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Accommodating Migration to Promote Adaptation to Climate Change

Barnett, Jon; Webber, Michael
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
This paper explains how climate change may increase future migration, and which risks are associated with such migration. It also examines how some of this migration may enhance the capacity of communities to adapt to climate change. Climate change is likely to result in some increase above baseline rates of migration in the next 40 years. Most of this migration will occur within developing countries. There is little reason to think that such migration will increase the risk of violent conflict. Not all movements in response to climate change will have negative outcomes for the people that move, or the places they come from and go to. Migration, a proven development strategy, can increase the capacity of communities to adapt to climate change. The fewer choices people have about moving, however, the less likely it is that the outcomes of that movement will be positive. Involuntary resettlement should be a last resort. Many of the most dire risks arising from climate-motivated migration can be avoided through careful policy. Policy responses to minimize the risks associated with migration in response to climate change...

Energy Demand Models for Policy Formulation : A Comparative Study of Energy Demand Models

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early 1970s, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources, and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sector representations produce more realistic projections compared with the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases...

Retaining Teaching Capacity in African Universities : Problems and Prospects

Blair, Robert; Jordan, Josephine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
A project was carried out to obtain information on academic staffing in seven African universities, and to analyze the factors influencing academic staff to leave universities in Africa. The report provides detailed analysis and comment on the data, and makes suggestions and recommendations for improvement and policy interventions. The essential factors for improved staff capacity are identified as economic growth and revival, greater autonomy for universities, and the development of diversified sources of funding so as to remove the total dependence of universities on governments for funding. A wide range of staffing policy options are suggested, with the only viable way forward possibly being a "trade-off" between high, competitive salaries, or maintaining existing conditions which provide good leave and travel benefits (in practice as well as theory), a relaxed working environment, and a general lack of accountability. Strong leadership is essential, and reinforced and restructured university personnel offices and programs are crucial. The research environment is vital for viable academic staff recruitment and retention...

Bangladesh - Energy Policy Note for the New Government

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Bangladesh suffers from significant shortages of power generation capacity and natural gas. Addressing these problems will require concerted action to improve services, restructure energy sector finances, and bolster governance. In parallel, fuels and power policymaking coordination should be improved in order to address medium and longer term issues (such as assessing the place of coal-fired power in the generation mix, and considering energy trade options). The World Bank Group is ready to support Bangladesh to address comprehensively its energy sector challenges, complementing the assistance from other development partners.

Sierra Leone : Power Sector Recovery Strategy, Phase I

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
Power Planning Associates has been appointed by the World Bank to prepare a strategy for the recovery of the National Power Authority (NPA). This Preliminary Report presents the findings of the audit and proposes potential counter measures to improve NPA s technical and financial performance. These counter measures are presented at the end of each section of the report and are summarised below. NPA is locked in a downward spiral of under-performance, wherein generation plant breakdowns and fuel shortages exacerbate cash flow constraints. In addition, poor commercial performance, including high losses and low revenue collection rates, are also at the root of the cash flow problems. This cycle needs to be broken at a number of points, and the following series of counter measures represent the Consultant s initial proposals, in order of priority.

Capacity Constraints and Public Financial Management in Small Pacific Island Countries

Haque, Tobias A.; Knight, David S.; Jayasuriya, Dinuk S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Drawing on Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability assessment scores from 118 countries, this paper provides the first comparative analysis of public financial management performance in small Pacific Island Countries (PICs). It applies a Tobit regression model across the full cross-country sample of Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability scores and country variables to identify potential causes for the observed underperformance of Pacific Island countries relative to other countries of similar income. First, the analysis finds small population size to be negatively correlated with Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability scores, with the "population penalty" faced by small Pacific Island countries sufficient to explain observed underperformance. Second, through application of a new capacity index of Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability dimensions, it finds strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that small population size impacts scores through the imposition of capacity constraints: with a limited pool of human capital...

