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Avaliação bioeconômica de estratégias de alimentação em sistemas de produção de leite. 2. Metodologia alternativa: nível de utilização de capital; Bioeconomic evaluation of feeding strategies in milk production systems. 2. Alternative methodology: level of capital utilization

RENNÓ, Francisco Palma; PEREIRA, José Carlos; LEITE, Carlos Antonio Moreira; RODRIGUES, Marcelo Teixeira; CAMPOS, Oriel Fajardo de; FONSECA, Dilermando Miranda da; RENNÓ, Luciana Navajas
Fonte: Viçosa Publicador: Viçosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Objetivou-se desenvolver uma metodologia alternativa para avaliação bioeconômica de estratégias de alimentação para rebanhos leiteiros e avaliar a produtividade física e a eficiência bioeconômica de sistemas de alimentação para vacas em lactação quando utilizadas diversas estratégias de alimentação à base de volumosos para vacas de cinco níveis de produção de leite. Utilizou-se uma plataforma computacional desenvolvida com os programas CNCPS v.5.0 e planilhas eletrônicas do Microsoft Excell®, de forma a simular a produção e as exigências de nutrientes ao longo da lactação de uma vaca com cinco níveis de produção de leite. Utilizaram-se a metodologia alternativa "Ajuste para o Nível de Capital", foram observados diversos níveis de utilização de concentrados e capital gasto com alimentação por unidade de área e estimadas equações de regressão da produtividade (PROD/ha) e receita menos os custos com alimentação (LUCR/ha) por hectare, em função destes níveis. Esta metodologia não permitiu que ocorresse utilização de diferentes níveis de insumos e de capital por unidade de área, mesmo quando são avaliadas diferentes estratégias de alimentação. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram diferenças nas avaliações bioeconômicas realizadas pela metodologia "Ajuste para o Nível de Capital" em relação à "Tradicional". De modo geral...

Social capital and under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women: evidence from two Brazilian health surveys

Luz,Tatiana Chama Borges; Loyola Filho,Antônio Ignácio de; Lima-Costa,Maria Fernanda
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and examines the role of social and demographic factors, health conditions, health system characteristics and contextual factors of under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women. Participants in the Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte Health Survey (GMBH) and the eleventh phase of the Bambuí Cohort Study of the Elderly were assessed. Among elderly women in the GMBH, the prevalence of under-utilization was 11.4%, and in Bambuí, the rate was 5.4%. Self-perception of health (OR, 3.46; 95%CI, 1.32_9.10); daily life limitations (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.31-5.78) and perception of help (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.07-5.25) had independent associations with under-utilization among GMBH residents. A poor perception of both cohesion in the neighborhood (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.02-5.56) and the physical environment (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.10-6.03) significantly increased the likelihood of under-utilization among Bambuí residents. These results provide important clues to identifying possible risk factors for under-utilization, highlighting the need to develop strategies targeting the amplification of the involvement between elderly women and their community to reduce the extent of under-utilization in later life.

How Capital-Based Instruments Facilitate the Transition Toward a Low-Carbon Economy : A Tradeoff between Optimality and Acceptability

Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper compares the temporal profile of efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions induced by two mitigation strategies: a regulation of all emissions with a carbon price and a regulation of emissions embedded in new capital only, using capital-based instruments such as investment regulation, differentiation of capital costs, or a carbon tax with temporary subsidies on brown capital. A Ramsey model is built with two types of capital: brown capital that produces a negative externality and green capital that does not. Abatement is obtained through structural change (green capital accumulation) and possibly through under-utilization of brown capital. Capital-based instruments and the carbon price lead to the same long-term balanced growth path, but they differ during the transition phase. The carbon price maximizes social welfare but may cause temporary under-utilization of brown capital, hurting the owners of brown capital and the workers who depend on it. Capital-based instruments cause larger intertemporal welfare loss...

