Página 1 dos resultados de 3063 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

How Do We Improve Public Expenditure in Agriculture?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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46.67%
This paper synthesizes lessons learned from the Department for International Development-World Bank (DFID-WB) partnership, to provide guidance on ways to improve the allocation and efficiency of public spending for agricultural growth and poverty reduction. It includes lessons on how to improve data quality, the composition and impact of spending, budget execution, and the integration of off-budget expenditures. The paper synthesizes recurring lessons that have emerged from the commissioned work, to highlight key challenges that still remain to improve the efficiency of public expenditure planning and implementation in the agriculture sector, as well as offering options for improvement. The paper is accompanied by a separate document, the Agricultural Public Expenditure Reviews (AgPER) toolkit, which is a practical guide for practitioners tasked with carrying out AgPERs in the future. The paper is structured around the Budget Cycle Framework (BCF), to facilitate the identification of entry points to improve expenditure outcomes.

Western Balkans - Public Investment Management Study : Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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46.71%
This report summarizes the findings of a review of public investment management (PIM) practices in the Western Balkans carried out with an eye to improving practices over the medium term, sharing experiences on a regional basis, providing some initial specific recommendations and identifying areas for more intensive further analysis. Following this introduction, the second section of the main report examines capital expenditure trends in the study countries. The third section provides an overview of the findings across the six countries. The fourth section provides potential drill-down topics for the further analysis. The fifth and final section briefly outlines the methodology used in the individual country studies. The study has revealed frequent weaknesses in the institutional arrangements for public investment management, although in most cases things are moving in the right direction. Box one set out some stylized guidelines on good practice for institutional arrangements for public investment management...

Uganda - Agriculture Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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46.66%
This Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) comprehensively reviews public expenditures on agriculture in Uganda and analyzes their efficiency and effectiveness. Its genesis lies in Agriculture Sector Working Group (A-SWG) discussions, especially during the budget process, which raised concerns about the seemingly low budget allocations to the sector and the failure to align limited resources with recognized priorities in the sector. To address these concerns, the A-SWG resolved to undertake this AgPER. Aside from providing a better understanding of the nature and composition of agricultural pubic expenditures in Uganda, the review will specifically analyze their efficiency and effectiveness with a view to identifying the types of expenditures that will promote pro-poor growth. The report is structured as follows. Section two analyzes trends in nominal and real sector budgets. It highlights the current and projected importance of agricultural sector expenditure in the national budget and gross domestic product (GDP). An analysis of agricultural price distortions indicates the extent to which the sector benefits from supportive policies. Section three describes budget planning and implementation at the national and local level and presents policy recommendations to improve those processes. Section four focuses on the technical efficiency of public spending. By tracking resource flows and analyzing the unit costs of goods and service delivery. Section four sheds light on whether public resources are used efficiently and which actions could improve efficiency. The concluding section summarizes the major findings and policy recommendations.

Fiscal Policy, Public Expenditure Composition, and Growth : Theory and Empirics

Semmler, Willi; Greiner, Alfred; Diallo, Bobo; Rezai, Armon; Rajaram, Anand
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.72%
This paper responds to the development policy debate involving the World Bank and the IMF on the use of fiscal policy not only for economic stabilization but also to promote economic growth and increase per capita income. A key issue in this debate relates to the effect of the composition of public expenditure on economic growth. Policy makers and some researchers have argued that expenditure on growth-enhancing functions could enhance future revenue and justify the provision of "fiscal space" in the budget. But there are no simple ways to identify the growth-maximizing composition of public expenditure. The current paper lays out a research strategy to explore the effects of fiscal policy, including the composition of public expenditure, on economic growth, using a time series approach. Based on the modeling strategy of Greiner, Semmler and Gong (2005) we develop a general model that features a government that undertakes public expenditure on (a) education and health facilities which enhance human capital...

The Composition of Public Expenditure and Growth : A Small-Scale Intertemporal Model for Low-Income Countries

Bayraktar, Nihal; Moreira, Emmanuel Pinto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.66%
This paper presents a small-scale intertemporal model of endogenous growth that accounts for the composition of public expenditure and externalities associated with public capital. Government spending is disaggregated into various components, including maintenance, security, and investment in education, health, and core infrastructure. After studying its long-run properties, the model is calibrated for Haiti, using country-specific information as well as parameter estimates from the literature. A variety of policy experiments are then reported, including a reallocation of spending aimed at creating fiscal space to promote public investment; an improvement in fiscal management that leads to a reduction in tax collection costs; higher spending on security; and a composite fiscal package.

Georgia - Managing Expenditure Pressures for Sustainability and Growth : Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.7%
Economic growth has rebounded strongly in Georgia during 2010-12 and commendable fiscal consolidation has been implemented, although considerable medium-term macro-fiscal challenges remain. To meet the challenge of generating rapid and sustainable growth in an uncertain global environment, Georgia will need to continue to implement and potentially deepen its fiscal consolidation program. This public expenditure review (PER) considers possible sources of expenditure pressure that could undermine the fiscal consolidation program and suggests options to manage them. Social expenditure pressures arise from the need to provide adequate old-age income to an aging population that relies primarily on the publicly funded pension benefit, as well as from needs to improve social assistance coverage of the poor, and improve health outcomes. Capital expenditure pressures arise from the need to rehabilitate a large backlog of the secondary and local road network in poor condition, continued improvement the East-West Highway...

Georgia - Public Expenditure Review : Managing Expenditure Pressures for Sustainability and Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.71%
Economic growth has rebounded strongly in Georgia during 2010-12 and commendable fiscal consolidation has been implemented, although considerable medium-term macro-fiscal challenges remain. This public expenditure review (PER) considers possible sources of expenditure pressure that may affect the fiscal consolidation program and suggests options to manage them. This PER presents a number of options for consideration to manage fiscal consolidation, which can contribute toward greater selectivity in capital expenditures, enhanced sustainability of the road investment program, and containing medium-term social expenditure pressures. The rest of this synthesis report is in five chapters. Chapter first summarizes the macroeconomic context and assesses trade-offs associated in balancing the overall composition of public expenditures. The second and third chapters illustrate policy options and implications associated with containing social expenditure pressures and improving effectiveness of health expenditures...

Nigeria - State Level Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : A synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.68%
This report synthesizes the findings of public expenditure management and financial accountability reviews (PEMFARs) that were conducted in seven states between 2008 and 2009. The states covered were Anambra, Bayelsa, Ekiti, Kogi, Niger, Ondo, and Plateau. The report seeks to analyze and summarize the key findings of the reviews from these states in order to ensure that the key messages from the otherwise voluminous reports are presented in a single, smaller report. The states have different socio-economic characteristics but all operate in a federal system that offers some reasonable operational autonomy in the context of a federal constitution. Under the federal system of government, states have been allocated significant responsibilities for service delivery. The constitution defines the expenditure and revenue collection responsibilities that are under their purview. To carry out their responsibilities, the Public Financial Management (PFM) institutional framework is modeled after that of the federal government. All three branches of government are in place with the executive governor as head of state administration. Given the relative autonomy that states enjoy...

Assessing Fiscal Implication of the Recent Changes in Poverty Lines and Revision of Allocation Norms of Capital Expenditures and Resources for Targeted Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.65%
There have been important changes in the budgeting process in Vietnam since 2006 when the government of Vietnam instituted a revolutionary reform in the management and allocation of the state budget. For the period of 2007-2010, the norms include ethnic minority population data, and poverty rates. The purpose of this research assignment is to describe the evolution of budgeting mechanisms in recent years, in association with capital expenditure transferred from central to provincial budgets. This report focuses on changes in the budgeting process and allocation norms. It is also assesses whether these recent changes are pro-poor, and how they would affect availability of resources for the national targeted programs.

Central African Republic Public Expenditure Review : Creating Fiscal Space to Transition Out of Fragility Through Growth and Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
This public expenditure review (PER) aims to assist the government in its efforts to achieve a transition out of fragility through growth and development. Higher and sustained per capita real gross domestic product (GDP) growth to raise the income of the population and create employment is needed to reduce poverty and lower the risk of reversion to conflict. Significant productive investments in human capital and in infrastructure are needed to help Central African Republic (CAR) foster and sustain higher economic growth. Thus, the government needs to create fiscal space in the budget to finance its reform program and productive investments in health, education, and infrastructure to spur growth. While the burden of investment should be on the private sector the government has a key role to play in facilitating private investment and in providing the basic infrastructure that the private sector needs as well as public services to the poor. The PER advances the notion that public spending at the appropriate level...

Georgia Public Expenditure Review : Strategic Issues and Reform Agenda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.71%
Generating growth and creating jobs within a sustainable fiscal framework is Georgia s biggest macroeconomic challenge. Although Georgia registered rapid growth of 5.7 percent a year during 2010-13, unemployment remains high at 15 percent. New growth companies, especially in tourism and other service sectors, did not generate enough formal or even informal employment. Fiscal policy played a crucial role in Georgia s recent growth performance with a fiscal stimulus driven post-crisis recovery which increased deficit and debt levels followed by fiscal consolidation during 2010-12 when recovery took hold. The weak execution of the budget in 2013 and policy uncertainty were largely responsible for the growth slowdown during the year. Tackling the growth and jobs agenda in Georgia will require significant investment in human and physical capital and the government has a large role to play here. Additional spending, where it is needed, should be undertaken within the fiscal consolidation agenda of the government, designed to help restore the macroeconomic buffers needed to secure stability and sustain confidence in the future. The change in government in 2012 marked a shift in fiscal policy with prioritization of recurrent social expenditures over capital spending...

Georgia Public Expenditure Review : Diagnostics of Public Investment Management System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
Generating growth and creating jobs within a sustainable fiscal framework is Georgia s biggest macroeconomic challenge. Although Georgia registered rapid growth of 5.7 percent a year during 2010-13, unemployment remains high at 15 percent. New growth companies, especially in tourism and other service sectors, did not generate enough formal or even informal employment. Fiscal policy played a crucial role in Georgia s recent growth performance with a fiscal stimulus driven post-crisis recovery which increased deficit and debt levels followed by fiscal consolidation during 2010-12 when recovery took hold. The weak execution of the budget in 2013 and policy uncertainty were largely responsible for the growth slowdown during the year. Tackling the growth and jobs agenda in Georgia will require significant investment in human and physical capital and the government has a large role to play here. Additional spending, where it is needed, should be undertaken within the fiscal consolidation agenda of the government, designed to help restore the macroeconomic buffers needed to secure stability and sustain confidence in the future. The change in government in 2012 marked a shift in fiscal policy with prioritization of recurrent social expenditures over capital spending...

A Public Expenditure Review for Paraguay : Supplementary Volume with Selected Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.67%
This supplementary volume of the Paraguay’s Public Expenditure Review provides a number of background papers and material that was prepared as part of this PER. The topics are closely linked with the overarching storyling presented in the first volume of this Public Expenditure Review.

Public Spending and Growth in an Economic and Monetary Union; The Case of West Africa

Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Bayraktar, Nihal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.7%
The focus of the paper is on how public spending volume, composition (current versus capital), and quality are linked to the per capita growth rates of the West Africa economic and monetary union (WAEMU) countries, which have been fluctuating and remain relatively low compared to other parts of the world. The empirical analysis covers the period 2000-2013. The results indicate that total public spending has a significant impact on growth. While the impact of the capital component is positive and statistically significant, the effect of the current component is consistently negative, but not significant. When the capital component is further split into two: public fixed capital investment and public other capital expenditures, defined as total public capital expenditure minus public fixed capital investment, the results show that not only physical capital formation but also human capital spending is important for growth in the WAEMU group. While the volatility measure for public investment has a clear negative and statistically significant impact on growth...

Dismal Science, Accounting and Newton’s Second Law; Identifying Force and Rigidity in Public Expenditure Analysis

Merotto, Dino; Hayati, Fayavar; Stephan, David; Bataille, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.68%
This paper proposes a new measure of public expenditure force that policy makers and budget analysts should track in detail over time in routine fiscal monitoring. The paper suggests that adopting the measure will not only warn policy makers of possible impending fiscal pressures, but will help them to differentiate between those budgetary pressures that are temporary and those that may require reforms. The main utility of the expenditure force measure will be in country fiscal analysis. Measuring force across the entire budget allows practitioners to monitor and decompose the micro drivers of public spending pressure, watch out for rapidly expanding spending lines, and identify priorities for reform before these pressures lead to macro fiscal problems. Yet by its construct, spending force is internationally comparable, and independent of expenditure levels or spending types. This could allow global monitoring comparisons and global research into the drivers of public spending force across particular types of country characteristics and economic conditions. In time...

Expenditure implications of India's state-level fiscal crisis

Howes, Stephen; Murgai, Rinku; Wes, Marina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 203239 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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56.39%
Indias states have significant developmental expenditure responsibilities. While the fiscal crisis which engulfed Indias states in the late nineties led to higher deficits and debt levels, it was also associated with a rapid increase in expenditure levels, and it might be thought that this would have increased the development effectiveness of the state governments. However, a closer look at the data reveals that this is not the case. The main positive fiscal development in the post 1996/97 period is a pick up in real growth in government capital expenditure. In other respects, the fiscal crisis weakened the developmental and poverty impact of state governments especially in the poor states. Real growth of expenditure in health and education slowed, in some cases halted, and the efficiency of government expenditure fell as liquidity constraints tightened and non-salary expenditures were crowded out.; no

Moldova Public Expenditure Review : Capital Expenditures - Making Public Investment Work for Competitiveness and Inclusive Growth in Moldova; Moldova - Analiza cheltuielilor publice : cheltuielile capitale - eficientizarea investitiilor publice in scopul sporirii competitivitatii si cresterii economice in Moldova

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.74%
This public expenditure review (PER) for Moldova is the result of a body of programmatic fiscal work. This PER focuses on capital expenditure. It supports the first pillar of the country partnership strategy (improving economic competitiveness) and complements the 2012 development policy operation. In the context of economic recovery and stabilization, government requested World Bank assistance in improving its capital allocation mechanism, as its fiscal consolidation program attempted to create space for critical infrastructure whilst gradually reducing the state's footprint in the economy. This report recommends ways to strengthen public investment processes, institutions, and sector policies to achieve better outcomes for public capital expenditures in Moldova. This report suggests reforms in public investment management and sector policies to raise cost-effectiveness and allocative efficiency of capital expenditures. Three key areas of reform are: (i) raise the quality of new projects by improving preliminary screening and project appraisal mechanisms; (ii) improve selection of new projects and ensure continuity of funding for ongoing projects through better prioritization and budgeting processes; and (iii) strengthen monitoring of project implementation for cost efficiency and timely delivery of public services. The report has four chapters. The first chapter presents the macroeconomic outlook and its implications for fiscal policy...

Nepal : Public Expenditure Review - Roads

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.68%
The report, Nepal Public Expenditure Review - Roads, was completed June 2011. The report states that the Government of Nepal has achieved several of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while maintaining macroeconomic stability and prudent fiscal management. Strengthening public expenditure management is an ongoing reform agenda of the government's Three Year Plan, an inclusive development strategy. The World Bank is contributing to this public expenditure management-strengthening agenda through a programmatic and participatory Public Expenditure Review (PER) conducted jointly with the government, relevant sector ministries and donors. This report is the second of several in the programmatic PER to assist the government to align resources in the Three Year Plan and explore potential actions that contribute to improving public expenditure and its management. This report builds on the PER 2010 report analysis of evolving fiscal aggregates and public expenditure trends, and drills deeper into road sector public financial management issues in order to improve the sector s performance. Analysis of this report is based on the government's official data. The report recommends that there be a Strategic focus for reforms: It was recommended that institutional improvement measures be directed towards: (i) strategic policy reforms to improve compliance; (ii) building on existing institutional arrangements and their inter-linkages to strengthen institutions; and (iii) institutionalizing proven organizational management practices to improve efficiency of road institutions. It is important that these improvement measures be carried out in ways that strengthen local governance in line with national development priorities and the process of transitional management taking place in the country.

Seychelles Programmatic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Health, Education, and Investment Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
Since 2008, the Government of Seychelles has successfully undertaken major reforms to secure macroeconomic stability and create conditions for sustainable, private sector-led growth. The continuous strengthening of Seychelles' public financial management (PFM) system plays a central role in facilitating fiscal consolidation and improving the delivery of government services. Over the past few years, the government has implemented a series of reforms to address public sector governance, including: (i) modernizing the public sector and improving the alignment of institutions with policy and service delivery mandates; (ii) rolling back the government's role in commercial activities by reducing the large number of parastatals, improving management, and introducing a new wage bill together with the private sector; and (iii) redefining the accountability structure between the government agencies responsible for service delivery. Despite the government's ambitious macroeconomic reform program and its efforts to strengthen the PFM system...

Macroeconomic impact of Eskom's six-year capital investment programme

Seymore,Reyno; Akanbi,Olusegun A.; Abedian,Iraj
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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56.23%
This study analyses the impact of an increase in Eskom's capital expenditure on the overall macro and sectoral economy using both a Time-Series Macro-Econometric (TSME) model and a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The simulation results from the TSME model reveal that in the long run, major macro variables (i.e. household consumption, GDP, and employment) will be positively affected by the increased investment. A weak transmission mechanism of the shock on the macro and sectoral economy is detected both in the short run and long run due to the relatively small share of electricity investment in total investment in the economy. On the other hand, the simulation results from the CGE reveal similar but more robust positive impacts on the macro economy. Most of the short-run macroeconomic impacts are reinforced in the long run.