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Gordura plástica obtida a partir de óleo de soja e óleo de Crambe abyssinica (Hochst); Plastic fat from soybean oil and Crambe abyssinica (Hochst) oil

Andréa Madalena Maciel Guedes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/11/2011 PT
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Na busca por substitutos de gorduras contendo ácidos graxos trans a interesterificação química de misturas de óleos e gorduras tem sido considerada importante alternativa. Entre essas gorduras, as que contém elevado teor de graxos de cadeia longa, como ácido behênico (C-22:0), possuem baixo valor calórico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar e avaliar o processo de interesterificação química de óleo líquido de alta disponibilidade no Brasil (óleo de soja) e uma fonte de ácido behênico. Para tanto, foram utilizadas misturas de óleo de soja (OS) e óleo de crambe totalmente hidrogenado (OCTH) em diferentes proporções: 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 65:35 e 60:40 (% m/m), respectivamente. As misturas e as gorduras interesterificadas foram avaliadas quanto à composição em ácidos graxos e triacilglicerólica, ponto de fusão, perfil de sólidos, cinética de cristalização, comportamento térmico, microestrutura, polimorfismo, e distribuição regioespecífica de triacilgliceróis nos carbonos 1,2,3 a fim de apontar possívels aplicações em produtos alimentícios. A interesterificação produziu considerável rearranjo das espécies de triacilgliceróis em todas as misturas, redução do conteúdo de triacilgliceróis C52...

Orientation of the LexA DNA-binding motif on operator DNA as inferred from cysteine-mediated phenyl azide crosslinking.

Dumoulin, P; Oertel-Buchheit, P; Granger-Schnarr, M; Schnarr, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1993 EN
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To address the question how the recognition helix of the LexA repressor is positioned within the major groove of operator DNA we have applied a site-specific photocrosslinking approach using a LexA mutant repressor (LexA-C52) that harbors a single cysteine side chain in position 52, close to the COOH terminus of helix 3. The LexA-C52 mutant repressor has been purified and modified site-specifically with the photoreactive azido compound 4-azidophenacyl bromide, giving rise to LexA-C52*. Here we show that LexA-C52* may be selectively photocrosslinked with two adjacent bases within each operator half-site. The crosslinked bases are located, respectively, 10 and 11 base pairs from the dyad axis of the operator. The crosslinking data imply that the LexA recognition helix is oriented opposite to what is generally observed for helix-turn-helix proteins and that this helix should form a steeper angle with respect to the plane of the base pairs than is observed for standard helix-turn-helix proteins.

Expression of Mutated Paramecium Telomerase RNAs In Vivo Leads to Templating Errors That Resemble Those Made by Retroviral Reverse Transcriptase

Ye, Amanda J.; Haynes, W. John; Romero, Daniel P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 EN
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Telomeric DNA consists of short, tandemly repeated sequences at the ends of chromosomes. Telomeric DNA in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia is synthesized by an error-prone telomerase with an RNA template specific for GGGGTT repeats. We have previously shown that misincorporation of TTP residues at the telomerase RNA templating nucleotide C52 accounts for the 30% GGGTTT repeats randomly distributed in wild-type telomeres. To more completely characterize variable repeat synthesis in P. tetraurelia, telomerase RNA genes mutated at C52 (A, U, and G) were expressed in vivo. De novo telomeric repeats from transformants indicate that the predominant TTP misincorporation error seen in the wild-type telomerase is dependent on the presence of a C residue at template position 52. Paradoxically, the effects of various other telomerase RNA template and alignment region mutations on de novo telomeres include significant changes in fidelity, as well as the synthesis of aberrant, 5-nucleotide telomeric repeats. The occurrence of deletion errors and the altered fidelity of mutated P. tetraurelia telomerase, in conjunction with misincorporation by the wild-type enzyme, suggest that the telomerase RNA template domain may be analogous to homopolymeric mutational hot spots that lead to similar errors by the human immunodeficiency virus proofreading-deficient reverse transcriptase.

