Página 1 dos resultados de 428 itens digitais encontrados em 0.037 segundos

Immunogenicity of a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults

Bertolini, Daniela Vinhas; Costa, Luciana Scarlazzari; van der Heijden, Inneke Marie; Sato, Helena Keiko; de Sousa Marques, Heloisa Helena
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
Children and adolescents infected with HIV typically have a lower response to immunization than do those in the general population. In most developed countries, meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine is one of the recommended vaccines for such individuals. However, there have been no studies evaluating the antibody response to this vaccine in HIV-infected children, adolescents or young adults. In this study, we evaluated that response using serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, comparing HIV-infected with non-HIV-infected patients, as well as analysing the occurrence of side effects. In non-responders, we assessed the antibody response to revaccination. This clinical trial involved 92 patients between 10 and 20 years of age: 43 HIV-infected patients (HIV+ group) and 49 non-HIV-infected patients (HIV- group). After one dose of the vaccine, 72.1% of the HIV+ group patients and 100% of the HIV- group patients were considered protected. Of the HIV+ group patients who received a second dose of the vaccine, only 40% acquired protection. Overall, 81.4% of the HIV+ group patients acquired protection (after one or two doses of the vaccine). Side effects occurred in 16.3% and 44% of the HIV+ group and HIV- group patients...

Análise e determinação de custos específicos e consequências econômico-sociais na incorporação da vacina contra meningite e doença meningocócica C conjugada na rotina do Programa Nacional de Imunização/PNI; Analysis and determination of specific costs and socioeconomic consequences in the incorporation of the vaccine against meningitis and Meningococcal Disease C conjugate in the routine national immunization program / NIP

Itria, Alexander
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/10/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
As avaliações econômicas em saúde, que se propõe a estudar a alocação mais eficiente de recursos, apresentam expansão nos últimos 20 anos. Para as vacinas especificamente, há crescente surgimento das avaliações econômicas de programas de vacinação dado aumento dos preços das novas vacinas. Nesse cenário tem-se que a doença meningocócica continua sendo um agravo de extrema importância na população mundial, com características peculiares quando se consideram manifestações, morbi-mortalidade e ocorrência nas diferentes regiões. Não são suficientemente conhecidas as causas do início de uma epidemia em um dado momento e lugar, mas sabe-se que são necessários a presença concomitante de múltiplos fatores, como características do agente etiológico, do hospedeiro e do meio ambiente. Isto inclui a susceptibilidade da população, condições climáticas favoráveis, situação socioeconômica precária, tornando a prevenção primária da doença difícil, sendo necessária uma intervenção específica como as vacinas. Há diversas complicações da doença meningocócica, principalmente as sequelas, sendo as mais comuns a perda auditiva, as amputações, necrose de pele e convulsões. O Brasil, através do Programa Nacional de Imunizações / PNI...

Imunogenicidade da vacina meningocócica conjugada do grupo C em adolescentes e adultos jovens com aids; Immunogenicity of a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in AIDS adolescents and young adults

Bertolini, Daniela Vinhas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Pacientes infectados pelo HIV apresentam resposta de imunogenicidade menor àquela obtida pela população geral com a imunização de rotina. A vacina meningocócica C conjugada é indicada para essa população, não existindo pesquisas prévias que avaliassem a imunogenicidade desta, para esse grupo específico. O estudo realizou essa avaliação comparando a resposta vacinal entre os pacientes infectados e não infectados pelo HIV, as relações dessa resposta com parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais da infecção pelo vírus e os eventos adversos à vacinação. Utilizou-se as técnicas ensaios de anticorpos bactericidas séricos ou ação bactericida no soro (SBA) e o enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tratou-se de um ensaio clínico, envolvendo 92 pacientes, com idades entre 10-20 anos, sendo 43 infectados e 49 não infectados pelo HIV. Após a vacinação, 72,1% do grupo HIV+ e 100% do grupo HIV- foram considerados protegidos. Os pacientes do grupo HIV+ não respondedores à vacinação foram revacinados, tendo sido respondedores a essa nova dose 40% destes. Portanto, 81,4% dos pacientes infectados pelo HIV adquiriram proteção com a vacina (após uma ou duas doses). Foi encontrada correlação da resposta vacinal com o número de esquemas antirretrovirais previamente utilizados e carga viral pré-vacinação...

