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Um estudo sobre terminais intermodais para granéis sólidos.; A study about intermodal terminals to solid bulk cargo.

Andrade, Luís Emmanuel Carvalho de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/03/2003 PT
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Este trabalho está relacionado coma implantação de adequados terminais intermodais para granéis sólidos nas margens das hidrovias, de modo a aumentar a participação do modal fluvial na matriz de transporte do país. Apresenta-se, inicialmente, um panorama da distribuição modal de transportes em que se enfatiza a deficiência dos terminais fluviais existentes como umfator responsável por esta distribuição. É estabelecido, então, como objetivo do trabalho o desenvolvimento do projeto de umterminal intermodal para a hidrovia Tietê-Paraná. O primeiro passo para o projeto é um estudo de demandas e de capacidade da via onde se define: o tipo de carga, quantidade de carga movimentada atualmente e a projeção de demanda, bem como a distribuição da movimentação ao longo do ano. E, emseguida, estima-se a capacidade de movimentação da via. Para desenvolver o projeto é feita uma compilação de diretrizes propostas para dimensionamento de terminais e de seus subsistemas (hidroviário, ferroviário, rodoviário, de armazenagem e de movimentação). Além disto, são analisados os critérios para avaliação do terminal. Antes de desenvolver o projeto, faz-se uma análise crítica dos terminais existentes na hidrovia, assinalando-se suas falhas. Para o dimensionamento do terminal são formuladas diversas configurações que envolvem combinações de diferentes taxas de movimentação e diferentes capacidades de armazenagem. Utilizando a técnica de simulação...

Why Does Cargo Spend Weeks in African Ports? The Case of Douala, Cameroon

Refas, Salim; Cantens, Thomas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper investigates the main factors explaining long container dwell times in African Ports. Using original and extensive data on container imports in the Port of Douala, it seeks to provide a basic understanding of why containers stay on average more than two weeks in gateway ports in Africa while long dwell times are widely recognized as a critical hindrance to economic development. It also demonstrates the interrelationships that exist between logistics performance of consignees, operational performance of port operators and efficiency of customs clearance operations. Shipment level analysis is used to identify the main determinants of long cargo dwell times and the impact of shipment characteristics such as fiscal regime, density of value, bulking and packaging type, last port of call, and region of origin or commodity group on cargo dwell time in ports is tested. External factors, such as performance of clearing and forwarding agents, shippers and shipping line strategies, also play an important role in the determination of long dwell times. Cargo dwell time distribution has many specificities...

Cargo Dwell Time in Durban : Lessons for Sub-Saharan African Ports

Kgare, Tshepo; Raballand, Gael; Ittmann, Hans W.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Based on quantitative and qualitative data, this paper attempts to identify the main reasons why cargo dwell time in Durban port has dramatically reduced in the past decade to a current average of 3-4 days. A major customs reform; changes in port storage tariffs coupled with strict enforcement; massive investments in infrastructure and equipment; and changing customer behavior through contractualization between the port operator and shipping lines or between customs, importers, and brokers have all played a major role. The main lesson for Sub-Saharan Africa that can be drawn from Durban is that cargo dwell time is mainly a function of the characteristics of the private sector, but it is the onus of public sector players, such as customs and the port authority, to put pressure on the private sector to make more efficient use of the port and reduce cargo dwell time.

Competing Private Ports : Lessons from Argentina

Estache, Antonio; Carbajo, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Port reforms in Argentina have sought to deregulate, decentralize, and privatize. And they have sought to introduce competition not only among ports but also for the ports --by inviting operators to bid for port concessions-- and within the ports-- by dividing large ports into terminals and offering each as a separate concession. Bidders were asked to set their own charges, subject to a maximum price cap for cargo, and concessions were awarded on the basis of the highest rental offered for the infrastructure and equipment. The results have been generally positive, with increased productivity, higher cargo volumes, and big reductions in tariffs. The authors look at the lessons from the reform and set out the remaining challenges.