Identification of RpoS (ςS)-Regulated Genes in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

Ibanez-Ruiz, Magdalena; Robbe-Saule, Véronique; Hermant, Daniel; Labrude, Séverine; Norel, Françoise
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2000 EN
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The rpoS gene encodes the alternative sigma factor ςS (RpoS) and is required for survival of bacteria under starvation and stress conditions. It is also essential for Salmonella virulence in mice. Most work on the RpoS regulon has been in the closely related enterobacterial species Escherichia coli. To characterize the RpoS regulon in Salmonella, we isolated 38 unique RpoS-activated lacZ gene fusions from a bank of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants harboring random Tn5B21 mutations. Dependence on RpoS varied from 3-fold to over 95-fold, and all gene fusions isolated were regulated by growth phase. The identities of 21 RpoS-dependent fusions were determined by DNA sequence analysis. Seven of the fusions mapped to DNA regions in Salmonella serovar Typhimurium that do not match any known E. coli sequence, suggesting that the composition of the RpoS regulon differs markedly in the two species. The other 14 fusions mapped to 13 DNA regions very similar to E. coli sequences. None of the insertion mutations in DNA regions common to both species appeared to affect Salmonella virulence in BALB/c mice. Of these, only three (otsA, katE, and poxB) are located in known members of the RpoS regulon. Ten insertions mapped in nine open reading frames of unknown function (yciF...

Effects of multiplicity of infection, bacterial protein synthesis, and growth phase on adhesion to and invasion of human cell lines by Salmonella typhimurium.

Kusters, J G; Mulders-Kremers, G A; van Doornik, C E; van der Zeijst, B A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1993 EN
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Monolayers of intestine 407 (Int-407) cells were infected with the virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain C52, and the adhesion to and invasion of these cells were studied. The effects of the multiplicity of infection and growth phase of the bacteria (logarithmic versus stationary) on the interaction with eukaryotic cells were investigated. In contrast to other reports, we found no differences in the adhesive and invasive capacities of bacteria derived from logarithmic- or stationary-phase cultures. Invasion by S. typhimurium required bacterial protein synthesis and live Int-407 cells. Bacteria adhered equally well to dead or live Int-407 cells, which indicates that adhesion does not require metabolically active cells. Adhesion of S. typhimurium followed saturation kinetics, with a maximum of 10 adhesive bacteria per cell. This indicates that there is a limited number of bacterial adhesion sites (receptors) available on the surface of the host cell. Killed and live bacteria adhered equally well and competed with each other for cellular adhesion sites. This and adhesion experiments performed in the presence of chloramphenicol showed that bacterial protein synthesis is not required for adhesion. The general validity of the results obtained with S. typhimurium C52 was confirmed by comparing the invasion and adhesion data with those of the frequently used SL1344 and SR11 strains. In addition...

Synthesis of the C1-C52 Fragment of Amphidinol 3, Featuring a β-Alkoxy Alkyllithium Addition Reaction

Huckins, John R.; de Vicente, Javier; Rychnovsky, Scott D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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An advanced intermediate for the synthesis of amphidinol 3 has been prepared. A cross-metathesis reaction was used to couple the C1-C12 and C13-C26 segments. An unusual β-alkoxy alkyllithium reagent was generated from this segment and added to a Weinreb amide to assemble the C1-C52 section of amphidinol 3. These compounds represent some of the most advanced intermediates reported to date for the synthesis of amphidinol 3.

Structural insights into the inhibited states of the Mer receptor tyrosine kinase

Huang, Xudong; Finerty, Patrick; Walker, John R.; Butler-Cole, Christine; Vedadi, Masoud; Schapira, Matthieu; Parker, Sirlester A.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Thompson, Debra A.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2009 EN
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The mammalian ortholog of the retroviral oncogene v-Eyk, and a receptor tyrosine kinase upstream of antiapoptotic and transforming signals, Mer (MerTK) is a mediator of the phagocytic process, being involved in retinal and immune cell clearance and platelet aggregation. Mer knockout mice are viable and are protected from epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboembolism and ferric chloride-induced thrombosis. Mer overexpression, on the other hand, is associated with numerous carcinomas. Although Mer adaptor proteins and signaling pathways have been identified, it remains unclear how Mer initiates phagocytosis. When bound to its nucleotide cofactor, the high-resolution structure of Mer shows an autoinhibited αC-Glu-out conformation with insertion of an activation loop residue into the active site. Mer complexed with compound-52 (C52: 2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)-6-(3-chloroanilino)-9-isopropylpurine), a ligand identified from a focused library, retains its DFG-Asp-in and αC-Glu-out conformation, but acquires other conformational changes. The αC helix and DFGL region is closer to the hinge region and the ethanolamine moiety of C52 binds in the groove formed between Leu593 and Val601 of the P-loop, causing a compression of the active site pocket. These conformational states reveal the mechanisms of autoinhibition...