The role of preference shocks and capital utilization in the great depression

Weder, M.
Fonte: Univ Penn Publicador: Univ Penn
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
The article examines the proposition that preference shocks play a central role in our understanding of the Great Depression. I identify a series of unusually large negative shocks that destabilized the U.S. economy during the 1930s. When the artificial economy is paired with variable capital utilization and mildly increasing returns to scale in production, it is able to account for most of the decline in economic activity and it predicts a tepid recovery.; The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com

Talent Utilization, a Source of Bias in Measuring TFP

ZOABI, Hosny
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This paper analyzes a model of economic growth that explains differences in economic structure across countries. It highlights the interplay between productivity, talents utilization and entrepreneurship incentives. The paper has two main results. First, it argues that when measuring human capital we ignore one dimension, which is "talents utilization". It is suggested then that, in development accounting, human capital is inaccurately measured. Second, it shows that the magnitude of talents utilization increases with the level of development. Thus, the paper suggests that talents utilization ampliflies dif- ferences in productivity and contributes to the explanation of large observed international differences in per capita income.

Ensayos sobre economía dinámica : restricciones de liquidez, utilización del capital

Puch, Luis A.
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
En esta tesis doctoral se utilizan dos extensiones del modelo dinámico de equilibrio general estocástico para contestar las siguientes cuestiones: 1. ¿Cuáles son las consecuencias de las restricciones de liquidez para i) las reglas de decisión individuales de los hogares, ii) las variables agregadas, y iii) la distribución de la riqueza? 2. ¿Que papel juega la subutilización de los factores productivos en la propagación de las fluctuaciones agregadas? Respecto a la primera cuestión, la evidencia microeconómica pone de manifiesto que las restricciones de liquidez afectan a un gran número de hogares. Una hipótesis de trabajo justificable es que las restricciones de liquidez no afectan a todos los agentes en todos los periodos. Es por esto que el análisis de los efectos de las restricciones de liquidez que se lleva a cabo se enmarca en la literatura reciente sobre economías con agentes heterogéneos. Respecto a la segunda cuestión, las encuestas de coyuntura industrial sugieren que las empresas generalmente subutilizan su capacidad productiva. Esta subutilización parece ser una característica permanente en nuestras economías, y su variabilidad apunta a que la subutilización juega un papel importante en la propagación de las fluctuaciones agregadas. Para cuantificar este papel se considera el enfoque de los ciclos reales en un modelo puramente competitivo...

Idiosyncratic uncertainty, capacity utilization and the business cycle

Fagnart, Jean-Francois; Licandro, Omar; Portier, Franck
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1996 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
In a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium framework, we introduce the concept of variable capacity utilization (as opposed to the concept of capital utilization). We consider an economy where imperfectly competitive firms use a putty-clay technology and decide on their productive capacity level under uncertainty. An idiosyncratic uncertainty about the exact position of the demand curve facedby each firm explains why sorne productive capacities may remain idle in the sequel and why individual capacity utilization rates differ across firms. The capacity underutilization at the aggregate level thus hides a diversity of microeconomic situations. The variability of the capacity utilization allows for a good description of sorne of the main stylized facts of the business cycle, propagates and magnifies aggregate technological shocks and generates endogenous persistence (Le., the output growth rate displays positive serial correlation).

Capital utilization: maintenance costs and the business cycle

Licandro, Omar; Puch, Luis A.
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/1995 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
In this paper we analyze the role played by capacity utilization and maintenance costs in the propagation of aggregate fluctuations. To this purpose we use an extension of the general equilibrium stochastic growth model that incorporates a depreciation technology depending both upon capital utilization (depreciation in use assumption) and maintenance costs. In addition, we argue that the maintenance activity must be countercyclical, because it is cheaper for the firm to repair and maintain machines when they are stopped than when machines are being employed. We show that the propagation mechanism associated to our technology assumption is quantitatively important: the countercyclicality of maintenance costs contributes significantly to magnify and propagate aggregate fluctuations.

