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Vivências de enfermeiros no cuidado a criança, vítima de violência intrafamiliar: uma análise fenomenológica; Nurses experiences in care of children who are victims of family violence: a fhenomenological analysis

Prado, Simone Isidoro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
O fenômeno da violência é identificado como de difícil apreensão pelo grau de subjetividade e complexidade que contém, devendo ser analisado sob inúmeras perspectivas. A violência contra a criança privilegia as causas do problema e suas conseqüências físicas associadas às experiências acometidas no âmbito familiar. Este estudo apresenta a análise do fenômeno na perspectiva do enfermeiro, considerando o contexto de cuidado à criança, vítima de violência como seu mundo-vida. Para tanto, teve como objetivo Compreender o típico da vivência dos enfermeiros no cuidado à criança, vítima de violência intrafamiliar, em unidades de emergência, cuidados intensivos e de internação. Foi conduzido um estudo qualitativo, tendo como referencial a Fenomenologia Social de Alfred Schutz. Foram realizadas entrevistas fenomenológicas com 15 enfermeiros que atuavam em unidades de emergência pediátricas, terapia intensiva infantil e unidades de internação na cidade de São Paulo, tendo como foco sua vivência de cuidado à crianças vítimas de violência intrafamiliar. A análise pautada na teoria motivacional de Schutz permitiu a descrição do tipo vivido apoiado em três categorias concretas do vivido que expressam aspectos significativos da experiência do enfermeiro: (1) o contato com a violência...

Influence of dental care for infants on caries prevalence: A comparative study

Melhado, Fabiola Lemos; Cunha, Robson Frederico; Nery, Rosangela Santos
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 120-123
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
Purpose: The influence of early dental care on the prevalence of dental caries was determined in children ages 35 to 40 months divided into 2 groups of 160 children each, with 1 group participating in a dental care program from the first year of life to the time of the study, while the other group did not receive any dental care. Methods: The clinical conditions considered for the evaluation were: sound teeth, enamel caries without cavitation, enamel caries with cavitation, and dentinal caries. The proportion and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5%. Results: A significant difference regarding the presence of dental caries, especially in the number of children presenting enamel caries with cavitation (P<.0001), was observed between the 2 groups. The number of children with enamel caries without cavitation and dentinal caries was similar for the 2 groups. Conclusions: Considering the aspect of dental caries prevention, the authors concluded that children in the age range of 3 to 4 years who received early dental care showed better oral conditions.

Survey of Brazilian governmental health agencies shows conflicting recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children

Santos,Ana Paula Pires dos; Nadanovsky,Paulo; Oliveira,Branca Heloisa de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.54%
The aims of this study were to detect whether recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children among Brazilian health agencies are consistent and to verify whether possible inconsistencies in these recommendations might be associated with an apparent gap in the scientific evidence. Fifty-four Brazilian health agencies were contacted by mail or electronic mail and were asked to send any material containing recommendations on oral hygiene practices aimed at children. A search was subsequently carried out on the Cochrane Oral Health Review Group and PubMed-Clinical Queries websites in order to assess the scientific evidence available on this subject. Forty (74%) agencies answered and 21 materials containing oral hygiene recommendations were obtained. Eleven pertinent systematic reviews were identified. This preliminary study detected some conflicting and not evidence-based oral hygiene messages, which emphasizes the need to carry out and disseminate systematic reviews on these controversial issues in order to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice.

Overview of issues in improving quality of care for children.

McGlynn, E A; Halfon, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
OBJECTIVE: To provide a framework for a research agenda-setting conference on quality of care for children. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Literature review. CONCLUSIONS: Research on quality of care for children has lagged behind its counterpart for adults. Defining key issues and questions in seven topic areas-the health of children; the efficacy and effectiveness of health services for children; assessing quality of care; improving quality of care within health services delivery systems; assessing and improving quality at the community level; getting financial incentives right; and disseminating information about the results of research investigations-will facilitate the development of an effective research strategy. Ultimately, enhanced information in these areas will lead to improvements in the processes and outcomes of care for children.