Mass spectral molecular networking of living microbial colonies

Watrous, Jeramie; Roach, Patrick; Alexandrov, Theodore; Heath, Brandi S.; Yang, Jane Y.; Kersten, Roland D.; van der Voort, Menno; Pogliano, Kit; Gross, Harald; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Moore, Bradley S.; Laskin, Julia; Bandeira, Nuno; Dorrestein, Pieter C.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Integrating the governing chemistry with the genomics and phenotypes of microbial colonies has been a “holy grail” in microbiology. This work describes a highly sensitive, broadly applicable, and cost-effective approach that allows metabolic profiling of live microbial colonies directly from a Petri dish without any sample preparation. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS), combined with alignment of MS data and molecular networking, enabled monitoring of metabolite production from live microbial colonies from diverse bacterial genera, including Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces coelicolor, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work demonstrates that, by using these tools to visualize small molecular changes within bacterial interactions, insights can be gained into bacterial developmental processes as a result of the improved organization of MS/MS data. To validate this experimental platform, metabolic profiling was performed on Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52, which protects sugar beet plants from infections by specific soil-borne fungi [R. Mendes et al. (2011) Science 332:1097–1100]. The antifungal effect of strain SH-C52 was attributed to thanamycin, a predicted lipopeptide encoded by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Our technology...

Genome mining of the rhizophere bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52.

VOORT, M. V. D.; SCHMIDT, Y.; WATROUS, J.; MENDES, R.; GROSS, H.; DORRESTEIN, P.C.; RAAIJMAKERS, J. M.
Fonte: 14th International Symposium on Microbiol Ecology 19-24 Aug 2012, Bella Center - Copenhagen - Denmark Publicador: 14th International Symposium on Microbiol Ecology 19-24 Aug 2012, Bella Center - Copenhagen - Denmark
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
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2012

Exact Nonparametric Two-Sample Homogeneity Tests for Possibly Discrete Distributions.

DUFOUR, Jean-Marie; FARHAT, Abdeljelil
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 236458 bytes; application/pdf
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In this paper, we study several tests for the equality of two unknown distributions. Two are based on empirical distribution functions, three others on nonparametric probability density estimates, and the last ones on differences between sample moments. We suggest controlling the size of such tests (under nonparametric assumptions) by using permutational versions of the tests jointly with the method of Monte Carlo tests properly adjusted to deal with discrete distributions. We also propose a combined test procedure, whose level is again perfectly controlled through the Monte Carlo test technique and has better power properties than the individual tests that are combined. Finally, in a simulation experiment, we show that the technique suggested provides perfect control of test size and that the new tests proposed can yield sizeable power improvements.; Dans ce texte, nous étudions plusieurs tests pour l’égalité de deux distributions inconnues. Deux de ces tests sont basés sur des fonctions de distribution empiriques, trois autres sur des estimateurs non paramétriques de fonctions de densité et les trois derniers sur des moments empiriques. Nous proposons de contrôler la taille des tests (sous des hypothèses non paramétriques) en employant des versions permutationnelles de ces tests conjointement avec la méthode des tests de Monte Carlo ajustée pour tenir compte de la possibilité de distributions discontinues. Nous proposons aussi une méthode pour combiner plusieurs de ces tests...

A Theoretical Comparison Between Integrated and Realized Volatilies

MEDDAHI, Nour
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1631096 bytes; application/pdf
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In this paper, we provide both qualitative and quantitative measures of the cost of measuring the integrated volatility by the realized volatility when the frequency of observation is fixed. We start by characterizing for a general diffusion the difference between the realized and the integrated volatilities for a given frequency of observations. Then, we compute the mean and variance of this noise and the correlation between the noise and the integrated volatility in the Eigenfunction Stochastic Volatility model of Meddahi (2001a). This model has, as special examples, log-normal, affine, and GARCH diffusion models. Using some previous empirical works, we show that the standard deviation of the noise is not negligible with respect to the mean and the standard deviation of the integrated volatility, even if one considers returns at five minutes. We also propose a simple approach to capture the information about the integrated volatility contained in the returns through the leverage effect.; Dans cet article, nous quantifions qualitativement et quantitativement la précision de la mesure de la volatilité intégrée par la volatilité réalisée quand la fréquence d’observations est fixée. Nous commençons par caractériser pour une diffusion générale la différence entre les volatilités réalisée et intégrée pour une fréquence d’observations donnée. Ensuite...