Capital data for productivity measurement

San Juan Mesonada, Carlos
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The paper discuss the use of capital data from FADN (Farm Account Data Network) for agricultural total factor productivity measurement calculating multifactor productivity index. Despite methodological problems related to construction of the indexes, as well as problems associated with the appropriate measurement of particular inputs, especially capital input, growth accounting estimates generally provide a great deal of information regarding productivity. The appropriate measurement of capital in the explanation of productivity change is an important and debated topic. The purpose of this paper is to debate a method for deriving the appropriate measure of capital services and find a way to make the FADN supply data that allows measures for varying levels of capital utilization. The capital data that can be obtained from the FADN are, in general terms, of better quality than the macroeconomics data when analysing the agricultural private sector. They are also very useful if we want to increase the level of desegregation on the productivity analysis should it be important to discuss the procedures involved in constructing the capital input index.

The Thai social capital as a social determinant of oral health.

Suksudaj, Sutee
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Background: A Strategy to promote social capital has been included in the Thai government's economic and social development plan since 2007. According to the plan, social capital covered the traditional definition of institutional and social networks, the structure of relationships and norms of reciprocity. In addition, it also included all non-financial capital such as individual characteristics, local wisdom and physical environment. Several studies, conducted in the industrialized countries, found social capital to be a determinant of health/oral health. However, no studies systematically explored the nature of social capital in Thai rural communities and its relationship to oral health. Objectives: This research aimed to explore social capital of Thai rural communities, focusing on its role in oral health. Researchers also wanted to test if the well-established determinants (such as socioeconomic status, smoking, oral health care utilization) could determine oral health of the Thai rural people. Methods: An integrated qualitative-quantitative approach was implemented. An ethnographic study in several north-eastern communities was undertaken to identify the locally specific social capital variables. Those variables were transformed into a questionnaire...

Moldova Public Expenditure Review : Capital Expenditures - Making Public Investment Work for Competitiveness and Inclusive Growth in Moldova; Moldova - Analiza cheltuielilor publice : cheltuielile capitale - eficientizarea investitiilor publice in scopul sporirii competitivitatii si cresterii economice in Moldova

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
This public expenditure review (PER) for Moldova is the result of a body of programmatic fiscal work. This PER focuses on capital expenditure. It supports the first pillar of the country partnership strategy (improving economic competitiveness) and complements the 2012 development policy operation. In the context of economic recovery and stabilization, government requested World Bank assistance in improving its capital allocation mechanism, as its fiscal consolidation program attempted to create space for critical infrastructure whilst gradually reducing the state's footprint in the economy. This report recommends ways to strengthen public investment processes, institutions, and sector policies to achieve better outcomes for public capital expenditures in Moldova. This report suggests reforms in public investment management and sector policies to raise cost-effectiveness and allocative efficiency of capital expenditures. Three key areas of reform are: (i) raise the quality of new projects by improving preliminary screening and project appraisal mechanisms; (ii) improve selection of new projects and ensure continuity of funding for ongoing projects through better prioritization and budgeting processes; and (iii) strengthen monitoring of project implementation for cost efficiency and timely delivery of public services. The report has four chapters. The first chapter presents the macroeconomic outlook and its implications for fiscal policy...

Tunisia : Employment Strategy, Volume 2. Annexes; Republique Tunisienne - Strategie d'emploi

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
In spite of the Government's commitment to social development, with employment resting at the heart of Tunisia's Tenth Development Plan, the recent economic slowdown however, hampers expectations on meeting the employment goals of the Plan. Output growth would have to increase significantly in light of unchanged employment elasticity, to create enough jobs to absorb the increasing labor force. However, the Tunisian private sector has not played a dynamic role in terms of job creation: small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs), are mainly concentrated in the traditional manufacturing sectors, with low value-added; enterprise restructuring has not occurred, mainly due to an economic growth that has not led to enough reallocation of resources, despite the unexploited productivity gains in respect to reallocation of labor to high productivity sector; and, the high unemployment rates among educated youth, reflect gaps between skills in demand by employers, and skills offered by job seekers. Within this context...

Foreign Capital Utilization in China : Prospects and Future Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Beijing Publicador: Beijing
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
China has been among the world's largest recipients of foreign direct investment (FDI). Nonetheless, at the time China is moving into its eleventh five-year plan period, four issues with FDI to China are becoming increasingly recognized by policy makers: geographic concentration, excessive reliance on investment in export-oriented manufacturing, under-investment in higher-technology industries, and heavy reliance on fiscal incentives to attract FDI. This report seeks to analyze these and provide benefit from international experience in suggesting policies. In addition to this introduction, the paper includes the following chapters: external environment, FDI in China, maintaining an attractive investment climate, leveling the playing field in taxation, improving the composition of FDI, and non-FDI capital flows liberalization and risk management.