Mental health care for children and adolescents worldwide: a review

REMSCHMIDT, HELMUT; BELFER, MYRON
Fonte: Masson Italy Publicador: Masson Italy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.64%
The magnitude of mental health problems in children and adolescents has not been recognized sufficiently by many governments and decision-makers. This paper reviews the epidemiology of these problems as a basis for planning of services; the situation of mental health services for children and adolescents in the various regions of the world; the principles and strategies of intervention for mental health disorders in children and adolescents; and the role of international organizations and advocacy groups. It is concluded that old myths, treatments and policies are no longer to be tolerated and that there is now the opportunity to develop and implement evidence-based interventions, modern training programs and effective policies.

Chiropractic care for children: too much, too little or not enough?

French, Simon D; Walker, Bruce F; Perle, Stephen M
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
This editorial provides an overview of this Thematic Series of the journal titled Chiropractic Care for Children. In commissioning this series of articles we aimed to bring the busy clinician up to date with the current best evidence in key aspects of evaluation and management of chiropractic care for children. Individual articles address a chiropractic approach to the management of children, chiropractic care of musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents, chiropractic care of non-musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents, chiropractic care for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and possible adverse effects from chiropractic management of children. The final article by Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde and Lise Hestbæk is an overview of the current state of the evidence and future research opportunities for chiropractic care for children. We conclude this editorial discussing the strengths and weaknesses of contemporary research relevant to chiropractic care of children and the implications for chiropractic practice.

Orphanhood and the Living Arrangements of Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

Beegle, Kathleen; Filmer, Deon; Stokes, Andrew; Tiererova, Lucia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
Increasing adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa raises considerable concerns about the welfare of surviving children. Studies have found substantial variability across countries in the negative impacts of orphanhood on child health and education. One hypothesis for this variability is the resilience of the extended family network in some countries to care for orphans-networks under increasing pressure by the sheer number of orphans in many settings. Using household survey data from 21 countries in Africa, this study examines trends in orphanhood and living arrangements, and the links between the two. The findings confirm that orphanhood is increasing, although not all countries are experiencing rapid rises. In many countries, there has been a shift toward grandparents taking on increased childcare responsibility-especially where orphan rates are growing rapidly. This suggests some merit to the claim that the extended network is narrowing, focusing on grandparents who are older and may be less able to financially support orphans than working-age adults. However there are also changes in childcare patterns in countries with stable orphan rates or low HIV prevalence. This suggests future work on living arrangements should not exclude low HIV/AIDS prevalence countries...

Stepping Up Early Childhood Development : Investing in Young Children for High Returns

Denboba, Amina D.; Sayre, Rebecca K.; Wodon, Quentin T.; Elder, Leslie K.; Rawlings, Laura B.; Lombardi, Joan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
Investing in young children is one of the best investments that countries can make. A child s earliest years present a unique window of opportunity to address inequality, break the cycle of poverty, and improve a wide range of outcomes later in life. Recent brain research suggests the need for holistic approaches to learning, growth, and development, recognizing that young children s physical and intellectual well-being, as well as their socio-emotional and cognitive development, are interrelated. To fully benefit from future opportunities in life and become productive members of society, by the end of early childhood, young children must be: healthy and well-nourished; securely attached to caregivers; able to interact positively with families, teachers, and peers; able to communicate in their native language; and ready to learn throughout primary school. This document draws on these existing frameworks and broad evidence on the impacts of ECD interventions. It summarizes some of the existing literature on this topic with the aim to identify key interventions needed for children. The document is intended to provide an easily accessible introduction to interventions and integrated services that could help policymakers and practitioners think about how to effectively invest in ECD. In addition to identifying key interventions...

