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Magnitude and causes of socioeconomic differentials in mortality: further evidence from the Whitehall Study.

Smith, G D; Shipley, M J; Rose, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1990 EN
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26.59%
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to explore the magnitude and causes of the differences in mortality rates according to socioeconomic position in a cohort of civil servants. DESIGN--This was a prospective observational study of civil servants followed up for 10 years after baseline data collection. SETTING--Civil service offices in London. PARTICIPANTS--11,678 male civil servants were studied, aged 40-64 at baseline screening between 1967 and 1969. Two indices of socioeconomic position were available on these participants--employment grade (categorised into four levels), and ownership of a car. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Main outcome measures were all cause and cause specific mortality, with cause of death taken from death certificates coded according to the eighth revision of the ICD. Employment grade and car ownership were independently related to total mortality and to mortality from the major cause groups. Combining the indices further improved definition of mortality risk and the age adjusted relative rate between the highest grade car owners and the lowest grade non-owners of 4.3 is considerably larger than the social class differentials seen in the British population. Factors potentially involved in the production of these mortality differentials were examined. Smoking...

Body Mass Index, Neighborhood Fast Food and Restaurant Concentration, and Car Ownership

Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A.; Brown, Arleen F.; Asch, Steven M.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets...

The Effect of Measuring Intent on Brand-Level Purchase Behavior

Fitzsimons, Gavan J.; Morwitz, Vicki G.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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26.4%
Previous research has demonstrated that merely asking consumers purchase intent questions has a significant impact on their actual purchase incidence in the category. Our article extends this research to explore the impact of the “mere-measurement” effect at the brand level. We hypothesize that there are predictable patterns of brand-level purchase effects that depend on whether a consumer has previously made a purchase in the product category. The results demonstrate that current owners of cars are more likely to repurchase the brands they currently own when they are asked intent questions. In addition, the purchase behavior of current car owners is more consistent with their brand attitudes when they are asked intent questions. First-time car buyers, on the other hand, are more likely to purchase brands that have large market shares when asked intent questions. Finally, we discuss both the implications of these results and opportunities for future research.

Uma contribuição à avaliação dos impactos da gestão de estoque na satisfação e fidelização pós-vendas de clientes de concessionárias de automóveis : um estudo empírico em Natal-RN

Barudi Filho, Alberto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This paper aims to conduct a study to evaluate and measure the possible impact that the unavailability of spare parts can have on customer satisfaction for car dealerships in the post-sales. A theoretical-conceptual review on the subject of satisfaction and loyalty, on the backdrop of the reality of the automobile market, allowed the construction of a research tool dedicated to collect opinions of car owners, to allow an analysis empirical relationship between the availability of parts, repairs or scheduled service possible, and change or stay on the mark on the occasion of change of vehicle. 236 forms were applied to car owners in the city of Natal / RN. The results obtained in this survey allowed the identification of the unavailability of parts as a significant factor, among others, the motivation for the customer to switch brands. Collaterally, we could also conclude that the dynamics of change in marks, whatever its motivation, is reflected in the perceived positions of the different brands as the market share both in strictly quantitative terms and in terms of relative positioning, with significant changes in the ranking of consumer preferences for different brands available; O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de realizar um estudo que avalie e mensure os possíveis impactos que a indisponibilidade de peças de reposição pode causar na satisfação dos clientes de concessionárias de automóveis no período pós-vendas. Uma revisão teórico-conceitual sobre o tema da satisfação e da fidelização de clientes...

Lock-in Effects of Road Expansion on CO2 Emissions : Results from a Core-Periphery Model of Beijing

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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In the urban planning literature, it is frequently explicitly asserted or strongly implied that ongoing urban sprawl and decentralization can lead to development patterns that are unsustainable in the long run. One manifestation of such an outcome is that if extensive road investments occur, urban sprawl and decentralization are advanced and locked-in, making subsequent investments in public transit less effective in reducing vehicle kilometers traveled by car, gasoline use and carbon dioxide emissions. Using a simple core-periphery model of Beijing, the authors numerically assess this effect. The analysis confirms that improving the transit travel time in Beijing s core would reduce the city s overall carbon dioxide emissions, whereas the opposite would be the case if peripheral road capacity were expanded. This effect is robust to perturbations in the model s calibrated parameters. In particular, the effect persists for a wide range of assumptions about how location choice depends on travel time and a wide range of assumptions about other aspects of consumer preferences.