An Eigenfunction Approach for Volatility Modeling.

MEDDAHI, Nour
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2523603 bytes; application/pdf
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In this paper, we introduce a new approach for volatility modeling in discrete and continuous time. We follow the stochastic volatility literature by assuming that the variance is a function of a state variable. However, instead of assuming that the loading function is ad hoc (e.g., exponential or affine), we assume that it is a linear combination of the eigenfunctions of the conditional expectation (resp. infinitesimal generator) operator associated to the state variable in discrete (resp. continuous) time. Special examples are the popular log-normal and square-root models where the eigenfunctions are the Hermite and Laguerre polynomials respectively. The eigenfunction approach has at least six advantages: i) it is general since any square integrable function may be written as a linear combination of the eigenfunctions; ii) the orthogonality of the eigenfunctions leads to the traditional interpretations of the linear principal components analysis; iii) the implied dynamics of the variance and squared return processes are ARMA and, hence, simple for forecasting and inference purposes; (iv) more importantly, this generates fat tails for the variance and returns processes; v) in contrast to popular models, the variance of the variance is a flexible function of the variance; vi) these models are closed under temporal aggregation.; Dans cet article...

Statistical Inference for Computable General Equilibrium Models with Application to a Model of the Moroccan Economy

ABDELKHALEK, Touhami; DUFOUR, Jean-Marie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 212801 bytes; application/pdf
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We study the problem of measuring the uncertainty of CGE (or RBC)-type model simulations associated with parameter uncertainty. We describe two approaches for building confidence sets on model endogenous variables. The first one uses a standard Wald-type statistic. The second approach assumes that a confidence set (sampling or Bayesian) is available for the free parameters, from which confidence sets are derived by a projection technique. The latter has two advantages: first, confidence set validity is not affected by model nonlinearities; second, we can easily build simultaneous confidence intervals for an unlimited number of variables. We study conditions under which these confidence sets take the form of intervals and show they can be implemented using standard methods for solving CGE models. We present an application to a CGE model of the Moroccan economy to study the effects of policy-induced increases of transfers from Moroccan expatriates.; Nous étudions le problème de la mesure de l’incertitude des simulations de modèles d’équilibre général calculable (MEGC). Nous décrivons deux approches pour construire des régions de confiance pour les variables endogènes de ces modèles. La première utilise une statistique standard de type Wald. La seconde approche suppose l’existence...

Simulation-Based Finite-Sample Normality Tests in Linear Regressions

DUFOUR, Jean-Marie; FARHAT, Abdeljelil; GARDIOL, Lucien; KHALAF, Lynda
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 934877 bytes; application/pdf
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In the literature on tests of normality, much concern has been expressed over the problems associated with residual-based procedures. Indeed, the specialized tables of critical points which are needed to perform the tests have been derived for the location-scale model; hence reliance on available significance points in the context of regression models may cause size distortions. We propose a general solution to the problem of controlling the size normality tests for the disturbances of standard linear regression, which is based on using the technique of Monte Carlo tests.

Paretian Quasi-Orders: Two Agents.

SPRUMONT, Yves
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 670229 bytes; application/pdf
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We characterize Paretian quasi-orders in the two-agent continuous case.; Nous caractérisons les ordres partiels parétiens pour le cas de deux agents et d'un continuum de choix.

Cognition in Seemingly Riskless Choices and Judgments.

Levy-Garboua, L.; Montmarquette, C.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 949822 bytes; application/pdf
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We instillate rational cognition and learning in seemingly riskless choices and judgments. Preferences and possibilities are given in a stochastic sense and based on revisable expectations. the theory predicts experimental preference reversals and passes a sharp econometric test of the status quo bias drawn from a field study.

Monte Carlo Tests with Nuisance Parameters: A General Approach to Finite-Sample Inference and Nonstandard Asymptotics

DUFOUR, Jean-Marie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 322116 bytes; application/pdf
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The technique of Monte Carlo (MC) tests [Dwass (1957), Barnard (1963)] provides an attractive method of building exact tests from statistics whose finite sample distribution is intractable but can be simulated (provided it does not involve nuisance parameters). We extend this method in two ways: first, by allowing for MC tests based on exchangeable possibly discrete test statistics; second, by generalizing the method to statistics whose null distributions involve nuisance parameters (maximized MC tests, MMC). Simplified asymptotically justified versions of the MMC method are also proposed and it is shown that they provide a simple way of improving standard asymptotics and dealing with nonstandard asymptotics (e.g., unit root asymptotics). Parametric bootstrap tests may be interpreted as a simplified version of the MMC method (without the general validity properties of the latter).