GAVI : The Global Fund and World Bank Support for Human Resources for Health in Developing Countries

Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E.; Nikolic, Irina A.; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Shortages, geographic imbalances, and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, development agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in Human Resources for Health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyze the HRH-related activities of three multilateral agencies the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI); the global fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the global fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, the global fund, and the World Bank investments in HRH have had on HRH in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity...

Issues in Estimating the Employment Generated by Energy Sector Activities

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washingotn, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washingotn, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
Many recent studies and reports on the performance of the energy sector have focused on the employment generated by investment. Governments, planning their energy futures, are also interested in the job creation benefits and possible identification of skill shortages that may emerge from a large energy program. Employment created or supported by the energy sector is frequently an issue whenever government support is being considered or provided. The purpose of this issues paper is to provide a guide to using such figures or constructing such estimates, and focuses in particular on illustrating different approaches and methodologies used in the last decade in estimating employment created. The study does not aim to provide definitive estimates of the employment generation potential of different technologies. The paper begins with a brief review of the various reasons why studies have focused on the employment generated by energy sector activities. It then reviews the different categories of employment that are commonly measured and discusses the bottom-up and top-down methodologies widely used for estimating these employment levels. The second half of the paper reviews in some detail certain studies that provide useful insights into methodology...

Egypt : Development of a Load Management Program and Design of Time of Use/Seasonal Pricing

Economic Consulting Associates, Ltd
Fonte: world Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: world Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
The primary aim of load shifting or peak clipping is to lower the peak demand of the electricity system as a whole or for key parts of the network and thereby to reduce the need for investment in generation and transmission capacity and to lower electricity supply costs. The pricing mechanisms and contractual frameworks examined in the project include conventional Time Of Use (TOU) tariffs that vary by season, day of the week or time of the day as well as special TOU contracts (contracts with large consumers to adjust their regular maintenance activities and/or major annual maintenance), interruptible contracts, and TOU power purchase contracts (purchase of electricity from customers who have excess self-generation). This Final Report is structured as follows; Section 2 provides an overview of the process of TOU tariff setting and rate design, Sections 3 and 4 summarise the experience of TOU tariffs and load management contracts in the MENA region (Section 3) and internationally (Section 4), Section 5 summarises the methodologies used in the development of TOU pricing mechanisms and load management contracts...

The Social Rate of Return on Infrastructure Investments

Canning, David; Bennathan, Esra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
The authors estimate social rates of return to electricity-generating capacity and paved roads, relative to the return on general capital, by examining the effect on aggregate output and comparing that effect with the costs of construction. They find that both types of infrastructure capital are highly complementary with other physical capital and human capital, but have rapidly diminishing returns if increased in isolation. The complementarities on the one hand, and diminishing returns on the other, point to the existence of an optimal mix of capital inputs, making it very easy for a country to have too much - or too little - infrastructure. For policy purposes, the authors compare the rate of return for investing in infrastructure with the estimated rate of return to capital. The strong complementarity between physical and human capital, and the lower prices of investment goods in industrial economies, means that the rate of return to capital as a whole is just as high in rich countries as in the poorest countries but is highest in the middle-income (per capita) countries. In most countries the rates of return to both electricity-generating capacity and paved roads are on a par with...

Rwanda : Technical Assessment on a Proposed Credit

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
The Public Financial Management (PFM) Sector Strategic Plan (SSP) identifies key challenges and proposes solutions in each program that are translated into a foundation for defining sector priorities and outcomes through FY2017-18. Improving coherence between national strategies, the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), and the annual budget process has been identified as an area for improvement under the first program, on economic planning and budgeting. In the second program, on resource mobilization, key challenges are inadequate resource mobilization, resulting in aid dependency at the national level and lack of discretionary revenues at the subnational level. Across the PFM sector, particularly under program 7, on PFM sector and coordination, capacity and skill shortages are identified as key bottlenecks. Capacity and skill shortages are more pronounced at the subnational level, especially on core PFM areas such as accounting, auditing, budgeting, and reporting. NISR made significant progress in the quality...