An Analysis of Various Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Beijing

Anas, Alex; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zheng, Siqi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Using a nested multinomial logit model of car ownership and personal travel in Beijing circa 2005, this paper compares the effectiveness of different policy instruments to reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. The study shows that a congestion toll is more efficient than a fuel tax in reducing traffic congestion, whereas a fuel tax is more effective as a policy instrument for reducing gasoline consumption and emissions. An improvement in car efficiency would also reduce congestion, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions significantly; however, this policy benefits only richer households that own a car. Low-income households do better under the fuel tax policy than under the efficiency improvement and congestion toll policies. The congestion toll and fuel tax require the travel cost per mile to more than triple. The responsiveness of aggregate fuel and CO2 are, approximately, a 1 percent drop for each 10 percent rise in the money cost of a car trip.

Fiscal Policy Instruments for Reducing Congestion and Atmospheric Emissions in the Transport Sector : A Review

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Dulal, Hari B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper reviews the literature on the fiscal policy instruments commonly used to reduce transport sector externalities. The findings show that congestion charges would reduce vehicle traffic by 9 to 12 percent and significantly improve environmental quality. The vehicle tax literature suggests that every 1 percent increase in vehicle taxes would reduce vehicle miles by 0.22 to 0.45 percent and CO2 emissions by 0.19 percent. The fuel tax is the most common fiscal policy instrument; however its primary objective is to raise government revenues rather than to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. Although subsidizing public transportation is a common practice, reducing emissions has not been the primary objective of such subsidies. Nevertheless, it is shown that transport sector emissions would be higher in the absence of both public transportation subsidies and fuel taxation. Subsidies are also the main policy tool for the promotion of clean fuels and vehicles. Although some studies are very critical of biofuel subsidies...

Transportation Fuel Use, Technology and Standards : The Role of Credibility and Expectations

Eskeland, Gunnar S.; Mideksa, Torben K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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There is a debate among policy analysts about whether fuel taxes alone are the most effective policy to reduce fuel use by motorists, or whether to also use mandatory standards for fuel efficiency. A problem with a policy mandating fuel economy standards is the "rebound effect," whereby owners with more efficient vehicles increase vehicle usage. If an important part of negative externalities from transport are associated with vehicle kilometers (accidents, congestion, road wear) rather than fuel consumption, the rebound effect increases negative externalities. Taxes and standards should be mutually supportive because fuel taxes often meet political resistance. Over time, fuel efficiency standards can reduce political resistance to fuel taxes. Thus, by raising fuel efficiency standards now, politicians may be able to pursue higher fuel tax paths in the future. Another argument in support of fuel efficiency standards and similar policies is that standards to a greater extent than taxes can be announced in advance and still be credible and change the behavior of inventors...

Political Economy Aspects of Fuel Subsidies : A Conceptual Framework

Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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While notoriously inefficient, fuel subsidies are widespread, and in many cases politically stable. This paper discusses and models various political economy aspects of fuel subsidies, focusing on gasoline and kerosene. Both economic and political are considered to explain differences in subsidies, with particular focus on democratic and autocratic governments. A political process is modeled whereby a promise of low fuel prices is used in democracies to attract voters, and in autocracies to mobilize support among key groups. Subsidies to fuels are viewed as either easier to observe, easier to commit to, easier to deliver, or better targeted at core groups, than other public goods or favors offered by rulers. Easier commitment and delivery than for regular public goods can explain the high prevalence of such policies in autocracies, and also in young democracies where the capacity to commit to or deliver complex public goods is not yet fully developed. The analysis provides a framework for empirical testing and verification.

Political Determinants of Fossil Fuel Pricing

van Beers, Cees; Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.29%
This paper provides an empirical analysis of economic and political determinants of gasoline and diesel prices for about 200 countries over the period 1991-2010. A range of both political and economic variables are found to systematically influence fuel prices, and in ways that differ systematically with countries per-capita income levels. For democracies, the analysis finds that fuel prices correlate positively with both duration of democracy and tenure of democratic leaders. In non-democratic societies there is more often no such relationship or it is the opposite of that for democracies. Regime switches -- transitions from non-democratic to democratic government, or vice versa -- reduce fuel prices. Fuel prices are also lower for more corrupt, or more centralized, governments. Higher levels of gross domestic product per capita lead to higher fuel prices, while export income from selling fossil fuels reduces these prices dramatically. Higher motor fuel consumption also appears to reduce fuel prices, most for gasoline. Absolute "pass-through" of crude oil price changes to fuel prices is found to be high on average.

