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A contabilidade social na perspectiva clássica : (capital produtivo e não-produtivo : traçando um mapa do sistema de contas nacionais brasileiro)

Pinto, José Paulo Guedes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
O objetivo dessa dissertação é apresentar um exercício empírico, qual seja, transformar a contabilidade nacional oficial em categorias analíticas da economia clássica/marxiana. Esse processo é baseado na metodologia desenvolvida por Shaikh e Tonak (1994). No primeiro capítulo nós apresentamos de forma sucinta os principais aspectos teóricos da distinção entre o trabalho produtivo e o trabalho não-produtivo do ponto de vista do capital. No segundo capítulo apresentamos tanto a análise crítica do sistema de contas nacionais quanto a metodologia para realizar o mapeamento da contabilidade nacional convencional para categorias clássicas/marxianas. No terceiro capítulo aplicamos esse mapeamento nas contas nacionais brasileiras. Assim, baseando-nos nos recentes desenvolvimentos da pesquisa empírica marxista, estamos aptos a calcular a taxa de mais-valia, a composição valor e material do capital e a taxa geral de lucro marxiana para os períodos entre 1990-1994, 1995-1999 e 2000-2004.; The aim of this dissertation is to present an empirical exercise of transforming the official accounts into the classical/marxian analytical framework. Our transformation procedure is based on the methodology developed by Shaikh and Tonak (1994). Initialy we briefly present the mains theoretical aspects of the distinction between productive and unproductive labour. In the second chapter...

Gross Capital Flows : Dynamics and Crises

Broner, Fernando; Didier, Tatiana; Erce, Aitor; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
This paper analyzes the joint behavior of international capital flows by foreign and domestic agents -- gross capital flows -- over the business cycle and during financial crises. The authors show that gross capital flows are very large and volatile, especially relative to net capital flows. When foreigners invest in a country, domestic agents tend to invest abroad, and vice versa. Gross capital flows are also pro-cyclical, with foreigners investing more in the country and domestic agents investing more abroad during expansions. During crises, especially during severe ones, there is retrenchment, that is, a reduction in both capital inflows by foreigners and capital outflows by domestic agents. This evidence sheds light on the nature of shocks driving capital flows and helps discriminate among existing theories. The findings seem consistent with shocks that affect foreign and domestic agents asymmetrically, such as sovereign risk and asymmetric information.

Undervaluation through Foreign Reserve Accumulation : Static Losses, Dynamic Gains

Korinek, Anton; Servén, Luis
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
This paper shows that real exchange rate undervaluation through the accumulation of foreign reserves may improve welfare in economies with learning-by-investing externalities that arise disproportionately from the tradable sector. In the presence of targeting problems or when policy choices are restricted by multilateral agreements, first-best policies such as subsidies to capital accumulation, or subsidies to tradable production are not feasible. A neo-mercantilist policy of foreign reserve accumulation "outsources" the targeting problem or overcomes the multilateral restrictions by providing loans to foreigners that can only be used to buy up domestic tradable goods. This raises the relative price of tradable versus non-tradable goods (i.e. undervalues the real exchange rate) at the static cost of temporarily reducing tradable absorption in the domestic economy. However, since the tradable sector generates greater learning-by-investing externalities, it leads to dynamic gains in the form of higher growth. The net welfare effects of reserve accumulation depend on the balance between the static losses from lower tradable absorption versus the dynamic gains from higher growth.

Comprehensive Wealth, Intangible Capital, and Development

Ferreira, Susana; Hamilton, Kirk
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Existing wealth estimates show that in most countries intangible capital is the largest share of total wealth. Intangible capital is calculated as the difference between total wealth and tangible (produced and natural) capital. This paper uses new estimates of total wealth, natural capital, and physical capital for a panel of countries to shed light on the constituents of the intangible capital residual. In a development-accounting framework, the authors show that factors of production are very successful in explaining the variation in output per worker when they use intangible capital instead of human capital as a factor of production. This suggests that intangible capital captures a broad range of assets typically included in the total factor productivity residual. Human capital is an important factor, both in statistical and economic terms, in regressions decomposing intangible capital.