Uruguay : The Rural Sector and Natural Resources, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
The report reviews the macroeconomic perspectives of Uruguay, focused on its rural development and natural resources intensive sectors, to form the basis for expanding agricultural production, and increasing productivity. It reviews the country's sectoral composition, exports of natural resource intensive products, and labor and capital use, as well as the tax burden. Although agriculture represents less than ten percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Uruguay, the combination of agriculture, and agro-industry makes up twenty three percent of GDP, of which half of the output is exported, which represented in 2000, seventy three percent of the country's total export earnings, with the composition of exports, significantly diversified. Nonetheless, the agricultural sector remains vulnerable to both external shocks, and domestic factors, and, while the government's ability to ameliorate the impacts of these shocks is limited, the likely increasing importance of international trade calls for a long-term approach to agricultural...

Criação de valor econômico e suas implicações em empresas brasileiras de capital aberto: uma análise dos modelos de precificação de ativos financeiros

Paiva, Felipe Dias
Fonte: Mestrado em Administração; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Administração e Economia Publicador: Mestrado em Administração; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Administração e Economia
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em 23/09/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
The theme of this research is to refer to Economic Value Added (EVA) in Brazilian companies of open capital and the asset pricing models of unique factor. So, the principal objective ofthis research is consisted of tested financial asset pricing models, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Downside Capital AssetPricing Model (D-CAPM), which represem as the best altemative to measure the cost of equity capital of these Brazilian companies of open capital. Specifícally, it has sought for the value of efficiency in application of CAPM and D-CAPM for Brazilian market share and in compare to the EVA's results, affected from the time of use of asset pricing models, CAPM and DCAPM. In this sense, the present research has had as theoretic foundation on the economic value added and financial asset pricing models, preceded by a literature revision model about the market share with an emphasis in evolution of Brazilian market share. The research has been developed through a quantitative investigation, utilizing sample data of period from December 1996 to August 2002. The data has been collected through database of Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM) and of Economática. The test of efficiency of financial asset pricing models indicated a superiority of model D-CAPM compare to CAPM in explanation to return the movable designation of Brazilian market capitais. In that case it is cited that between two models ofmeasuring the capital cost of property...

"Uma análise da identificação e da gestão do capital intelectual nas usinas sucroalcooleiras e da prática dos princípios delineadores do conceito de avaliação de empresas na sua gestão econômico-financeira: um estudo exploratório em dez usinas paulistas"; An analysis of the identification and management of the intellectual capital in the sugarcane companies and of the principles of the concept of valuation’s practice in its economic-financial management: an exploratory study in ten sugarcane companies from São Paulo

Matheus, Leandro de Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Partindo da premissa de que o objetivo maior da empresa e de seus administradores consiste na maximização do capital nela investido, observa-se que os administradores devem se preocupar com a geração de riqueza dentro da empresa, buscando continuamente incrementar e otimizar a criação de valor pela organização e também mensurá-la. Outro forte motivo para mensuração do valor da empresa consiste no crescente aumento do número de fusões e aquisições entre empresas ocorridas no país, incluindo o setor sucroalcooleiro, o que torna sua avaliação necessária a fim de se determinar o valor de transação do negócio. Esta mensuração pode ser realizada a partir da análise do valor da empresa, que, por sua vez, pode ser obtido através do uso de modelos de avaliação de empresas. Por outro lado, nota-se que a importância e a participação dos ativos intangíveis dentro deste processo de criação de valor tem crescido ao longo dos anos. Neste contexto, e considerando a importância do setor sucroalcooleiro dentro da economia nacional, este trabalho apresenta um estudo exploratório realizado em dez usinas sucroalcooleiras instaladas no Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de investigar a presença, os inter-relacionamentos e a importância dos ativos intangíveis...