Why Should We Care About Care?; The Role of Informal Childcare and Eldercare in Aging Societies

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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75.81%
Without appropriate policies to address the expected rise in the care burden, population aging can reduce womens access to economic opportunities and decelerate future growth, thereby threatening the agenda of poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Europe and Central Asia. Based on the analysis of existing and newly collected quantitative and qualitative data, several key policy recommendations can be formulated for policymakers consideration: (a) improvement of the accessibility, affordability, and quality of formal childcare and eldercare options offers a way to address challenges related to excessive reliance on informal care and to capitalize on current opportunities; (b) the design of future demographic, health, and education policy reforms should take into account any potential effects on informal care providers; (c) care leave (both paid and unpaid) can shape families choices about care and market work; (d) flexible work arrangements can function as effective alternatives to unpaid leave; and (e) care-related allowances (both in-kind and cash) aim to promote quality care for children and elders and recognize the work of caregivers but may have negative repercussions on caregivers labor force outcomes. Increased recognition of the critical role of care in aging societies and careful review of the policy environment related to formal and informal care provision can help governments to harness the full potential of demographics...

The accuracy of caries risk assessment in children attending South Australian School Dental Service: a longitudinal study

Ha, D.; Spencer, A.; Slade, G.; Chartier, A.
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
Objectives: To determine the accuracy of the caries risk assessment system and performance of clinicians in their attempts to predict caries for children during routine practice. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting and participants Data on caries risk assessment conducted by clinicians during routine practice while providing care for children in the South Australian School Dental Service (SA SDS) were collected from electronic patient records. Baseline data on caries experience, clinicians’ ratings of caries risk status and child demographics were obtained for all SA SDS patients aged 5–15 years examined during 2002–2005. Outcome measure: Children’s caries incidence rate, calculated using examination data after a follow-up period of 6–48 months from baseline, was used as the gold standard to compute the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of clinicians’ baseline ratings of caries risk. Multivariate binomial regression models were used to evaluate effects of children's baseline characteristics on Se and Sp. Results: A total of 133 clinicians rated caries risk status of 71 430 children during 2002–2005. The observed Se and Sp were 0.48 and 0.86, respectively (Se+Sp=1.34). Caries experience at baseline was the strongest factor influencing accuracy in multivariable regression model. Among children with no caries experience at baseline...

Parents' satisfaction with preventive dental care for young children provided by nondental primary care providers

Rozier, R.; Slade, G.; Zeldin, L.; Wang, H.
Fonte: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Publicador: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess parents' satisfaction with the preventive dental care their children received in medical offices. METHODS: Caregivers accompanying Medicaid children for their medical visits at 30 practices, with at least 1 physician providing dental services, completed questionnaires just before and 12 months after initial dental care visits. Information at follow-up was obtained on the type of dental services received and parents' satisfaction with this care using questions adapted from the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey. Child, parent, and practice characteristics were used in logistic regression to predict categories representing the least satisfaction. RESULTS: About 92% of 342 parents who recalled at least 1 medical visit with dental care reported that the provider usually or always explained things in a way they could understand, and 84% reported that the provider spent enough time with their child. Seventy-seven percent rated overall dental care greater than 7 on an 11-point scale with 10 indicating the best care. Parents reporting race other than Caucasian or African American, mostly Hispanic or Asian, were the least satisfied with interpersonal aspects of care. Poor child oral health and lack of follow-up preventive dental care were associated with low ratings for communication...

Equality of Opportunity for Children in Egypt, 2000-2009 : Achievements and Challenges

Vélez, Carlos E.; Al-Shawarby, Sherine; El-Laithy, Heba
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.74%
This paper provides relevant indicators and measurements useful for public policies seeking the expansion of equitable human development opportunities for Egyptian children and youth. To measure equitable access to opportunities, the authors use the Human Opportunity Index to examine the evolution of 16 basic opportunity indicators grouped in four sectors: education, basic housing services, early childhood development, and nutrition and hunger. The main findings show that during the last decade most opportunities for children and youth improved unambiguously,for the first two sectors, but were stagnant for nutrition and early childhood development opportunities. Although the urban-rural and interregional gaps were partially reduced, there are still substantial opportunity gaps between children in favorable and unfavorable circumstances. Parents' education, income per capita, urban-rural location, number of siblings, and regional location, are the five most important factors affecting equality of opportunity...

