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Transferência condicionada de renda e segurança alimentar em espaços rurais: uma análise do Programa JUNTOS na comunidade indígena de Pilpichaca no Peru; Conditional cash transfer and food security in rural areas: Analyze of the Program JUNTOS in Pilpichaca indigenous community in Peru

Huayta, Violeta Magdalena Rojas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2011 PT
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As sociedades mundiais passam por mudanças substanciais que repercutem nas áreas da segurança alimentar e das políticas públicas sociais. Apesar de terem ocorrido significativas conquistas econômicas e sociais nos últimos anos, no Peru ainda existe dificuldade para oferecer segurança alimentar a toda sua população e isto se reflete na alta prevalência de subnutrição infantil concentrada principalmente nos espaços rurais, onde até o primeiro semestre de 2010, 30,9% das crianças são subnutridas. Esta situação representa uma ameaça para a sustentabilidade do desenvolvimento do Peru, devido aos efeitos irreversíveis da subnutrição na capacidade intelectual e física do indivíduo. Sendo a pobreza uma das principais causas da subnutrição, os programas de transferência condicionada de renda têm um grande potencial em favorecer a segurança alimentar dos beneficiados. Neste contexto o presente estudo tem como objetivo mostrar os reflexos na segurança alimentar dos beneficiados do programa de transferência condicionada de renda JUNTOS, na comunidade indígena de Pilpichaca, uma das comunidades mais pobres e com maior prevalência de crianças subnutridas do Peru. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo e quantitativo em uma amostra de 90 famílias. A escolha das famílias beneficiadas foi feita aleatoriamente em uma relação de todas as famílias beneficiadas com crianças menores de cinco anos. O levantamento dos dados foi feito através de questionário fechado apresentado as mães. Pretendia-se conhecer: a forma de acesso aos alimentos...

Targeting the Poor: A Macroeconomic Analysis of Cash Transfer Programs

Berriel, Tiago C.; Zilberman, Eduardo
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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This paper introduces cash transfers targeting the poor in an incomplete markets model with heterogeneous agents facing idiosyncratic risk. These transfers change the degree of insurance in the economy and a ect precautionary motives asymmetrically, leading the poorest households to decrease savings proportionally more than their richer counterparts. In a model economy calibrated to Brazil, once the cash transfer program is adopted, wealth inequality and social welfare increase, poverty decreases, while employment and income inequality remain about the same. Imperfect access to nancial markets is important for these results, whereas whether the program is funded with lump sum or distortive taxes is not.

The impact on consumption of more cash in conditional cash transfer programs

Loureiro,André Oliveira Ferreira; Holanda,Marcos Costa
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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This paper evaluates the impact of an increase in the value of the cash transfer paid to families by the Brazilian Bolsa Família program. The existence of a similar program in the state of Ceará, Bolsa Cidadão, that increases the value received by a sub-group of families, provides a unique dataset, enabling us to evaluate the effect of a higher value of transfer on the spending of comparable households. There is a significant increase in consumption, but it is smaller than the increment in the income, suggesting that the consumption of the households is not properly declared.

Are There Diminishing Returns to Transfer Size in Conditional Cash Transfers?

Filmer, Deon; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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There is increasing evidence that conditional cash transfer programs can have large impacts on school enrollment, including in very poor countries. However, little is known about which features of program design -- including the amount of the cash that is transferred, how frequently conditions are monitored, whether non-complying households are penalized, and the identity or gender of the cash recipients -- account for the observed outcomes. This paper analyzes the impact of one feature of program design -- namely, the magnitude of the transfer. The analysis uses data from a program in Cambodia that deliberately altered the transfer amounts received by otherwise comparable households. The findings show clear evidence of diminishing marginal returns to transfer size despite the fact that even the larger transfers represented on average only 3 percent of the consumption of the median recipient households. If applicable to other settings, these results have important implications for other programs that transfer cash with the explicit aim of increasing school enrollment levels in developing countries.

Designing an Advanced Cash Transfer Program in the Palestinian Territories

Hillis, Samira; Leite, Phillippe; McDonald, Laura; Frost, Lillian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Palestinian Authority (PA)- administered Cash Transfer Program (CTP) is considered one of the most advanced cash assistance programs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Using its sophisticated management information system (MIS), which includes a poverty-targeting database, it provides timely quarterly payments to beneficiary households using a uniform payment modality. The CTP was established, with support from the PA, after a merger between the World Bank-funded Social Safety Net Reform Project (SSNRP) and the European Union (EU)-funded Special Hardship Case (SHC) program in 2010. Since the CTP provided its first payment to households in the Palestinian Territories (PT) that year, the number of beneficiary households has increased by almost 59 percentage reaching almost 100,000 households.