Regulatory Study to Encourage Energy Efficiency through Investment in Rehabilitation of Coal-fired Generation Plant in India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The Indian power sector suffers from considerable supply shortages. The Government of India (GoI) is addressing this problem both through a major new build program (including certain fiscal incentives for construction of larger and more efficient plant) and through rehabilitation (renovation and modernization or (R&M) as it is known in India) of existing coal fired plant. Around two-thirds of India's existing 65,000 MW of coal fired plant capacity is owned by State Government utilities, but much of this is reported to be in a poor condition, with low load factors and station heat rates of up to a 4,000 kcal/kWh. Current R&M activity is not keeping pace with the requirements. R&M implementation has lagged significantly behind the requirements over the 10th plan period (2002-07), and during the current 11th plan period nearly 13,000 MW of R&M is targeted. Specifically: section two sets out the context of the study; section three summarizes the constraints and barriers to energy efficient R&M in India, which are set out in further detail in annex four; section four provides a framework for the main options identified...

Turning the Lights on Across Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Africa is in the midst of a power crisis. Despite abundant low-carbon, a low-cost energy resource, Africa faces chronic energy shortages. The region s power generation capacity is lower than that of any other region in the world, and when compared with other developing regions, its capacity growth has stagnated. The power crisis is the result of several constraints that, together, create a vicious cycle. Africa's electricity access is the worst in the world. Almost 70 percent of the continent s population (nearly 600 million people) and 10 million small- and medium-sized enterprises have no access to electricity. Sub-Saharan African's(SSA) account for nearly 45 percent of people lacking electricity across the globe. Most regions in the world have urban electrification rates of 90 percent or higher; in SSA, less than 60 percent of those living in urban areas have electricity. If current electricity connection trends continue, fewer than 40 percent of SSA countries will reach universal access to electricity by 2050.

Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Mukhamedova, Takhmina; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
Tajikistan's electricity system is in a state of crisis. Approximately 70 percent of the Tajik people suffer from extensive shortages of electricity during the winter. These shortages, estimated at about 2,700 GWh, about a quarter of winter electricity demand, impose economic losses estimated at over United States (US) 200 million dollars per annum or 3 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The electricity shortages have not been addressed because investments have not been made in new electricity supply capacity and maintenance of existing assets has not improved. The financial incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their consumption is inadequate as electricity prices are among the lowest in the world. Without prompt action to remedy the causes of Tajikistan's electricity crisis and with growing demand, the shortages could increase to about 4,500 GWh by 2016 (over a third of winter electricity demand) or worse. The World Bank undertook this study to assist the Government of Tajikistan (GoT) in finding ways to overcome the current electricity shortages and establish a sound basis for meeting the growing electricity demand in Tajikistan. The study focuses on the investments and policy reforms needed between now and 2020 to strengthen the financial...

Tajikistan’s Winter Energy Crisis : Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives

Fields, Daryl; Kochnakyan, Artur; Stuggins, Gary; Besant-Jones, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Reliable power supply is critical for Tajikistan's economy and poverty reduction goals. Without reliable, affordable electricity throughout the year, Tajikistan's businesses cannot invest, operate and create jobs; hospitals and schools cannot function fully or safely with frequent power cuts during winter; citizens suffer indoor air pollution from burning wood for heating and cooking. Electricity also powers the country's two largest exports: aluminum and agricultural produce, which account for about 30 percent of Tajikistan's annual gross domestic product and almost 45 percent of export earnings. Currently, electricity is the cheapest available resource to heat homes so the residential and commercial sectors are highly dependent on electricity for heat as well as lighting and industrial processes. The Government is responsible for guiding programs that keep power supply apace with demand. The purpose of this study is to assist the Government in further defining ways to meet growing demand for electricity in Tajikistan, with a particular focus on the recurring winter shortages which amount to about 24 percent of winter demand. The study also examines the potential benefits of power exports, particularly during summers when hydropower plants spill energy. The study explores a range of alternatives to meet electricity demand as quickly as possible and develop a short term plan of action to alleviate the social and economic costs of winter shortages. The study focuses on multiple initiatives that can be started immediately and simultaneously...