Child Care and Women's Labor Force Participation in Romania

Fong, Monica; Lokshin, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
The authors model the household demand for child care, the mother's participation in the labor force, and her working hours in Romania. Their model estimates the effects of the price of child care, the mother's wage, and household income on household behavior relating to child care and mothers working outside the home. They find that: Both the maternal decision to take a job and the decision to use out-of-home care are sensitive to the price of child care. A decrease in the price of child care can increase the number of mothers who work and thus reduce poverty in some households. The potential market wage of the mother has a significant positive effect on the decision to purchase market care and the decision to engage in paid employment. The level of household nonwage income has little effect on maternal employment and the demand for child care. In addition to facilitating women's work, kindergartens and creches appear to provide educational and social benefits for children. Close to half the children in these facilities have mothers who do not work. Further research is needed to assess the cost and nature of these benefits and to determine the appropriate roles for the private and public sectors in providing, financing, and regulating such services for working and nonworking mothers.

Grandparents as Child Care Providers : Factors to Consider When Designing Child Care Policies

Posadas, Josefina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.72%
Formal child care services can expand women's economic opportunities and promote equity through early childhood development. However, academics and policy makers often overlook the role of relatives as child care providers. This note discusses how grandparent-provided child care can be factored into child care policies in the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, omitting the role of relatives when estimating costs and benefits of child care programs can give biased and incomplete results that might even reverse certain programs. The focus of this note is on the opportunity cost of relatives particularly grandparents who care for children. Not just governments spend on child care programs grandparents spend considerable time caring for grandchildren. Depending on their labor market status and work history, grandparents' opportunity cost could be high or low; governments should factor in such costs when evaluating programs. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom are experimenting with policies that formally support grandparent-provided child care.

The Impact of Price Subsidies on Child Health Care Use : Evaluation of the Indonesian Healthcard

Somanathan, Aparnaa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Financial barriers to seeking care are frequently cited as one of the main causes of underutilization of child health care services. This paper estimates the impact of Indonesia's healthcard on health care use by children. Evaluation of the healthcard effect is complicated by the fact that card allocation was non-random. The analysis uses propensity score matching to control for systematic differences between treatment and control groups. A second potential source of bias is related to contemporaneous, exogenous influences on health care use unrelated to the healthcard itself. Using panel data collected prior to and after the introduction of the healthcard, a difference-in-differences estimator is constructed to eliminate the effects of exogenous changes over time. The author finds that although health care use declined for all children during the crisis years of 1997-2000, use of public sector outpatient services declined much less for children with healthcards. The protective effect of the healthcard on public sector use was concentrated among children aged 0-5 years. The healthcard had no significant impact on use of private sector services. The results highlight the need to provide adequate protection against the financial burden of health care costs...

Improving the quality of care for children in health systems.

Homer, C J; Kleinman, L C; Goldman, D A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the state of the art in quality improvement, review its application to care for children, and define the information that will be needed so that care for children can be further improved. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Health services for children exhibit numerous deficiencies in quality of care. The deficiencies cross all major domains of pediatric care--preventive services, acute care, and chronic care--and provide the opportunity for creative application of improvement strategies with a potential to benefit the health and well-being of children. Approaches to quality improvement have changed over the past two decades from those emphasizing the inspection of structural aspects of care and the imposition of sanctions to more dynamic strategies that emphasize measurement and comparison to motivate change; the use of evidence to specify aims for improvement; and the adoption of a variety of management strategies adapted from business and the social sciences to achieve these aims. These modern approaches to quality improvement have rarely been subjected to rigorous testing of their effectiveness. Moreover, their application in pediatrics has been less widespread than in adult healthcare. For children, several aspects about health services...

Ensuring Healthy Children: The Effect of Health Insurance on Primary Health Care for Children

Sanderson, Anthony
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 10/12/2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.81%
Background Past studies have typically focused on the effect of health insurance on primary health care for children, but few have assessed the effect the type of health insurance coverage has on primary care. This research studied the effect of health insurance status—uninsured, private insurance, public coverage, or other insurance—on the accessibility, continuity, and comprehensiveness of primary health care for children. Methods This research analyzed a sample of 39,225 children under 18 years of age from the 2006-2009 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of households in the United States. The response rate for children was 75.2 percent. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the effect of health insurance on health status and three aspects of primary care: accessibility (physician visit; usual source of care; time since health professional visit), continuity, (usual source and site of care), and comprehensiveness (physical). Excellent or very good health status was the final dependent variable. Results Compared to children with private health insurance, uninsured children and Medicaid or State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) beneficiaries are 27% (p<0.001) and 89.4% (p<0.01) as likely...