Modulation of the Heme Electronic Structure and Cystathionine β-synthase Activity by Second Coordination Sphere Ligands: The Role of Heme Ligand Switching in Redox Regulation†

Singh, Sangita; Madzelan, Peter; Stasser, Jay; Weeks, Colin L.; Becker, Donald; Spiro, Thomas G.; Penner-Hahn, James; Banerjee, Ruma
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In humans, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a hemeprotein, which catalyzes a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation reaction. Changes in the heme environment are communicated to the active site, which is ~20 Å away. In this study, we have examined the role of H67 and R266, which are in the second coordination sphere of the heme ligands, H65 and C52 respectively, in modulating the heme's electronic properties and in transmitting information between the heme and active sites. While the H67A mutation is comparable to wild-type CBS, interesting differences are revealed by mutations at the R266 site. The pathogenic mutant, R266K, is moderately PLP-responsive while the R266M mutation shows dramatic differences in the ferrous state. The electrostatic interaction between C52 and R266 is critical for stabilizing the ferrous heme and its disruption leads to the facile formation of a 424 nm (C-424) absorbing ferrous species, which is inactive, compared to the active 449 nm ferrous species for wild-type CBS. Resonance Raman studies on the R266M mutant reveal that the kinetics of C52 rebinding after Fe-CO photolysis are comparable to that of wild-type CBS. EXAFS studies on C-424 CBS are consistent with the presence of two axial N/O low Z scatters with only one being a rigid unit of a histidine residue while the other could be a solvent molecule...

Pleiotropic effect of a point mutation in the yeast SUP4-o tRNA gene: in vivo pre-tRNA processing in S. cerevisiae.

Wilhelm, M L; Keith, G; Fix, C; Wilhelm, F X
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/02/1992 EN
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The expression of mutant tyrosine-inserting ochre suppressor SUP4-o tRNA genes in vivo in S. cerevisiae was examined as a basis for further studies of tRNA transcription and processing. In vivo yeast precursor tRNAs have been identified by filter hybridization and primer extension analysis. We have previously shown that a mutant SUP4-o tRNA gene with a C52----A52 transversion at positive 52 (C52----A52(+IVS) allele) was transcribed but that the primary transcript was not processed correctly. We show here that 5' and 3' end processing as well as splicing are defective for this mutant but that the 5' end processing is restored when the intron is removed from the gene by oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis (C52----A52(-IVS) allele). Our results imply that the C52----A52 transversion by itself cannot account for the lack of susceptibility to RNase P cleavage but that the overall tertiary structure of the mutant tRNA precursor is destabilized by the intron/anticodon stem. A second consequence of the C52----A52 transversion is to prevent complete maturation of the tRNA precursor at its 3' end since intermediates containing incompletely processed 3' trailers accumulate in the yeast cells transformed with the C52----A52(-IVS) allele. A correct structure of the T stem might therefore define a structural feature required for the recognition of the 3' processing activity.

Rooting of apical, intermediate and basal minicuttings in clones of Eucalyptus benthamii; ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS APICAIS, INTERMEDIÁRIAS E BASAIS EM CLONES DE Eucalyptus benthamii

Benin, Cristiane Carla; Universidade Estadual do Centro- Oeste; Peres, Fabiana Schmidt Bandeira; Universidade Estadual do Centro- Oeste; Garcia, Flávio Augusto de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual do Centro- Oeste
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2013 POR
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This study aimed to evaluate the rooting of apical, intermediate and basal ministumps of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage. The minicuttings were collected from ministumps originated from seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a 4x3 factorial arrangement with factors consisting of four clones of E. benthamii (C50, C51, C52 e C53) and three types of cuttings (apical, intermediate and basal). The survival and rooting were evaluated with 45 days  in shadow house, and 90 days in the full sun stage. In the end of the evaluations, the clone C52 proved to be better in survival, rooting and height growth. In full sun stage, when the seedlings completed the development cycle, the apical minicutting proved to be the kind of propagules with grater aptitude on rooting when compared with the others clones.; Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o enraizamento de miniestacas apicais, intermediárias e basais de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage. As miniestacas utilizadas foram coletadas de minicepas estabelecidas a partir de mudas de origem seminal. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4x3, sendo os fatores constituídos por quatro clones de E. benthamii (C50...