Human Capital, Tangible Wealth, and the Intangible Capital Residual

Hamilton, Kirk; Liu, Gang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
Since income is the return on wealth, the total wealth of any given country should be on the order of 20 times its gross domestic product. Instead the average observed ratio from the balance sheet accounts of the System of National Accounts is a factor of 2.6 to 6.6, depending on whether natural resource stocks are included in the balance sheet. The clear implication is that the System of National Accounts wealth accounts are incomplete, with the most obvious omission being human capital. Estimating the value of human capital using the lifetime income approach for a sample of 13 (mostly high-income) countries yields a mean share of human capital in total wealth of 62 percent -- four times the value of produced capital and 15 times the value of natural capital. But for selected high-income countries in the sample there is still an average of 25 percent of total wealth that is unaccounted -- it is neither produced, nor natural, nor human capital. This residual intangible wealth is arguably the "stock equivalent" of total factor productivity -- the value of assets such as institutional quality and social capital that augment the capacity of produced...

Post-Crisis Growth in Developing Countries : A Special Report of the Commission on Growth and Development on the Implications of the 2008 Financial Crisis

Commission on Growth and Development
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
#advanced countries, advanced economies, aggregate demand, arbitrage, Asian Bond Market, Asset Backed Securities, Asset prices, Backed Security, balance sheet, balance sheets, bank balance sheets, bank credit, bank intermediation, banking crises, banking system, banking systems, bond, bond markets, bond yields, borrower, borrowing costs, Budget deficits, budget surplus, budget surpluses, capital accounts, capital controls, capital flows, Capital Formation, capital gains, capital inflows, capital requirements, cash transfers, Central Bank, central banks, channels of credit, co-ordination failure, collateral, collateral for loans, commercial paper, Commodity, commodity price, Commodity prices, conflicts of interest, consumer durables, consumer spending, contingent liabilities, country to country, credibility, credit constraints, credit increases, Credit Line, credit provision, credit quality, credit spreads, credit system, creditors, creditworthiness, Currency, currency mismatches, Debt, debt markets, Debt Obligation, debts, defaults, Deposit, derivative, derivative instruments, derivatives, Developing Countries, developing country, developing economies, Development Bank, disclosure requirements, domestic banks, domestic capital, domestic capital markets, domestic market, Economic Development, efficient markets, emerging economies, emerging markets, equipment, Exchange Commission, exchange rate, exporters, exposure, external financing, Federal Deposit Insurance, Federal Reserve, Finance Corporation, finances, financial assets, financial crises, Financial Crisis, Financial Development, financial fragility, financial instability, Financial Institution, financial institutions, financial instruments, financial liberalization, financial markets, financial risk, Financial Sector, Financial Sector Development, financial sectors, financial stability, financial structure, financial system, Financial Systems, fiscal deficit, Fiscal Deficits, fiscal policies, fiscal policy, fixed exchange rates, floating exchange rate, flow of credit, foreign capital, Global Capital, Global Capital Markets, Global Economy, global finance, global financial system, global market, Globalization, government guarantees, government investment, government ownership, Gross Domestic Product, holding, holdings, home market, household saving, income levels, incomes, indebted households, inflation, inflation risk, inflationary pressure, instrument, insurance companies, Insurance Corporation, insurance premium, International Bank, International Business, International Cooperation, International Development, International Economics, International Finance, international financial institutions, international harmonization, international trade, inventory, investment banks, investment funds, Investment Vehicles, labor markets, liquidity, Loan, local market, long-term interest, long-term interest rates, macroeconomic policy, macroeconomic stability, margin requirements, market economies, market economy, maturity, Monetary Authority, Monetary Fund, monetary policy, Mortgage, mortgage-backed securities, opportunity costs, pensions, Political Economy, price risk, price stability, Private banks, private capital, private capital flows, private credit, public debt, Public Finance, public finances, public investment, regulatory constraints, regulatory standards, regulatory structures, regulatory system, Reserve, reserves, return, returns, safety net, safety nets, Savings, savings accounts, savings rate, self-regulation, shareholders, short-term capital, short-term interest rates, solvency, Stock markets, stocks, swap, Swaps, T-Bill, T-Bills, tax, trade finance, trading, trading system, Treasury, Treasury Bills, volatile capital, volatility, withdrawal, world economy
In May 2008, the Commission released the growth report: strategies for sustained growth and inclusive development. At that time, the financial systems of the United States and Europe were under stress. Commodity prices were also spiking, posing particular difficulties for developing countries because of the impact on the poor and on potential future inflation. But no one foresaw the full magnitude of the crisis that erupted in the fall of 2008, more than a year ago. The crisis was a destructive malfunction of the financial sectors of the advanced economies, which spread rapidly to the real economy and to the rest of the globe. Even countries far from the source of the crisis had to cope with capital volatility, tight credit, and rapidly falling trade. At the request of several members of the Commission, Commission held a workshop on the crisis and its implications for developing countries. Commission followed standard procedure of asking for help and insight from a distinguished group of scholars, analysts, and practitioners. This report is an outgrowth of that process. It is an attempt to look at the crisis and its aftermath from the point of view of developing countries. Commission wanted to assess the impact of these events, and determine if the growth strategies recommended needed major revision...