Urban Transport and CO2 Emissions : Some Evidence from Chinese Cities

Darido, Georges; Torres-Montoya, Mariana; Mehndiratta, Shomik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
This working paper provides a bottom-up estimate of energy use and Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions for the transport sector based on data available at the city and municipal levels. For urban transport in China, GHG emissions primarily consist of carbon dioxide (CO2), so these terms are used interchangeably. Energy use and CO2 emissions are also highly correlated based on the predominance of fossil fuels in transport. A database of self-reported indicators was developed and verified for the fourteen participating cities of the China World Bank-Global Environment Facility (GEF) Urban Transport Partnership Program. Other supplemental sources were also used to enrich the dataset for urban transport and energy analysis, namely the most recent China City Statistical Yearbooks. Beijing and Shanghai were also included where data was available from existing studies given their relevance in broad comparison of Chinese cities. Section two discusses the general demographic and economic trends in the sample of cities that may be influencing the sector. Section three points to stylized facts about the most relevant urban transport demand...

Malaysia Economic Monitor, June 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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26.39%
After a strong finish in 2014, growth moderated in early 2015. Malaysia’s economy expanded by 6.0 percent in 2014, accelerating to 7.3 percent q/q saar in Q42014 due to resilient domestic demand and a pick-up of exports. Growth moderated to 4.7 percent q/q saar in Q1 2015 on account of weaker external demand, but domestic demand remained strong. To transform the planning and delivery of urban transport, Malaysia may consider prioritizing the following reforms: (a) Establish lead transport agencies at the conurbation level that spearhead an integrated approach towards the planning and delivery of urban transport across different modes; (b) identify and implement sustainable financing mechanisms for the lead agency. Introducing local taxes on fuel would not only result in environmental gains and trim the fiscal deficit (by RM10-19 billion), but also fund transport (for example, 24 percent of Vancouver’s transit system is funded by municipal gas taxes). Reviewing impediments to transit-oriented development will be another option...

Large-scale deployment of electric vehicles in Germany by 2030: An analysis of grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid concepts

LOISEL Rodica; PASAOGLU KILANC GUZAY; THIEL CHRISTIAN
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Online
ENG
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This study analyses the impact of battery electric vehicles (BEV) on the future German power system, and to that, it projects the BEV hourly load profile by car size (mini, small, compact and big). By means of an optimization power plant dispatching model, the study assesses the optimal BEV charging/discharging strategy through grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) schemes. Two scenarios are tested, assuming 1.1 million passenger cars in 2030 (low case) and 4.8 million cars (high case). Results show that the additional 2% of power demand required to power these BEV does not hamper the system stability provided an optimal scheme G2V is applied. Moreover, such BEV deployment can contribute to further integrate wind and solar power generation. Applying a V2G scheme would increase capacity factors of base and mid load power plants, a higher integration of intermittent renewables, resulting in a decrease in the system costs. The evaluation of the profitability of BEV shows that applying V2G and G2V schemes are not viable economic options due to high battery investment cost, showing modest profits of maximum 6 euros by year by car, and even losses for a higher number of BEVs, for scale reasons. For BEV to become part of the power system...

An Expressway Development Strategy for Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.29%
Vietnam's rapid economic growth continues to create new demands for transport infrastructure and services. Bottlenecks to business activities caused by infrastructure constraints are already appearing in several areas. High rates of urbanization, rising traffic accidents, new capacity constraints, and a large increase in asset preservation requirements to meet the fast expansion of transport assets presents further challenges to the sector. To address these infrastructure bottlenecks, and to gradually remove the transport constraints on industry, Vietnam is embarking on an ambitious expressway development program. To date the transport sector has facilitated this growth principally through the rehabilitation and widening of existing arterial roads. The national road network has expanded to 17,000 km, the overall condition has improved with 66 percent of the network being in good and fair condition and 84 percent of the network is now paved. If traffic growth rates continue at their current rate these constraints could adversely impact future economic development. The successful development of an expressway system is a significant physical and financial commitment which will require a number of changes to laws...