Evaluating the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Rawlings, Laura B.; Rubio, Gloria M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Several developing economies have recently introduced conditional cash transfer programs, which provide money to poor families contingent on certain behavior, usually investments in human capital, such as sending children to school or bringing them to health centers. The approach is both an alternative to more traditional social assistance programs and a demand-side complement to the supply of health and education services. Unlike most development initiatives, conditional cash transfer programs have been subject to rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness using experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Evaluation results for programs launched in Colombia, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Turkey reveal successes in addressing many of the failures in delivering social assistance, such as weak poverty targeting, disincentive effects, and limited welfare impacts. There is clear evidence of success from the first generation of programs in Colombia, Mexico, and Nicaragua in increasing enrollment rates...

Reassessing Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Das, Jishnu; Do, Quy-Toan; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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During the past decade, the use of conditional cash transfer programs to increase investment in human capital has generated considerable excitement in both research and policy forums. This article surveys the existing literature, which suggests that most conditional cash transfer programs are used for essentially one of two purposes: restoring efficiency when externalities exist or improving equity by targeting resources to poor households. The programs often meet their stated objectives, but in some instances there is tension between the efficiency and equity objectives. The overall impact of a program depends on the gains and losses associated with each objective.

Conditional, Unconditional and Everything in Between : A Systematic Review of the Effects of Cash Transfer Programs on Schooling Outcomes

Baird, Sarah; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Özler, Berk; Woolcock, Michael
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Cash transfer programmes are a popular social protection tool in developing countries that aim, among other things, to improve education outcomes in developing countries. The debate over whether these programmes should include conditions has been at the forefront of recent policy discussions. This systematic review aims to complement the existing evidence on the effectiveness of these programmes in improving schooling outcomes and help inform the debate surrounding the design of cash transfer programmes. Using data from 75 reports that cover 35 different studies, the authors find that both conditional cash transfers (CCTs) and unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) improve the odds of being enrolled in and attending school compared to no cash transfer programme. The effect sizes for enrolment and attendance are always larger for CCTs compared to UCTs, but the difference is not statistically significant. When programmes are categorised as having no schooling conditions, having some conditions with minimal monitoring and enforcement and having explicit conditions that are monitored and enforced, a much clearer pattern emerges whereby programmes that are explicitly conditional, monitor compliance and penalise non-compliance have substantively larger effects (60% improvement in odds of enrolment). Unlike enrolment and attendance...

Evaluating the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs : Lessons from Latin America

Rawlings, Laura B.; Rubio, Gloria M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Unlike most development initiatives, conditional cash transfer programs recently introduced in the Latin America and the Caribbean region have been subject to rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness. These programs provide money to poor families, conditional on certain behavior, usually investments in human capital-such as sending children to school or bringing them to health centers on a regular basis. Rawlings and Rubio review the experience in evaluating the impact of these programs, exploring the application of experimental and quasi-experimental evaluation methods and summarizing results from programs launched in Brazil, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, and Nicaragua. Evaluation results from the first generation of programs in Brazil, Mexico, and Nicaragua show that conditional cash transfer programs are effective in promoting human capital accumulation among poor households. There is clear evidence of success in increasing enrollment rates, improving preventive health care, and raising household consumption. Despite this promising evidence...

Examining Conditional Cash Transfer Programs : A Role for Increased Social Inclusion?

de la Brière, Bénédicte; Rawlings, Laura B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Conditional Cash Transfer programs (CCTs) provide money to poor families contingent upon certain verifiable actions, generally minimum investments in children s human capital such as regular school attendance or basic preventative health care. They therefore hold promise for addressing the inter-generational transmission of poverty and fostering social inclusion by explicitly targeting the poor, focusing on children, delivering transfers to women, and changing social accountability relationships between beneficiaries, service providers and governments. CCT programs are at the forefront of applying new social policy theories and program administration practices. They address demand-side barriers, have a synergistic focus on investments in health, education and nutrition, and combine short-term transfers for income support with incentives for long-run investments in human capital. They also are public sector leaders in program administration, using modern targeting, registering, and monitoring systems along with strategic evaluations. Their impact depends on the supply of quality...

Unconditional Cash Transfers in China

Golan, Jennifer; Sicular, Terry; Umapathi, Nithin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper examines China’s rural minimum living standard guarantee (dibao) program, one of the largest minimum income cash transfer schemes in the world. Using household survey data matched with published administrative data, the paper describes the dibao program, estimates the program’s impact on poverty, and carries out targeting analysis. The analysis finds that the program provides sufficient income to poor beneficiaries but does not substantially reduce the overall level of poverty, in part because the number of beneficiaries is small relative to the number of poor. Conventional targeting analysis reveals rather large inclusionary and exclusionary targeting errors; propensity score targeting analysis yields smaller but still large targeting errors. Simulations of possible reforms to the dibao program indicate that expanding coverage can potentially yield greater poverty reduction than increasing transfer amounts. In addition, replacing locally diverse dibao lines with a nationally uniform dibao threshold could in theory reduce poverty. The potential gains in poverty reduction...

Development strategies and law in Latin America: Argentine, Brazilian and Chilean conditional cash transfer programs in comparative perspective

Pierri, Gastón
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Working from the observation that Latin America countries are developing ideas related to the field of Law and Development, this paper seeks to analyze the development strategies undertaken to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by Argentina, Brazil and Chile during the years 1991-2011. the emphasis is on the particular characteristics present in the articulation of the development policies labeled Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCTs); Desde la observación de las estrategias de desarrollo elaboradas por los países de América Latina en el marco de movimiento denominada Law and Development (Derecho y Desarrollo), el presente artículo analiza parte de las estrategias desarrollo tomadas por Argentina, Brasil y Chile con el fin de eliminar la pobreza y reducir la inequidad social durante los años 1991 y 2011. El enfoque principal está dado por la artculación de estos países frente a las políticas de desarrollo económico denominadas Programas de Transferencias Condicionadas (PTC).

From Gas to Cash; Policy Options for Transferring Resource Revenues to Citizens in Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Mozambique has enjoyed strong economic growth but poverty levels are still unacceptably high. Mozambique is now in a transition period with an opportunity to plan for how resource revenues can contribute to poverty reduction and inclusive growth. Any policy to scale-up a cash transfer program will operate with a limited budget, meaning that decisions will need to be made on the optimal design choice in Mozambique. The objective of this policy note is to generate debate on implementing a scaled-up cash transfer in Mozambique’s future resource-rich environment, as part of a broader strategy to reduce poverty. The scope of this note is focused on distributing resource revenues through a scaled-up cash transfer program, and not the broader management of resource revenues. Section one discusses growth and poverty dynamics. Section two presents the existing social protection system. Section three discusses policy options for implementing a scaled-up cash transfer program using a simulation exercise to estimate poverty and welfare effects for a given fiscal envelope. Section four discusses how to address the risks of financing a scaled-up cash transfer program from resource revenues. Section five focuses on the practicalities of how the social protection system should be strengthened to implement scaled-up cash transfer program and the final section concludes.

Beyond the Income Effect : Impacts of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Private Investments in Human Capital

Cruz, Marcio; Ziegelhofer, Zacharias
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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In the past decade, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have become an important component of social policy in developing countries. While the impacts of these programs have been well researched with respect to their effectiveness to achieve intended outcomes, less is known about their impact on private expenditure decisions. This aspect has great policy relevance since changes in private household expenditures can either support or counteract the aim of the programs. This essay investigates the impact of a CCT program on private household expenditure decisions in nutrition, health and education which are seen as principal contributors to child human capital. First, household expenditure behavior under a CCT program is discussed based on Heckman's model on the technology of skill formation as a conceptual framework. The paper shows how intra-household preferences and perceptions on the substitutability or complementarity of investments can impact household resource allocation decisions. Subsequently...

Conditional Cash Transfer : Programs an Effective Tool for Reaching the Poorest and Most Vulnerable; Programas de transferencias condicionadas en efectivo : una herramienta eficaz para llegar a los grupos mas pobres y vulnerables

Vermehren, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs give families cash to pay for basic health and school expenses (if children attend school and regularly visit health clinics). CCTs have two main objectives: to increase income and alleviate poverty in the short term, and to break the inter-generational cycle of poverty by increasing human capital. Various situations have led to their creation in different countries. The World Bank (WB) supports CCTs in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle-East and Far East. In 2002, the Bank's Latin American and Caribbean Region and the Mexican government sponsored the first regional workshop on experiences with CCTs.. This article summarizes the lessons of experience in designing and operating CCTs shared by officials, donors and academics at the workshop.

Making Conditional Cash Transfer Programs More Efficient : Designing for Maximum Effect of the Conditionality

de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Type; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Conditional cash transfer programs are now used extensively to encourage poor parents to increase investments in their children's human capital. These programs can be large and expensive, motivating a quest for greater efficiency through increased impact of the programs' imposed conditions on human capital formation. This requires designing the programs' targeting and calibration rules specifically to achieve this result. Using data from the Progresa randomized experiment in Mexico, this article shows that large efficiency gains can be achieved by taking into account how much the probability of a child's enrollment is affected by a conditional transfer. Rules for targeting and calibration can be made easy to implement by selecting indicators that are simple, observable, and verifiable and that cannot be manipulated by beneficiaries. The Mexico case shows that these efficiency gains can be achieved without increasing inequality among poor households.

Cash Transfers in an Epidemic Context : The Interaction of Formal and Informal Support in Rural Malawi

Strobbe, Francesco; Miller, Candace
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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This paper investigates the short-run consumption expenditure dynamics and the interaction of public and private arrangements of ultra-poor and labor-constrained households in Malawi using an original dataset from the Mchinjii social cash transfer pilot project (one of the first experiments of social protection policies based on unconditional cash transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa). The authors exploit the unique source of exogenous variation provided by the randomized component of the program in order to isolate the effect of cash transfers on consumption expenditures as well as the net crowding out effect of cash transfers on private arrangements. They find a statistically significant reduction effect on the level of consumption expenditures for those households receiving cash transfers, thus leading to the rejection of the perfect risk sharing hypothesis. Moreover, by looking at the effects of cash transfers on private arrangements in a context characterized by imperfect enforceability of contracts and by a social fabric heavily compromised by high HIV/AIDS rates...

Nicaragua Social Investment Fund : Conditional Cash Transfer, a New Avenue for Social Funds?

Vermehren, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The note presents the case of the Nicaragua Social Investment Fund (FISE), which accounts for an impressive record, having financed a significant number of projects in ten years (sixty percent of these benefiting the education sector). Moreover, it reinforced rural water, and municipal infrastructure projects, and strengthened its engagement in local capacity building at the municipal, and community levels. However, in the late 90s, it became clear there were limits to the effectiveness of supply side interventions, and both FISE, and the government began thinking about strengthening the demand side, through new ways to improve access to social services, and creating an opportunity for inclusion of the most vulnerable, particularly children living precariously in rural areas. The Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program is examined, a new window to finance cash transfers to extremely poor families in selected rural areas. Yet, the remarkable results of CCT questions its affordability, and sustainability. The Government is now starting to prioritize programs...

Intrahousehold Time Allocation: An Impact Evaluation of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Canavire, Gustavo; Ospina, M??nica
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigaci??n; draf
ENG
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This paper argues that exogenous changes in household income alter the allocation of time within the family. To examine this issue, we propose a theoretical framework that is an extension of the unitary model of intra-household time allocation where conditional cash transfers are received by the household and we test it empirically using non-parametric techniques. This allows us to study the effects of an exogenous shock, such as a conditional cash transfer program, on time allocated to various activities such as work, domestic labor, leisure, and school for children and adults. Using the exogenous change of a conditional cash transfer program in Colombia, "Familias en Accion", we find significant positive effects on work time as well as on leisure and school for children and smaller effects on adult schooling and domestic labor, which support our hypothesis. These results are crucial to fully understand other direct and indirect effects of the program.

Can conditional cash transfer programs generate equality of opportunity in highly unequal societies? Evidence from Brazil

Bohn,Simone; Veiga,Luciana Fernandes; Dalt,Salete Da; Brandão,André Augusto Pereira; Gouvêa,Victor Hugo de Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
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This article examines whether the state, through conditional cash transfer programs (CCT), can reduce the poverty and extremely poverty in societies marred by high levels of income concentration. We focus on one of the most unequal countries in the globe, Brazil, and analyze the extent to which this country's CCT program - Bolsa Família (BF, Family Grant) program - is able to improve the life chances of extremely poor beneficiaries, through the three major goals of PBF: First, to immediately end hunger; second, to create basic social rights related to healthcare and education; finally, considering also complementary policies, to integrate adults into the job market. The analysis relies on a quantitative survey with 4,000 beneficiaries and a qualitative survey comprised of in-depth interviews with 38 program's participants from all the regions of the country in 2008, it means that this study is about the five first years of the PBF. In order to answer the research questions, we ran four probit analyses related: a) the determinants of the realization of prenatal care; b) the determinants of food security among BF beneficiaries, c) the determinants that adult BF recipients will return to school, d) the determinants that a BF beneficiary will obtain a job. Important results from the study are: First...