Capital Account Liberalization : What Do Cross-Country Studies Tell Us?

Eichengreen, Barry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Capital account liberalization, it is fair to say, remains one of the most controversial and least understood policies of our day. One reason is that different theoretical perspectives have very different implications for the desirability of liberalizing capital flows. Another is that empirical analysis has failed to yield conclusive results. The answer, another influential strand of thought contends, is that this efficient-markets paradigm is fundamentally misleading when applied to capital flows. Limits on capital movements are a distortion. It is an implication of the theory of the second best that removing one distortion need not be welfare enhancing when other distortions are present.

Financial Constraints, Working Capital and the Dynamic Behavior of the Firm

Chan, Rosanna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Financial constraints are widespread in developing countries, where even short-term credit is limited. Finance held by firms as working capital is a substantial proportion of sales revenue, yet the role of working capital is largely neglected by existing models of financial constraints. This paper presents a dynamic model of the firm that incorporates working capital by introducing a delay between factor payments and the receipt of revenue. In contrast with previous models, the working capital model predicts that firms under binding constraints will substitute between labor and capital in response to demand shocks, causing investment to be countercyclical. For firms near the margin of being constrained, constraints bind when positive production opportunities arise. Output growth is therefore constrained in response to positive shocks but not to negative shocks. Simulations suggest that models without working capital may understate the predicted effects of financial constraints on production efficiency, firm profit and growth over time. The predictions are tested with the Bangladesh Panel Survey data for manufacturing firms. Consistent with the theory...

Unconventional Monetary Policy Normalization in High-Income Countries : Implications for Emerging Market Capital Flows and Crisis Risks

Burns, Andrew; Kida, Mizuho; Lim, Jamus Jerome; Mohapatra, Sanket; Stocker, Marc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
As the recovery in high-income countries firms amid a gradual withdrawal of extraordinary monetary stimulus, developing countries can expect stronger demand for their exports as global trade regains momentum, but also rising interest rates and potentially weaker capital inflows. This paper assesses the implications of a normalization of policy and activity in high-income countries for financial flows and crisis risks in developing countries. In the most likely scenario, a relatively orderly process of normalization would imply a slowdown in capital inflows amounting to 0.6 percent of developing-country GDP between 2013 and 2016, driven in particular by weaker portfolio investments. However, the risk of more abrupt adjustments remains significant, especially if increased market volatility accompanies the unwinding of unprecedented central bank interventions. According to simulations, abrupt changes in market expectations, resulting in global bond yields increasing by 100 to 200 basis points within a couple of quarters...

Measuring Aggregate Welfare in Developing Countries : How Well Do National Accounts and Surveys Agree?

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
In a data set for developing, and transition economies, the author finds that private consumption per capita, based on national accounts, deviates on average from mean household income, or expenditure based on national sample surveys. Growth rates also differ systematically, so that the ratio of the survey mean to the national accounts mean, tends to fall over time. But there are revealing exceptions to these general findings. The aggregate difference in the levels is due more to income surveys, than to expenditure surveys. And there are strong regional effects; for example, the severe data problems in the transition economies of Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, means that there is negligible correlation in that region, between growth rates from national accounts, and those from household surveys.

Hegelian Macroeconomics : The Dialectics of Global Imbalances

Monga, Celestin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
Traditional narratives of external imbalances have focused on the analysis of national accounts, trade flows, and financial flows. They have generated two opposing views of the current situation of the world economy: on one side, a prudent, if not pessimistic view considers large imbalances as evidence of problems with the international monetary and financial system, and symptoms of domestic distortions (mainly in the United States and China). On the other side, a relaxed, if not optimistic view suggests that global imbalances are not anomalies but simply the predictable outcome of a world with increasingly globalized financial flows in search of the right mix of risks and returns. The former view prescribes that the two largest countries in the world rebalance their economies to avoid the potentially painful cost of disruption and adjustment. The latter contends that global imbalances will be corrected through time by the normal functioning of market forces. This paper offers a critical analysis of these competing explanations of the United States-China imbalances and suggests a way of reconciling them. Starting with an exploration of the accounting frameworks that underpin any discussion of current account deficits and surpluses...

Managing capital flows: a distortions approach

Wilson, Dominic
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 151371 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The East Asian financial crisis has highlighted the challenges that international capital movements pose for domestic economic management. Many of the conditions necessary to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks associated with international capital flows were violated in East Asian economies. In particular, a number of distortions encouraged capital to flow to the wrong investments and with insufficient attention to risk. For economies with open capital accounts, the policy priority must be to remove these kinds of distortions. Where this is not possible in the short term, other policies to influence the capital flows may be desirable.; no

Mexico : Capital Market Development

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Securities markets in Mexico are orderly and relatively innovative; however, corporate markets lag behind those in comparator countries. The government bond market accounts for the bulk of the fixed-income segment, and is well developed and active. While financial savings rates have been growing, little has been transformed into long-term investments. Most of the savings remain in traditional savings accounts. Institutional investors still hold the bulk of their assets in government bonds. Mexico will need to find solutions to further develop its capital market to fund its development needs. In the infrastructure sector alone, the country needs approximately US$230 billion of new investments. In the corporate sector, provision of financing by banks fare well below peers, especially for small and medium enterprises. Meanwhile, the pension fund industry, growing at about US$20-US$30 billion annually, requires sound investment outlets. The large concentration in the control of financial intermediaries raises complex issues and may stunt market development. The investor base in the equity market lacks diversity...

Accounting for Gender Production from a Growth Accounting Framework in Sub-Saharan Africa

Fofack, Hippolyte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This paper draws on an expanded growth accounting framework to estimate the relative contribution of women to growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Empirical results show a consistently positive contribution of women to growth in gross domestic product in the region, both during economic downturns and growth spurts. This is despite the absence of any valuation of home-produced goods and informal sector production, which accounts for the bulk of womens production, in national product and income accounts. Women's positive contribution is largely attributed to their increased rates of labor force participation in wage employment and the reduction in the gender gap in education in recent years.

Global Development Finance 2006 : The Development Potential of Surging Capital Flows, Volume 1. Review, Analysis, and Outlook

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Global Development Finance is the World Bank's annual review of global financial conditions facing developing countries. The current volume provides analysis of key trends and prospects, including coverage of capital originating from developing countries themselves. Robust global growth and a favorable financing environment provided the context for a record expansion of private capital flows to developing countries in 2005. Many low-income countries still have little or no access to international private capital, and instead depend largely on official finance from bilateral and multilateral creditors to support their development objectives. Capital flows are changing due to financial integration among developing countries, financial innovations, domestic debt markets, and the global role of the Euro. Net official flows continue to decline as official lending falls and there is more aid and debt relief for the poorest countries. To ensure economic stability, developing countries must manage capital flows with effective macroeconomic policies, prudent accumulation of reserves, careful management of oil-export revenues, and improvements in standards for the corporate sector.