Potential and Prospects for Regional Energy Trade in the South Asia Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
South Asian region is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. The growth, however, is becoming constrained by significant shortages in energy supply, and unless corrective steps are urgently initiated and implemented, it may be difficult to sustain the achieved growth rates. The region's political leaders and its business community are increasingly recognizing the need to foster cross-border energy investments and promote regional energy trade in order to take full advantage of the energy resources available within the region. This study describes the potential and identifies the main opportunities for development of regional trade in electricity and gas. The study also identifies the policies that the governments should pursue to promote cross-border energy trade and describes the supporting role of the international financing institutions. The author hope that the study will stimulate further interest and contribute to development of energy trade within South Asia Region and between the region and its neighbors.

Energizing Economic Growth in Ghana : Making the Power and Petroleum Sectors Rise to the Challenge

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The main objective of this report is to provide the new Government of Ghana with recommendations on the actions needed to improve the performance of Ghana's energy sector. The report focuses on the power and petroleum sectors, taking account of the interdependence between the sectors, and providing recommendations for how they can, together, drive future economic growth. This report aims to highlight the centrality of fixing the problems in the power sector as a path to ensuring that Ghana's economic growth ambitions are not stymied by a lack of electricity. The problems and their solutions are well known; what has been lacking is decisive and timely decision making to break the tendency to adopt reactive measures that often come too late when proactive measures will have led to better outcomes. Demand for gas in the power sector is set to expand rapidly, as new thermal generation capacity is built to meet rapidly growing power demand. However, to ensure successful development of its gas sector, Ghana will need to address a number of important challenges. The paper is organized as follows: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two deals with electricity demand and supply; chapter three deals with resolving generation and transmission bottlenecks; chapter four gives reforms urgently needed in power distribution; chapter five focuses on natural gas sector; and chapter six focuses on upstream oil and gas sector.

Zambia - The Relevance of a Rules-Based Maize Marketing Policy : An Experimental Case Study of Zambia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
A critical barrier to achieving food security and rural income growth in the mixed food marketing systems characterizing many Eastern and Southern African countries revolves around the way that governments and the private sector interact. In shortage years, governments may question the capacity of the private sector to import maize, and thus arrange imports on their own to cover the shortfall. At the same time, traders' import decisions depend on their expectations regarding governments' response to food shortages. Social dilemmas can arise if traders are uncertain about future government behavior or lack trust in official announcements. This paper argues that well-functioning markets depend on transparent and predictable government behavior underpinned by mutual trust and cooperation. The authors report on an economic policy experiment based on a stylized model of the Zambian maize market. The experiment facilitates a comparison between the current government policy of discretionary interventionism and a rules-based policy in which the government precommits itself to a future course of action. A simple precommitment rule can overcome the social dilemma by reducing the risk of food crises and provide appropriate incentives for private traders' participation in the market...

Lights out? The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
Before the current economic crisis hit the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region in 2008, energy security was a major source of concern in Central and Eastern Europe and in many of the economies in the former Soviet Union. Energy importers were experiencing shortages leading to periodic brownouts and blackouts. An energy crisis seemed imminent. This report analyzes the outlook for energy demand and supply in the region. It estimates the investment requirements and highlights the potential environmental concerns associated with meeting future energy needs, including those related to climate change. The report also proposes the actions necessary to create an attractive environment for investment in cleaner energy. Greater regional cooperation for smart energy and climate action is an important part of the World Bank's engagement in Europe and Central Asia.

Deaprtment of Engineering and Building Management planning capacity for Prishtina's current and new government buildings : [presentation given in November 2011]; Planning capacity for Prishtina's current and new government buildings

Kurteshi, Mimoza
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This capstone project assesses the restructuring of the Department of Engineering and Building Management (DEBM) within Kosova’s Ministry of Public Administration (MPA). There are serious capacity shortages and delays in implementation of projects, in existing structure of DEBM and changes are required to be implemented.; 1. Background development of DEBM -- 2. Reformatization and organization of MPA -- 3. DEBM new initiatives -- 4. DEBM past projects 2008-2010 -- 5. DEBM current projects 2010- present -- 6. Future projects 2010-2015 -- 7. Finance on projects -- 8. Final discussion recommendation.