Why Does Cargo Spend Weeks in Sub-Saharan African Ports? Lessons from Six Countries

Raballand, Gaël; Refas, Salim; Beuran, Monica; Isik, Gözde
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This study is timely because several investments are planned for container terminals in Sub-Saharan Africa. From a public policy perspective, disentangling the reasons behind cargo delays in ports is crucial to understanding:a) whether projects by the World Bank and other donors have addressed the most salient problems; and b) whether institutional port reform and infrastructure, sometimes complemented by customs reform, are the most appropriate approaches or should be adapted. Without such identification and quantification, projects may ultimately result in a limited impact, and structural problems of long delays will remain. Dwell time figures are a major commercial instrument used to attract cargo and generate revenues. Therefore, the incentives for a port authority and a container terminal operator are increasingly strong to lower the real figure to attract more cargo. At the same time, ports are more and more in competition, so the question of how to obtain independently verifiable dwell time data is increasingly critical to provide assurance that interventions are indeed having the intended effect.

Making a Small Market Thrive : Recommendations for Efficiency Gains in the Latin American Air Cargo Market

Serebrisky, Tomás; Schwartz, Jordan; Pachón, María Claudia; Ricover, Andrés
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Air cargo origin destination flows in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are heavily concentrated in the largest economies of South America and Mexico. With 32.7 percent of the airfreight moved to, from, and within the region, Brazil is the largest cargo market, followed by Colombia and Mexico, with 17.9 percent and 16.0 percent, respectively. The relatively small size of the air cargo market in LAC can be explained by: (i) low levels of demand for air cargo services (supply responds adequately to a low demand for air cargo services in/from LAC), or (ii) restrictions to a properly functioning market that impede the air cargo market to reach its full potential. The analysis carried out for the preparation of this paper indicates that the low levels of demand is the most reasonable explanation for the small size of the LAC air cargo market. There is room to improve some regulations which would make the air cargo market work more efficiently and probably at lower costs, but the size and diversity of the market will not significantly change as a result. Airport infrastructure quality fairs well overall...

Air Freight : A Market Study with Implications for Landlocked Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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To facilitate air freight, landlocked countries need to improve operations at their airports and liberalize access for foreign airlines. But until those countries become major exporters, it is unlikely that scheduled air cargo operators will have significant operations. Instead, most air cargo will move as belly cargo on passenger airlines, with some complementary use of chartered air freighters during shipment peaks. Landlocked countries should therefore provide greater access to foreign passenger airlines.

A Multioutput Cost Function for Port Terminals : Some Guidelines for Regulation

Tovar, Beatriz; Jara-Díaz, Sergio; Trujillo, Lourdes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Cargo handling in ports is a multioutput activity, as freight can arrive in many forms such as containers, bulk, rolling stock, or noncontainerized general cargo. In this paper Tovar, Jara-D�, and Trujillo analyze the operation of port terminals through the estimation of a multioutput cost model that uses monthly data on three firms located at the Las Palmas port in Spain. This permits the calculation of product-specific marginal costs, economies of scale (general and by firm), and economies of scope, which are key tools to help the regulators in their task.

Smart transport : a survey of tracking technologies for cargo containers & their transport platforms

Williams, Jeffrey L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 69 p. : col. ill., col. maps ;
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; As the threat of terrorism rises, nations seek solutions to secure their ports and lanes of commerce upon the world's oceans and skies. The transport industry has taken the lead in developing new technologies to track cargo containers and the transport platforms, for billions of dollars are at stake. This thesis examines the present and future communication and tracking systems used by the transport industry. Furthermore, an investigation into the tracking methods for high value items such as diamonds will be disclosed. By analyzing the communication and tracking systems used by the transport industry, elements of the Homeland Security organization can mitigate terrorism on the lanes of commerce and ultimately prevent weapons of mass destruction from entering the United States.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Port Privatization and Competition in Colombia

Gaviria, Juan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Most of Colombia's general cargo trade has been handled by four public ports: Barranquilla, Cartagena, and Santa Marta on the Atlantic coast and Buenaventura on the Pacific coast. These four ports were concessioned in 1993 to regional port "societies" established under company law. These societies are responsible for contracting with port operators for the use of facilities and supervising the facilities' use - they do not provide services directly. New laws abolished restrictive labor practices and have allowed stevedoring services to compete freely at each port. The liberalization of labor practices along with the privatization of port services has resulted in large and rapid improvements in productivity, lower fees for port users, and very attractive returns for the concessionaires. Productivity levels are higher than in most newly privatized ports in other Latin American countries - where in many cases the ports have been privatized with limited competition. The improvements have been realized with low initial investments...