A Policy Framework for Green Transportation in Georgia : Achieving Reforms and Building Infrastructure for Sustainability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Government of Georgia is considering options for reducing fossil fuel imports in favor of introducing large scale use of domestic energy sources for public and private transportation. However, this must be considered within the overall context of green transportation-which will generate benefits well beyond the substitution of fossil fuels with domestic energy sources. The concept of green transportation has emerged in response to growing concerns about climate change; typically this refers to a transportation system characterized by low carbon emissions, i.e., Green House Gasses (GHG). In the context of Georgia, two other important development issues in green transportation in addition to GHG emissions are fossil fuel consumption and air pollution. For the purpose of this study, therefore, green transportation in Georgia refers to reducing the intensity of fossil fuel use and increasing reliance on indigenous energy sources (mainly hydropower), as well as minimizing adverse impacts on the global and local environment through reduced emissions of GHG and local pollutants. Greening transportation will create 'co-benefits': reducing fossil fuel use will help improve the balance of trade and energy security; and employing measures to avoid unnecessary trips and using fewer vehicles for the same number of trips (i.e....

Good Practices in City Energy Efficiency : Bogota, Colombia - Bus Rapid Transit for Urban Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
Bogota, the capital city of Colombia, is located near the geographic center of Colombia, 2,640 meters (8,661 ft) sea level. It is the largest and most populous city in the nation, with an estimated 8.2 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2007 and a population density of 3,912 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy generates 25 percent of Colombia's total gross domestic product (GDP). The city's roads were highly congested with the significant growth in private car ownership and use. While private cars occupied 64 percent of the road space, they only represented 19 percent of the population, and the daily average commute time was 1 hour and 10 minutes each way. Other issues included high incidences of accidents and extremely high air pollution rates during peak travel hours. In 1999, after the new National Government rejected potential plans for a subway system, the Mayor of Bogota presented his plan for a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, built upon the successful experience of Curitiba in Brazil. The transition to an effective BRT system would help realize the Mayor's four main goals by: (i) improving public transport system with respect to efficiency...

Transport Activity Measurement Toolkit for On-Road Vehicles : Practitioners' Guide

Rogers, John A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.41%
Although urbanization is frequently cited as a major cause of greenhouse gas and local air pollution emissions growth, it could be better understood as one of the crucial links between climate and development. Urbanization is a major driver of development, and once in cities, people tend to increase their mobility dramatically, driving an increase in greenhouse gas and other emissions from transport. The demand for transport is not limited only to urban environments. As each economy becomes richer, its demand for passenger and freight mobility increases. This increase in car usage coupled with a tendency to have a lower number of passengers per car, has been sufficient to offset the improvements gained in vehicle fuel efficiency. The increasing transport demand, if not accompanied by adequate growth in infrastructure and facilities, leads to rising congestion, time loss, and air quality deterioration that can stifle economic growth and quality of life. Finding the delicate balance of policy options to achieve long-term improvements in on-road transport and reduce the impact of its externalities is critical and needs to be tailored to each locale. This requires measurements both to design the interventions and evaluate their impacts. This transport activity measurement toolkit (TAMT) has been developed specifically to simplify this measurement process by providing standardized software...

Car Sharing

Germánrimoldi Pesce; Horacio Alberto Melo Torres
Fonte: Corporação de Fomento da Produção Publicador: Corporação de Fomento da Produção
Tipo: Proyecto
Publicado em 27/10/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Objective: to become the first car-sharing brand to become regionally known. The Peer-to-Peer model allows us to grow the company maximizing those fits that made traditional car-sharing work: price (cars can be rented by the hour not possible in the region so far) and convenience (the value of the service increase proportionally to the number of cars located nearby).; We enable car owners to safely rent out their underutilized cars to a community of trusted drivers and drivers to access a personal car experience without the need to buy one.; Corporación de Fomento de la Producción

Application of Freeman Chain Codes: An Alternative Recognition Technique for Malaysian Car Plates

Jusoh, Nor Amizam; Zain, Jasni Mohamad
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/01/2011
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36.39%
Various applications of car plate recognition systems have been developed using various kinds of methods and techniques by researchers all over the world. The applications developed were only suitable for specific country due to its standard specification endorsed by the transport department of particular countries. The Road Transport Department of Malaysia also has endorsed a specification for car plates that includes the font and size of characters that must be followed by car owners. However, there are cases where this specification is not followed. Several applications have been developed in Malaysia to overcome this problem. However, there is still problem in achieving 100% recognition accuracy. This paper is mainly focused on conducting an experiment using chain codes technique to perform recognition for different types of fonts used in Malaysian car plates.; Comment: 6 pages, 8 figures

Mathematical Model of Optimal Empty Rail Car Distribution at Railway Transport Nodes

Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Kolga, Anatoliy; Osintcev, Nikita; Stolpovskikh, Ivan; Sladkowski, Aleksandr
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/2015
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26.51%
At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery) in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC "Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works"...