Tajikistan : Capital Expenditures and Public Investment Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
This policy note is part of the World Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the sixth in the series continues the fiscal policy dialogue conducted in the previous notes. It is structured as follows. Chapter 2 sets a macro-fiscal context for the analysis with a particular focus on fiscal policy challenges. Chapter 3 analyzes the composition and trends in capital expenditures to identify issues and offer solutions for improving efficiency of capital spending. Chapter 4 reviews a public investment management process in Tajikistan to identify weaknesses in the capital budgeting cycle (planning, budgeting, implementation, and audit), and to recommend measures and remedies to address shortcomings in these processes. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions: 1) although Tajikistan has enjoyed high economic growth and substantial external assistance...

The Quality of Bureaucracy and Capital Account Policies

Bai, Chong-En; Wei, Shang-Jin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The extent of bureaucracy varies extensively across countries, but the quality of bureaucracy within a country changes more slowly than economic policies. The authors propose that the quality of bureaucracy may be an important structural determinant of open economy macroeconomic policies - especially the imposition or removal of capital control. In their model, capital controls are an instrument of financial repression. They entail efficiency loss for the economy but also generate implicit revenue for the government. The results show that bureaucratic corruption translates into the government's reduced ability to collect tax revenues. Even if capital controls and financial repression are otherwise inefficient, the government still has to rely on them to raise revenues to provide public goods. Among the countries for which the authors could get relevant data, they find that the more corrupt ones are indeed more likely to impose capital controls, a pattern consistent with the model's prediction. To deal with possible reverse causality...

Environmental Valuation and Greening the National Accounts : Challenges and Initial Practical Steps

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
The national accounts are the single most important source of information about the economy, and are widely used in all countries to assess economic performance and for policy analysis. However, the national accounts have a number of well-known shortcomings when it comes to treatment of the environment. For example, while the income from harvesting timber is recorded in national accounts, the simultaneous depletion of natural forest assets is not; perhaps more importantly, essential life-support services provided by forest ecosystems are not explicitly recognized at all. Environmental accounts 'greening the national accounts' have been developed to address the shortcomings of the national accounts, but valuation of environmental services has been controversial.The development of methods to value environmental goods and services continues to evolve apace. In an increasing number of countries, the practical uptake of these methods has accelerated in numerous areas of public policy that have environmental consequences. One policy related domain...

Globalization and National Financial Systems

Hanson, James A.; Honohan, Patrick; Majnoni, Giovanni
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The volume is divided into five traditional areas of finance: the macroeconomy, banking, securities markets, pension issues, and regulations. Four cross-cutting messages emerge. First, the erosion of national frontiers by trade, tourism, migration, and capital account liberalization means that residents of all countries have substantial financial assets, and often liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at home or abroad. Any analysis of national financial systems must take this into account. More important, this factor constrains governments' use of macroeconomic and financial policy and may contribute to economic fluctuations. Second, individuals and firms benefit substantially from the improved risk and return menu associated with global diversification. Diversification is of particular importance in developing countries where the lack of size and diversity of the national economy results in instability in the value of production. Third, the small size of most developing countries limits the efficiency and quality of financial services: banking...

Founders hope new venture-capital fund will spur medical, biotechnology research

Gray, Charlotte
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Lack of a coherent industrial strategy and venture capital have hindered scientific researchers in Canada, but the Canadian Medical Discoveries Fund (CMDF) Inc. hopes to change that. Under the leadership of Dr. Henry Friesen, president of the Medical Research Council of Canada, and Dr. Calvin Stiller, head of the multiorgan transplant unit at University Hospital, London, Ont., the new fund proposes to invest in promising medical and biotechnology research companies in Canada. The research council's peerreview system gives the new fund scientific credibility.