Barriers to palliative care for children: Perceptions of pediatric health care providers

Davies, B.; Sehring, S.A.; Patridge, J.C.; Cooper, B.A.; Hughes, Ann Maree; Philp, J.C.; Amidi-Nouri, A.; Kramer, R.F.
Fonte: American Academy of Pediatrics Publicador: American Academy of Pediatrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.77%
OBJECTIVE. The goal was to explore barriers to palliative care experienced by pediatric health care providers caring for seriously ill children. METHODS. This study explored pediatric provider perceptions of end-of-life care in an academic children's hospital, with the goal of describing perceived barriers to end-of-life care for children and their families. The report focuses on the responses of nurses (n = 117) and physicians (n = 81). RESULTS. Approximately one half of the respondents reported 4 of 26 barriers listed in the study questionnaire as frequently or almost always occurring, that is, uncertain prognosis (55%), family not ready to acknowledge incurable condition (51%), language barriers (47%), and time constraints (47%). Approximately one third of respondents cited another 8 barriers frequently arising from problems with communication and from insufficient education in pain and palliative care. Fourteen barriers were perceived by >75% of staff members as occasionally or never interfering with pediatric end-of-life care. Comparisons between physicians and nurses and between ICU and non-ICU staff members revealed several significant differences between these groups. CONCLUSIONS. Perceived barriers to pediatric end-of-life care differed from those impeding adult end-of-life care. The most-commonly perceived factors that interfered with optimal pediatric end-of-life care involved uncertainties in prognosis and discrepancies in treatment goals between staff members and family members...

Program for coordinated dental care under general anaesthesia for children with special needs

Nova García,M. Joaquín de; Mourelle Martínez,M. Rosa; Martín Sanjuán,Carmen; Gallardo López,Nuria E.; Carracedo Cabaleiro,Esther; Alonso García,Yolanda
Fonte: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (Internet) Publicador: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.75%
Aim: To draw up a program for coordination of dental care for children with special needs between the Course at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCMC) (Specialisation in holistic dental care for children with special needs), and the Disabled Children’s Oral Health Unit (DCOHU) within the Madrid Health Service (SERMAS). Material and methods: UCMC Protocol for children with special needs. Design of a clinical pathway based on consensus amongst the professionals involved. Results: Algorithm for dental care for children with special needs. Matrix covering all activities and timing for full dental diagnosis in such patients (general health, oral health and behaviour) to facilitate proper referral of patients requiring general anaesthesia. Inclusion in the matrix of those responsible for each activity. Conclusions: Improved team work (University - primary health care) in patient evaluation, in provision of information to parents and guardians and in health care quality. From the teaching point of view, students learn to adopt a systematic approach in the decision-making process.

Survey of Brazilian governmental health agencies shows conflicting recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children

Santos,Ana Paula Pires dos; Nadanovsky,Paulo; Oliveira,Branca Heloisa de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.54%
The aims of this study were to detect whether recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children among Brazilian health agencies are consistent and to verify whether possible inconsistencies in these recommendations might be associated with an apparent gap in the scientific evidence. Fifty-four Brazilian health agencies were contacted by mail or electronic mail and were asked to send any material containing recommendations on oral hygiene practices aimed at children. A search was subsequently carried out on the Cochrane Oral Health Review Group and PubMed-Clinical Queries websites in order to assess the scientific evidence available on this subject. Forty (74%) agencies answered and 21 materials containing oral hygiene recommendations were obtained. Eleven pertinent systematic reviews were identified. This preliminary study detected some conflicting and not evidence-based oral hygiene messages, which emphasizes the need to carry out and disseminate systematic reviews on these controversial issues in order to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice.