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Trabalho produtivo e acumulação de capital: uma perspectiva sociopolítica

Veiguinha, Joaquim Jorge de Jesus Paiva
Fonte: Repositório Científico Lusófona Publicador: Repositório Científico Lusófona
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Esta investigação visa analisar a relação entre trabalho produtivo e acumulação de capital desde a época do mercantilismo. Parte da hipótese de que não é a forma material ou imaterial do produto do trabalho que determina se este é ou não produtivo, mas a função que ele desempenha no processo global de acumulação de capital. Concebemos o capital como uma relação de produção em que trabalhadores assalariados produzem uma mais-valia para os proprietários dos meios de produção que não se limitam a consumi-la improdutivamente, mas a reinvesti-la periodicamente no processo produtivo. Pretendemos demonstrar que com o desenvolvimento do capitalismo a esfera do trabalho produtivo se alarga para além do processo de produção material porque a ciência se transforma numa força produtiva e, por conseguinte, num instrumento de valorização do capital. Além do mais, a revolução cibernética converte uma parte crescente do trabalho intelectual em trabalho produtivo. No entanto, como a desigualdade na repartição de rendimentos não parou de aumentar desde os anos oitenta do século passado, estas transformações tecnológicas não contribuíram para a melhoria das condições de existência de todos mas apenas para o incremento do sobretrabalho que sustenta a acumulação de capital.; This research aims to analyze the relationship between productive labour and capital accumulation since the era of mercantilism. Starts from the hypothesis that material or immaterial forms of the labour product does not determine whether or not it is productive...

Dimensões da saúde no Brasil: proteção social, inovação tecnológica e acumulação de capital; Dimensions of health in Brazil: social protection, technological innovation, and capital accumulation

Silva, Hudson Pacifico da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
O objetivo do trabalho é estudar o processo de incorporação de tecnologias médicas no sistema de saúde brasileiro, mediante a realização de um estudo de caso na área de equipamentos de diagnóstico por imagem, com foco nas variáveis que influenciam a tomada de decisão. Considerando que os modernos sistemas de saúde são o resultado da complexa interação de processos econômicos, políticos e sociais, adotou-se a abordagem teórica fornecida pela Economia Política da Saúde, que fornece elementos para discutir a saúde a partir de suas especificidades enquanto mercadoria ou bem econômico, como direito social e como espaço de inovação tecnológica e acumulação de capital. Os métodos utilizados incluíram pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o tema, análise de dados secundários e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com representantes dos principais segmentos que participam do processo de incorporação da tecnologia estudada; This work aims at studying the process of new medical technologies incorporation in the Brazilian healthcare system. For this purpose a case study of a new image diagnostic technology was conducted, focusing the variables that affect decision-making process. Considering that modern healthcare systems are the result of complex interaction of economical...

Fatores determinantes do investimento e o papel das mudanças institucionais na acumulação de capital e no crescimento do Brasil; The determining factors of investment and the role of institutional changes in capital accumulation and growth in Brazil.

Magnabosco, Ana Lelia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
Esta tese analisa os fatores determinantes do investimento e seus efeitos sobre o crescimento econômico das nações, em geral, e do Brasil, em particular. O foco da discussão na acumulação de capital decorre do fato de que 2/3 do crescimento econômico brasileiro foi devido a esse processo. Para avaliar a questão, a tese combina três abordagens complementares: a visão teórica, a avaliação histórica e a análise econométrica. O trabalho está dividido em duas partes: a primeira trata dos determinantes teóricos do investimento e faz a análise econométrica com dados internacionais. A segunda traz a análise do crédito e do investimento no Brasil, reunindo as abordagens histórica e econométrica. A visão teórica fundamenta a análise e define as variáveis-chave que afetam o investimento: juros, crédito de longo prazo, retorno do capital e preço dos ativos. Parte-se da visão de que as mudanças institucionais afetam o investimento porque buscam preservar o retorno dos investidores e dos bancos. A análise econométrica avalia o comportamento dos investimentos em três níveis: macroeconômico internacional, macroeconômico brasileiro e setorial brasileiro. A análise internacional considera um painel com dados de 39 economias entre 1995 e 2011. São utilizadas as técnicas de cointegração em painel conforme as metodologias de Kao (1999) e Pedroni (1999...

Entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and the growth of rural business: a four country survey in mountainous and lagging areas of the European Union

Moreira, Manuel Belo; Skuras, Dimitris; Meccheri, Nicolas; Rosell, Jordi; Stathopoulou, Sophia
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
The paper presents the processes of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and its impact on rural business growth. Data are derived from four surveys on rural businesses in mountainous and less favoured areas in Southern Europe. Formal pathways of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation refer to education and training, while informal pathways include the cognitive processes of work and managerial experience acquisition and the non-cognitive processes of being raised within an entrepreneurial family environment and/or being raised in the area within which the business is later set-up. The studies reveal that there is a variety of processes of entrepreneurial human capital and knowledge accumulation that are case study specific. Human capital accumulation processes related to education and training or to work and managerial experience still plays the prime role in predicting successful businesses. Results indicate the need for decentralised, flexible and selective entrepreneurial human capital accumulation support programmes that take into account local idiosyncrasies and needs.

Investimento direto externo, acumulação de capital produtivo e distribuição de renda: uma abordagem pós-keynesiana

Bertella,Mário Augusto; Lima,Gilberto Tadeu
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
It is developed a macrodynamic model in the post-keynesian tradition of political economy of the productive capital accumulation and income distribution to analyze some of the impacts of the (flow of) foreign direct investment and the (stock of) foreign productive capital on capital accumulation, economic growth and functional income distribution in a stylized economy. Alongside a usual demand effect, the impacts of such an internationalization of local capital through labor productivity and market concentration are taken into account as well.

Esgotamento do padrão de acumulação de capital e política econômica brasileira: do II PND aos anos 2000

Gerioni, Enzo Matono
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Este trabalho procura demonstrar que o esgotamento do padrão de acumulação de capital, que vem mostrando seus primeiros sinais desde finais da década de 1960, exerceu e continua exercendo papel de grande importância nos acontecimentos da política econômica brasileira. Através do primeiro capítulo, estabelecemos uma referência sobre o que entendemos pelo padrão de acumulação do período Pós- Segunda Guerra, e como o próprio processo de reprodução ampliada do capital leva ao seu esgotamento. Diante disso, nos concentramos nos capítulos posteriores a destacar a importância do esgotamento nos momentos que consideramos os mais relevantes da política econômica brasileira. Desde o IIPND, em que surgem os primeiros sinais de influência do esgotamento na economia brasileira, passando pelos planos de estabilização da década de 1980 e 1990 e o surgimento do Estado pró-mercado no país, até a década de 2000, quando é estabelecido o tripé macroeconômico como forma de delimitar a condução da política econômica do país, mostramos que o esgotamento sempre teve grande relevância. ______________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; This work aim to show that the reach to the limits of capital accumulation...

Undervaluation through Foreign Reserve Accumulation : Static Losses, Dynamic Gains

Korinek, Anton; Servén, Luis
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
This paper shows that real exchange rate undervaluation through the accumulation of foreign reserves may improve welfare in economies with learning-by-investing externalities that arise disproportionately from the tradable sector. In the presence of targeting problems or when policy choices are restricted by multilateral agreements, first-best policies such as subsidies to capital accumulation, or subsidies to tradable production are not feasible. A neo-mercantilist policy of foreign reserve accumulation "outsources" the targeting problem or overcomes the multilateral restrictions by providing loans to foreigners that can only be used to buy up domestic tradable goods. This raises the relative price of tradable versus non-tradable goods (i.e. undervalues the real exchange rate) at the static cost of temporarily reducing tradable absorption in the domestic economy. However, since the tradable sector generates greater learning-by-investing externalities, it leads to dynamic gains in the form of higher growth. The net welfare effects of reserve accumulation depend on the balance between the static losses from lower tradable absorption versus the dynamic gains from higher growth.

Trade and Human Capital Accumulation : Evidence from U.S. Immigrants

Dömeland, Dörte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This study provides empirical evidence that trade increases on-the-job human capital accumulation by estimating the effect of home country openness on estimated returns to home country experience of U.S. immigrants. The positive effect of trade on on-the-job human capital accumulation remains significant when controlling for GDP, educational attainment, and institutional quality. It is not the result of self-selection, heterogeneity in returns to experience, English-speaking origin, or cultural background. The effect persists when restricting the sample to non-OECD countries, thereby resolving the theoretical ambiguity of whether trade increases or decreases learning-by-doing. The role of trade in generating economic growth is therefore likely to be more important than generally considered.

Social Capital, Product Imitation and Growth with Learning Externalities

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Dinh, Hinh T.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Links between social capital, human capital, and product imitation are studied in an overlapping generations model of endogenous growth where the key benefit of social capital is to promote imitation. There is also a two-way interaction between imitation and human capital. Building social capital (which brings direct utility) requires time. Because life expectancy is endogenously related to human capital, time allocation between market work and social capital accumulation is also endogenously determined. Social capital accumulation depends also on access to infrastructure. The model is calibrated numerically for a low-income country. A policy that helps to promote social capital accumulation may be very effective to foster economic growth, even if it involves offsetting cuts in other productive components of government spending, such as education outlays or infrastructure investment. Offsetting cuts in infrastructure investment, however, may be less effective.

How Capital-Based Instruments Facilitate the Transition Toward a Low-Carbon Economy : A Tradeoff between Optimality and Acceptability

Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This paper compares the temporal profile of efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions induced by two mitigation strategies: a regulation of all emissions with a carbon price and a regulation of emissions embedded in new capital only, using capital-based instruments such as investment regulation, differentiation of capital costs, or a carbon tax with temporary subsidies on brown capital. A Ramsey model is built with two types of capital: brown capital that produces a negative externality and green capital that does not. Abatement is obtained through structural change (green capital accumulation) and possibly through under-utilization of brown capital. Capital-based instruments and the carbon price lead to the same long-term balanced growth path, but they differ during the transition phase. The carbon price maximizes social welfare but may cause temporary under-utilization of brown capital, hurting the owners of brown capital and the workers who depend on it. Capital-based instruments cause larger intertemporal welfare loss...

Competition, Human Capital and Income Inequality with Limited Commitment

MARIMON, Ramon; QUADRINI, Vincenzo
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with two-sided limited commitment to study how barriers to competition, such as restrictions to business start-up, affect the incentive to accumulate human capital. We show that a lack of contract enforceability amplifies the effect of barriers to competition on human capital accumulation. High barriers reduce the incentive to accumulate human capital by lowering the outside value of ‘skilled workers’, while low barriers can result in over-accumulation of human capital. This over-accumulation can be socially optimal if there are positive knowledge spillovers. A calibration exercise shows that this mechanism can account for significant cross-country income inequality.

Competition, Human Capital and Income Inequality with Limited Commitment

MARIMON, Ramon; QUADRINI, Vincenzo
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with two-sided limited commitment to study how barriers to competition, such as restrictions to business start-up, affect the incentive to accumulate human capital. We show that a lack of contract enforceability amplifies the effect of barriers to competition on human capital accumulation. High barriers reduce the incentive to accumulate human capital by lowering the outside value of ‘skilled workers’, while low barriers can result in over-accumulation of human capital. This over-accumulation can be socially optimal if there are positive knowledge spillovers. A calibration exercise shows that this mechanism can account for significant cross-country income inequality.

Aging, Social Security Design, and Capital Accumulation

Dedry, Antoine; Onder, Harun; Pestieau, Pierre
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This paper analyzes the impact of aging on capital accumulation and welfare in a country with a sizable unfunded social security system. Using a two-period overlapping generation model with endogenous retirement decisions, the paper shows that the type of aging and the type of unfunded social security system are important in understanding this impact. The analysis compares two types of demographic changes, declining fertility and increasing longevity; three types of pensions, defined contributions, defined benefits, and defined annuities; as well as mandatory and optimal retirement systems to investigate the differences in implications of aging.

Essays on Human Capital Accumulation and Inequality

TRENTINI, Claudia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Defense Date: 17/09/2009; Examining Board: Prof. Orazio Attanasio, University College London Prof. Andrea Ichino, EUI and Università di Bologna Prof. Eliana La Ferrara, Università Bocconi/IGIER Prof. Morten Ravn, EUI and University College London, Supervisor; This thesis is composed by four independent chapters. Their common denominator is the process of human capital accumulation analyzed under different perspectives and using different techniques. In the following I will shortly describe each chapter in more detail. Chapter 1 addresses an important aspect of the effects of trade liberalization that has gained much attention in recent years: raising skill premia. It is motivated by recent evidence showing that trade liberalization in developing countries is often associated with a large increase in wage inequality. I investigate the mechanism through which a trade related increase in the demand for skilled labor affects human capital investment and the wealth distribution of a developing country economy. In particular I focus on a scenario where the liberalizing economy is in a poverty trap. This is because developing economies are often plagued by credit market imperfections. Imperfect financial markets raise the probability that individuals are constrained in their human capital investment decisions and that the economy is a poverty trap. I use a standard overlapping generation model to show how a trade related increase in the demand for skilled labor can release a developing country from a poverty trap...

New Product Technology, Accumulation, and Growth

Khan, Faruk A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
This paper asks whether new technological capacity for producing and exporting additional products provides incentives for greater capital accumulation, without being fully reflected in a higher rate of total factor productivity (TFP) growth. Using a highly disaggregated data set of each country's trade flows into the United States, the author constructs a direct and independent measure of technological improvements for each country over time based on the number of new product varieties exported to the United States. The author shows, in a panel data setting, that acquiring the technological capacity for producing new products stimulates more rapid capital accumulation in developing countries, even after holding fixed the rate of TFP growth. His findings provide evidence against the alternative view that technological improvements are essentially unimportant: a view based on the findings of Young (1995) and others that instances of spectacular economic growth have been associated with unspectacular rates of TFP growth. The author provides a model to show how an expansion in the technological capacity for producing additional products can lead to more rapid factor accumulation, without necessarily improving measured TFP. His findings suggest that while rapid accumulation of physical and human capital may have characterized the East Asian growth experience...

Trade, Capital Accumulation, and Structural Unemployment: An Empirical Study of the Singapore Economy

Looi Kee, Hiau; Teck Hoon, Hian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
The past three and a half decades witnessed a distinctly declining trend in Singapore's unemployment rate, which dropped from an average annual rate of 7.85 percent in 1966-70 to 2.74 percent in 1991-2000. The authors seek to identify and empirically examine the factors that have influenced Singapore's unemployment rate in an environment of low and stable inflation. They incorporate a union bargaining framework into a standard-factors trade model, in which an increase in the relative price or capital stock in the export sector raises the demand wage that firms can afford to pay relative to workers' fall-back income, and consequently lowers equilibrium unemployment. The magnitude of the effects depends on the fall-back income, the weight unions attach to employment, and the elasticity of labor demand, which the authors estimate using data on Singapore. The results show that labor unions in Singapore care more about employment than wages. Together with a small fall-back income and elastic labor demand, the authors show that given the same percentage change in relative export prices and capital accumulation in the export sector...

Sources of China's Economic Growth, 1952-99 : Incorporating Human Capital Accumulation

Wang, Yan; Yao, Yudong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
China's performance in economic growth, and poverty reduction has been remarkable. There is an ongoing debate about whether this growth is mainly driven by productivity, or factor accumulation. But few past studies have incorporated information on China's human capital stock, and thus contained an omission bias. The authors construct a measure of China's human capital stock from 1952 to 1999, and, using a simple growth accounting exercise, incorporate it in their analysis of the sources of growth, during the pre-reform (1952-77), and the reform period (1978-99). They find that the accumulation of human capital in China (as measured by the average years of schooling for the population aged 15 to 64) was quite rapid, and contributed significantly to growth, and welfare. After incorporating human capital, they also find that the growth of total factor productivity, still plays a positive, and significant role during the reform period. In contrast, productivity growth was negative in the pre-reform period. The results are robust to changes in labor shares in GDP. The recent declining rate of human capital accumulation is a cause for concern...

Mandatory profit sharing, entrepreneurial incentives and capital accumulation

Cardoso, Renato Fragelli
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
The impact of a mandatory tax on profits which is transferred to workers is analyzed in a general equilibrium entrepreneurial model. In the short run, this distortion reduces the number of fmns and the aggregate output. In the long run, if capital and labor are bad substitutes, it fosters capital accumulation and increases the aggregate output. In a small open economy with free movement of capital, it improves the welfare of the economy's average individual. One concludes that the benefits of sharing schemes may go beyond the short run employment-stabilization goal focused by the profit sharing literature.

Crise: um problema conjuntural ou da lógica da acumulação mundial?; The crisis: a conjunctural problem or the logic of global accumulation?

Sawaya, Rubens R.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Neste texto, explora-se a ideia de que a crise financeira atual é a manifestação do esgotamento do processo de acumulação mundial de capital fundado em um determinado padrão (mundialização) no pós-guerra. Os primeiros sinais desse esgotamento apareceram nos anos 1970. As soluções liberalizantes impostas pelo próprio capital a partir de então para buscar manter sua rentabilidade, se, de um lado, permitiram certa reestruturação produtiva mundial, de outro, abriram um amplo espaço para a valorização fictícia do capital que ora irrompe em crise.; The idea of this text is to explore that the current financial crises is the manifestation of the exhaustion of the global capital accumulation process (globalization) established by determined standard (mundialização) created in the postwar period. The first signals of this exhaustion had appeared in the 70s. The liberalization policies imposed by the proper capital from that period in order to maintain its profits, if of one hand had allowed certain global capital-productive reorganization, of another one had opened a wide space for the fictitious valuation of the capital that now bursts in crisis.

Dynamic Models of Human Capital Accumulation

Ransom, Tyler
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%

This dissertation consists of three separate essays that use dynamic models to better understand the human capital accumulation process. First, I analyze the role of migration in human capital accumulation and how migration varies over the business cycle. An interesting trend in the data is that, over the period of the Great Recession, overall migration rates in the US remained close to their respective long-term trends. However, migration evolved differently by employment status: unemployed workers were more likely to migrate during the recession and employed workers less likely. To isolate mechanisms explaining this divergence, I estimate a dynamic, non-stationary search model of migration using a national longitudinal survey from 2004-2013. I focus on the role of employment frictions on migration decisions in addition to other explanations in the literature. My results show that a divergence in job offer and job destruction rates caused differing migration incentives by employment status. I also find that migration rates were muted because of the national scope of the Great Recession. Model simulations show that spatial unemployment insurance in the form of a moving subsidy can help workers move to more favorable markets.

In the second essay...