The Impact of Demand on Cargo Dwell Time in Ports in SSA

Beuran, Monica; Mahihenni, Mohamed Hadi; Raballand, Gael; Refas, Salim
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Long cargo dwell times in ports are a critical issue in Sub-Saharan African countries since they result in slow import processes and are bound to dramatically reduce trade. The main objective of this study is to analyze long dwell times' causes in ports in Sub-Saharan Africa from a shipper's perspective. The findings point to the crucial importance of private sector practices and incentives. The authors argue in the case of Sub-Saharan African countries that private operators, rather than being advocates of reforms in this area, might be responsible for the failures of many of these initiatives. It seems that in Sub-Saharan Africa importers' and freight forwarders' professionalism, cash constraints and operators' strategies are some of the factors that have a major impact on cargo dwell time. Low competency, cash constraints and low storage tariffs explain why most importers have little incentive to reduce cargo dwell time since in most cases, this would increase their input costs. However, monopolists/cartels may have a stronger incentive to reduce cargo dwell time but only in order to maximize their profit (and would not adjust prices downward).

OECS Ports : An Efficiency and Performance Assessment

Cubas, Diana; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Bofinger, Heinrich C.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Handling charges in Caribbean ports are two to three times higher than in similar ports in other regions of the world. In some cases, it costs significantly less to ship a container to Hong Kong SAR, China, or Europe than it does to ship to a neighboring island no more than 100 miles away. The reasons for high port-handling costs are linked to procedural inefficiencies along the logistics chain, high freight rates that shipping lines attribute to empty backhauls, and the poor performance of port management and operations. The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States shares the larger Caribbean region's advantages, challenges, and concerns related to the performance of port management and operations. Yet performance assessments have been difficult to make because of data constraints. This report seeks to provide such an assessment along four distinct policy dimensions: (i) traffic development, (ii) the institutional and regulatory framework, (iii) infrastructure development, and (iv) performance, including pricing and finance issues. The report concludes by benchmarking the efficiency of Organization of Eastern Caribbean States ports against other Latin American ports using a stochastic frontier approach...

Stagnation or Revival : Israeli Disengagement and Palestinian Economic Prospects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank's June 23 report, "Disengagement, the Palestinian Economy and the Settlements," warns of the potential disintegration of the Palestinian economy under the sustained pressures of conflict and Israeli closure policies--a situation which is potentially ruinous for both Palestinians and Israelis. Currently there is hope that the Israeli and Palestinian governments are once again ready to discuss their shared future. At this juncture, it is vital that policy-makers focus on stabilizing and reviving the economy as part of any new political process. While money, and in particular donor money, has an important role to play, the underlying causes of economic decline need to be addressed. For a recovery to take place, the Government of Israel needs to roll back the system of restrictions on the movement of people and goods imposed since the beginning of the intifada - it is these various closure measures that are the proximate cause of four years of Palestinian economic distress. The Government of Israel has given encouraging signs of a willingness to reform the management of border gateways...

Mauritius - The Port Development and Environment Protection Project; Ile Maurice : le Projet d'Amenagement Portuaire et de Protection de l'Environnement

Mohan, P.C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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The overall objective of the project (1996-2001) was to enhance the country's transport and trade effectiveness in the maritime sector in an environmentally sustainable manner. It aimed to help increase port productivity, efficiency and capacity to meet the demand of port users and operators at competitive rates through extension of facilities, mechanization and improved management of the Mauritius Port Authority (MPA), formerly the Mauritius Marine Authority, the Cargo Handling Corporation Ltd. (CHCL) and the Mauritius Freeport Authority (MFA), redefine the role of MPA as a landlord port authority working through as series of competitive concession contracts with performance indicators for port operations, support the development of MFA to promote Mauritius as an attractive tax-free base for regional trade, and support port development with sound environmental protection, including control of marine pollution, and port operations and vessels' safety enhancement.

Production and Cost Functions and their Application to the Port Sector : A Literature Survey

Tovar, Beatrice; Jara-Diaz, Sergio; Trujillo, Lourdes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Seaports provide multiple services to ships, cargo, and passengers. These services can be performed by a combination of public and private initiatives. Usually, the role of public sector institutions is to regulate and supervise private firms. In performing that task public sector institutions require in-depth knowledge of firms' cost structure. This paper offers a review of the literature about ports' cost structure and of its implications for regulation. The paper argues that the operation of port terminals should be analyzed by means of multiproduct theory. This approach allows the calculation of several cost indicators (economies of scale, scope, and so forth) which are key tools to help regulators.

