive and large on deposits and withdrawals immediately prior to the next planting season, agricultural input use in that planting, crop sales from the subsequent harvest, and household expenditures in the period after harvest. Across the set of key outcomes, the commitment savings treatment had larger effects than the ordinary savings treatment. Additional evidence suggests that the positive impacts of commitment derive from keeping funds from being shared with one's social network.

Cash Transfers in an Epidemic Context : The Interaction of Formal and Informal Support in Rural Malawi

Strobbe, Francesco; Miller, Candace
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
This paper investigates the short-run consumption expenditure dynamics and the interaction of public and private arrangements of ultra-poor and labor-constrained households in Malawi using an original dataset from the Mchinjii social cash transfer pilot project (one of the first experiments of social protection policies based on unconditional cash transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa). The authors exploit the unique source of exogenous variation provided by the randomized component of the program in order to isolate the effect of cash transfers on consumption expenditures as well as the net crowding out effect of cash transfers on private arrangements. They find a statistically significant reduction effect on the level of consumption expenditures for those households receiving cash transfers, thus leading to the rejection of the perfect risk sharing hypothesis. Moreover, by looking at the effects of cash transfers on private arrangements in a context characterized by imperfect enforceability of contracts and by a social fabric heavily compromised by high HIV/AIDS rates...

Civil War, Crop Failure, and Child Stunting in Rwanda

Akresh, Richard; Verwimp, Philip; Bundervoet, Tom
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Economic shocks at birth have lasting effects on children's health several years after the shock. The authors calculate height for age z-scores for children under age five using data from a Rwandan nationally representative household survey conducted in 1992. They exploit district and time variation in crop failure and civil conflict to measure the impact of exogenous shocks that children experience at birth on their height several years later. They find that boys and girls born after the shock in regions experiencing civil conflict are both negatively affected with height for age z-scores 0.30 and 0.72 standard deviations lower, respectively. Conversely, only girls are negatively affected by crop failure, with these girls exhibiting 0.41 standard deviation lower height for age z-scores and the impact is worse for girls in poor households. Results are robust to using sibling difference estimators, household level production, and rainfall shocks as alternative measures of crop failure.

The Costs and Profitability of Tobacco Compared to Other Crops in Zimbabwe

Keyser, John C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
This study compares the financial costs and returns to tobacco growing with twelve (traditional and non-traditional) alternative crops, looking at profitability, costs, labor intensity, financial support, technical infrastructure, land-suitability, marketing difficulties, world demand, and production risks. It aims to provide an improved understanding of the trade-offs farmers face in deciding what crops to grow. The analysis is based on an original set of 91 production budgets estimated in January 2001 specifically for this study. The study finds that tobacco is a highly profitable cash crop for both large and small farmers. however even if global demand for tobacco were to fall significantly in the future, the impact on employment and the broader economy would depend on the extent to which commercial farmers were able to switch to other high value export crops. Changes in Zimbabwe's land policy in 2001/2002 are likely to have a much larger impact on tobacco growing and exports and on the economy than demand-induced changes in the global market for tobacco.

Policy Opportunities to Increase Cover Crop Adoption on North Carolina Farms

Miller, Lee; Zook, Katy; Chin, Jennifer
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Cover cropping is an agricultural practice that produces on-farm benefits while contributing to broader public sustainability goals. However, cover crops have not been widely adopted in the United States, while the barriers to farmer adoption of cover crops have received little research attention. This study considers the relative importance of the barriers that farmers overcome to adopt cover crops in North Carolina and identifies the resources that enable successful adoption. We used an email survey of NC farmers to gather quantitative data about cover crop use and preferences, supplemented by qualitative interviews with experts on cover crop adoption. Our data show that farmers in NC overcame three broad categories of challenges to adopt cover crops: agronomic, input costs, and knowledge transfer. The level of these challenges varies depending on farm size and income, age of farmer, farming experience, and whether information to plant cover crops was obtained through extension, farmer networks, or private industry. Timing for planting, in particular, challenges farmers regardless of their demographic characteristics. We recommend a holistic policy approach that strengthens diverse knowledge transfer networks, bolsters farmer incentives through existing cost-share programs...

Policy Opportunities to Increase Cover Crop Adoption on North Carolina Farms

Miller, Lee; Zook, Katy; Chin, Jennifer
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Cover cropping is an agricultural practice that produces on-farm benefits while contributing to broader public sustainability goals. However, cover crops have not been widely adopted in the United States, while the barriers to farmer adoption of cover crops have received little research attention. This study considers the relative importance of the barriers that farmers overcome to adopt cover crops in North Carolina and identifies the resources that enable successful adoption. We used an email survey of NC farmers to gather quantitative data about cover crop use and preferences, supplemented by qualitative interviews with experts on cover crop adoption. Our data show that farmers in NC overcame three broad categories of challenges to adopt cover crops: agronomic, input costs, and knowledge transfer. The level of these challenges varies depending on farm size and income, age of farmer, farming experience, and whether information to plant cover crops was obtained through extension, farmer networks, or private industry. Timing for planting, in particular, challenges farmers regardless of their demographic characteristics. We recommend a holistic policy approach that strengthens diverse knowledge transfer networks, bolsters farmer incentives through existing cost-share programs...

Aspects of land use in slash and burn agriculture

Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Lee, Dug
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
In this paper we first construct a theoretical model of land use by swidden cultivators when these cultivators can choose whether to grow a cash crop or a food/subsistence crop. Second, we study the land quality accumulation decision faced by shifting cultivators and, in the process, we show how to compute the optimal length of time during which cleared land is to be left fallow. Finally, we investigate the implications that the optimal land quality accumulation decision has for the relative price of the food crop in particular and slash and burn agriculture in general.

Cashew cultivation in Guinea-Bissau – risks and challenges of the success of a cash crop

Catarino, Luís; Menezes, Yusufo; Sardinha, Raul
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentale)cultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term...