Productivity measurement using capital asset valuation to adjust for variations in utilization

Berndt, Ernst R.; Fuss, Melvyn A.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 2521707 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Although a great deal of empirical research on productivity measurement has taken place in the last decade, one issue remaining particularly controversial and decisive is the manner by which one adjusts the productivity residual for variations in capital and capacity utilization. In this paper we use the Marshallian framework of a short run production or cost function with certain inputs quasi-fixed to provide a theoretical basis for accounting for variations in utilization. The theoretical model implies that the value of services from stocks of quasi-fixed inputs should be altered rather than their quantity. This represents a departure from previous procedures that have adjusted the quantity of capital services for variations in utilization. In the empirical illustration, we employ Tobin's q to measure the shadow value of capital, and find that for the U.S. manufacturing sector, we can attribute 25% of the traditionally measured decline in productivity growth during 1973-77 to a decline in capacity utilization.; Also released as Working Paper No. 8125, Institute for Policy Analysis, University of Toronto. *An earlier version was presented at the econometric Society Summer Meetings, San Diego, California, June 24-27, 1981.; Research supported by the Department of Energy...

Capital Utilization and Returns to Scale

Burnside, A. Craig; Eichenbaum, Martin; Rebelo, Sergio
Fonte: The University of Chicago Press Publicador: The University of Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1048643 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1995 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
This paper studies the implications of procyclical capital utilization rates for inference regarding cyclical movements in labor productivity and the degree of returns to scale. We organize our investigation around five questions that we study using a measure of capital services based on electricity consumption: (1) Is the phenomenon of near or actual short-run increasing returns to labor an artifact of the failure to accurately measure capital utilization rates? (2) Can we find a significant role for capital services in aggregate and industry-level production technologies? (3) Is there evidence against the hypothesis of constant returns to scale? (4) Can we reject the notion that the residuals in our estimated production functions represent technology shocks? (5) How does correcting for cyclical variations in capital services affect the statistical properties of estimated aggregate technology shocks? The answer to the first two questions is yes. The answer to the third and fourth questions is no. The answer to the fifth question is "a lot."

Three essays in macroeconomics: capital reallocation, capital utilization and optimal policy with partial information

Lanteri, Andrea
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
This thesis is composed of three chapters. In the first chapter, I show that capital reallocation is highly procyclical, in contrast to the prediction of existing businesscycle models with firm heterogeneity, where it is highly countercyclical. I argue that endogenizing the price of used capital relative to new solves this puzzle. First I show empirically that in several sectors the price of used investment goods relative to new is procyclical. Then I build a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous firms facing both aggregate and idiosyncratic productivity shocks. Used capital is an imperfect substitute for new capital because of firm-level capital specificity. In equilibrium both the price of used capital and the volume of reallocation become procyclical. The second chapter studies the link between investment irreversibility and capital utilization. I show that when it is costly to downsize, firms respond to negative transitory profitability shocks by underutilizing their capital stock. In a partial equilibrium setting I derive both analytical and numerical results on the links between the level of irreversibility, the size and persistence of the shocks and the optimal utilization decision. In an industry-equilibrium model with heterogeneous firms and aggregate shocks...

Social capital and under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women: evidence from two Brazilian health surveys

Luz,Tatiana Chama Borges; Loyola Filho,Antônio Ignácio de; Lima-Costa,Maria Fernanda
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and examines the role of social and demographic factors, health conditions, health system characteristics and contextual factors of under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women. Participants in the Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte Health Survey (GMBH) and the eleventh phase of the Bambuí Cohort Study of the Elderly were assessed. Among elderly women in the GMBH, the prevalence of under-utilization was 11.4%, and in Bambuí, the rate was 5.4%. Self-perception of health (OR, 3.46; 95%CI, 1.32_9.10); daily life limitations (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.31-5.78) and perception of help (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.07-5.25) had independent associations with under-utilization among GMBH residents. A poor perception of both cohesion in the neighborhood (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.02-5.56) and the physical environment (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.10-6.03) significantly increased the likelihood of under-utilization among Bambuí residents. These results provide important clues to identifying possible risk factors for under-utilization, highlighting the need to develop strategies targeting the amplification of the involvement between elderly women and their community to reduce the extent of under-utilization in later life.