Maritime Transport Costs and Port Efficiency

Clark, Ximena; Dollar, David; Micco, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.35%
Recent literature has emphasized the importance of transport costs and infrastructure in explaining trade, access to markets, and increases in per capita income. For most Latin American countries transport costs are a greater barrier to U.S. markets than import tariffs. The authors investigate the determinants of the costs of shipping to the United States using a large database (more than 300,000 observations a year) on shipments of products at the six-digit level of the Harmonized System of classification from different ports around the world. They find that distance and containerization matter. They find that the efficiency of ports is also important. Improving the efficiency of a port from the 25th to the 75th percentile reduces shipping costs by 12 percent. (On average, having bad ports is equivalent to being 60 percent farther away from markets.) Inefficient ports also increase handling costs, which are part of shipping costs. Finally, the authors try to explain variations in port efficiency. They find that the variations are linked to excessive regulation...

Multioutput analysis of cargo handling firms: An application to a Spanish port

Tovar de la Fe, Beatriz; Trujillo, Lourdes; Jara Díaz, Sergio Rodolfo
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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Cargo handling in ports is a multioutput activity, as freight can arrive in many forms such as containers, bulk, rolling stock, or non-containerised general cargo. In this paper, the operation of cargo handling firms in a Spanish port is analysed through the estimation of a multioutput cost model that uses monthly data on three representative firms located at the Las Palmas port. This permits the calculation of product specific marginal costs, economies of scale (general and by firm) and economies of scope, which help identifying optimal pricing policies and the potential cost advantages of increasing production.

Productivity in cargo handling in Spanish ports during a period of regulatory reforms

Martínez Budría, Eduardo; Jara Díaz, Sergio Rodolfo; Díaz Hernández, Juan José
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
The objective of this research is to measure productivity changes in cargo handling operations in Spanish ports. By means of Data Envelopment Analysis and the calculation of the Malmquist indices we have decomposed those changes into efficiency and technical change effects. The study covers a period from 1994 to 1998, when the significant regulatory and technical changes introduced during the eighties had matured. The results show an improvement in productivity imputable totally to technical change, since the technical efficiency has not been corrected in that period.

Parametric estimation of inefficiency in cargo handling in Spanish ports

Jara Díaz, Sergio Rodolfo; Martínez Budría, Eduardo; Díaz Hernández, Juan José
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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Port workers services have been usually heavily regulated and reserved exclusively for a special kind of workers, dockworkers, which seems to have been the cause of serious inefficiencies worldwide. During the eighties, law reforms have been introduced to solve this problem. In this paper we analyze and decompose efficiency in cargo handling operations in 19 Spanish ports from 1990 to 1998. The method chosen is that of the parametric estimation of both allocative and technical inefficiency using panel data and a quadratic cost function. Results show that although inefficiency has decreased overall, there has been over utilization of labor regarding capital, and technical inefficiency. This supports the need of further consideration of other aspects including competition.

Monte-Carlo Simulations of Radiation-Induced Activation in a Fast-Neutron and Gamma- Based Cargo Inspection System

Bromberger, B.; Bar, D.; Brandis, M.; Dangendorf, V.; Goldberg, M. B.; Kaufmann, F.; Mor, I.; Nolte, R.; Schmiedel, M.; Tittelmeier, K.; Vartsky, D.; Wershofen, H.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/01/2012
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An air cargo inspection system combining two nuclear reaction based techniques, namely Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography and Dual-Discrete-Energy Gamma Radiography is currently being developed. This system is expected to allow detection of standard and improvised explosives as well as special nuclear materials. An important aspect for the applicability of nuclear techniques in an airport inspection facility is the inventory and lifetimes of radioactive isotopes produced by the neutron and gamma radiation inside the cargo, as well as the dose delivered by these isotopes to people in contact with the cargo during and following the interrogation procedure. Using MCNPX and CINDER90 we have calculated the activation levels for several typical inspection scenarios. One example is the activation of various metal samples embedded in a cotton-filled container. To validate the simulation results, a benchmark experiment was performed, in which metal samples were activated by fast-neutrons in a water-filled glass jar. The induced activity was determined by analyzing the gamma spectra. Based on the calculated radioactive inventory in the container, the dose levels due to the induced gamma radiation were calculated at several distances from the container and in relevant time windows after the irradiation...