Efetividade da vacina conjugada contra o meningococo C em menores de dois anos; Effectiveness of conjugate vaccine against meningococcus C in under two years

Conde, Mônica Tilli Reis Pessôa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Objetivo: Estimar o impacto da vacina conjugada contra o meningococo C (VCMC), na incidência e mortalidade, nas coortes de nascidos com e sem indicação de vacinação, no município de São Paulo (MSP); e estimar a efetividade direta da VCMC segundo esquema do Programa Nacional de Imunização. Métodos: O impacto foi avaliado por estudo descritivo, abrangendo casos de doença meningocócica (DM) notificados ao MSP, de 1998 a 2012. A definição de caso é a adotada pelo Ministério da Saúde. Descreveu-se o comportamento da DM no MSP para todo período e analisou-se a tendência da incidência e mortalidade da DM global e por faixa etária de 2008 a 2012, utilizando o modelo de Poisson. O impacto da VCMC foi analisado por meio das razões de taxas de incidência e mortalidade nos períodos anterior e posterior a introdução da VCMC. Estimou-se a fração prevenida na população (FPP) para mensurar o impacto, comparando-se taxas de incidência e mortalidade globais da DM, por faixa etária e sorogrupo C, de 2012 com as de 2009. Para estimativa da efetividade da VCMC utilizou-se estudo de caso-controle de base populacional, com quatro controles para cada caso, pareado pela área de residência dos casos. Casos e controles foram selecionados entre nascidos a partir de janeiro/2009. Casos eram aqueles com DM pelo sorogrupo C confirmado por cultura e/ou reação em cadeia de polimerase em tempo real...

Meningococcal disease before and after the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine. Federal District, Brazil

Tauil,Márcia de Cantuária; Carvalho,Cleidiane Santos Rodrigues de; Vieira,Ataiza César; Waldman,Eliseu Alves
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the behavior of meningococcal disease in the Federal District, Brazil, from 2005 to 2011, and to assess the direct impact of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine. METHODS: A descriptive study of cases of meningococcal disease among residents of the Federal District. We included in the study confirmed cases of meningococcal disease reported to the local surveillance. To reduce underreporting we compared data to the Brazilian Mortality Database and the Public Health Laboratory Database. We studied sociodemographic, clinical, and pathogen-related variables. For the assessment of the impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, which was introduced in 2010 for children under two years of age, we compared the incidence of meningococcal disease before and after vaccine introduction in the recommended age groups for vaccination. RESULTS: We identified 309 cases of meningococcal disease, of which 52.1% were males. The average case fatality rate was 20.7%, the median age was three years and there was a predominance of serogroup C (70.2%) and C:23:P1.14-6 phenotype throughout the study period. In 2005-2009, 2010 and 2011, the incidence rates of meningococcal disease were 2.0, 1.8 and 0.8/100...

Immunoglobulin G Subclass Response to a Meningococcal Quadrivalent Polysaccharide-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine

Findlow, Helen; Southern, Jo; Mabey, Lesley; Balmer, Paul; Heyderman, Robert S.; Auckland, Cressida; Morris, Rhonwen; Miller, Elizabeth; Borrow, Ray
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Changes in the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)/IgG2 ratio following vaccination can indicate the activation of cellular control mechanisms typical of a T-cell-dependent response. We examined IgG subclass ratios in 17 healthy adults (26 to 55 years of age) before and 4 to 6 weeks following immunization with a quadrivalent meningococcal-polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine against serogroups A, C, Y, and W135. Serologic responses were determined by serum bactericidal antibody assay and serogroup-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Prevaccination serogroup A-specific IgG1/IgG2 ratios were <1 for all subjects and differed by subject for C, Y, and W-135. Postvaccination, significant increases in IgG, IgG1, and IgG2, were observed for all serogroups. Serogroup-specific IgG1/IgG2 ratios increased for group A (14/17 subjects, 88%), decreased in more than half of subjects for groups C (9/17, 53%) and W135 (12/17, 71%) and decreased for serogroup Y (16/17, 94%). IgG1/IgG2 ratios differed between individual vaccinees and were similar to the responses of adults who received pneumococcal conjugate vaccines or a monovalent C conjugate vaccine. Further studies on IgG subclasses following meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccination are needed.

Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity, and Immune Memory after Primary Vaccination with a Novel Haemophilus influenzae-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine▿

Schmitt, Heinz-J.; Maechler, Gudrun; Habermehl, Pirmin; Knuf, Markus; Saenger, Roland; Begg, Norman; Boutriau, Dominique
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
We evaluated two formulations of a new combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-meningococcal serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugated vaccine and two formulations of a new MenC-TT vaccine (trials 711202/001 and 711202/008; clinical trial register numbers NCT00135486 and NCT00135564 [www.ClinicalTrials.gov]). A total of 520 healthy infants were randomized to receive primary vaccination (at 2, 3, and 4 months) with either MenC-TT plus diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)/Hib, Hib-MenC-TT plus DTPa-HBV-IPV, or MenC-CRM197 plus DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (control). At 12 to 15 months, subjects received a polysaccharide challenge with meningococcal polysaccharide C plus a DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib booster. Immune responses were assessed 1 month after dose 2, 1 month after dose 3, and prior to and 1 month after the booster. After primary vaccination, there was no difference between groups in seroprotection rates as measured by titers of serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) to MenC (≥1:8) or concentrations of anti-polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) antibody (≥0.15 μg/ml). Prior to the booster, there was no difference between groups in SBA seroprotection rates, whereas anti-PRP seroprotection rates were significantly higher after priming with Hib-MenC-TT. Booster doses induced large increases in SBA and anti-PRP antibodies in primed groups...

Serotype-Specific and Age-Dependent Generation of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide-Specific Memory B-Cell and Antibody Responses to Immunization with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine▿

Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Oh, Sarah; Hamaluba, Mainga; Westcar, Sharon; Beverley, Peter C. L.; Pollard, Andrew J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Glycoconjugate vaccines have dramatically reduced the incidence of encapsulated bacterial diseases in toddlers under 2 years of age, but vaccine-induced antibody levels in this age group wane rapidly. We immunized adults and 12-month-old toddlers with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to determine differences in B-cell and antibody responses. The adults and 12-month-old toddlers received a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The toddlers received a second dose at 14 months of age. The frequencies of diphtheria toxoid and serotype 4, 14, and 23F polysaccharide-specific plasma cells and memory B cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The toddlers had no preexisting polysaccharide-specific memory B cells or serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody but had good diphtheria toxoid-specific memory responses. The frequencies of plasma cells and memory B cells increased by day 7 (P < 0.0001) in the adults and the toddlers following a single dose of conjugate, but the polysaccharide responses were significantly lower in the toddlers than in the adults (P = 0.009 to <0.001). IgM dominated the toddler antibody responses, and class switching to the IgG was serotype dependent. A second dose of vaccine enhanced the antibody and memory B-cell responses in the toddlers but not the ex vivo plasma cell responses. Two doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine are required in toddlers to generate memory B-cell frequencies and antibody class switching for each pneumococcal polysaccharide equivalent to that seen in adults.

Immunogenicity of a Reduced Schedule of Meningococcal Group C Conjugate Vaccine Given Concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel Vaccines in Healthy Infants in the United Kingdom▿

Southern, Jo; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Morris, Rhonwen; Waight, Pauline; Hudson, Michael; Balmer, Paul; Findlow, Helen; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This study investigated the use of two doses of three different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines when given for primary immunization with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Pediacel, a combination product containing five acellular pertussis components, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, and inactivated-poliovirus vaccine. The immune response after a single dose of MCC is also presented. Infants were randomized to receive two doses of one of the MCC vaccines and PCV7 at 2 and 3 months or at 2 and 4 months of age. Meningococcal group C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), and diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin GMCs, together with the proportions of infants achieving putative protective levels, were determined. A total of 393 infants were recruited. Following the first dose of NeisVac-C (MCC conjugated to tetanus toxoid), 97% of infants achieved protective levels (SBA titer of ≥8), compared with 80% and 53%, respectively, for Menjugate and Meningitec (both of which are conjugated to CRM197). SBA responses to MCC vaccines were not significantly different when administered at 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 months of age. Following two doses of each MCC...

Induction of immunological memory in UK infants by a meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccine.

Borrow, R.; Fox, A. J.; Richmond, P. C.; Clark, S.; Sadler, F.; Findlow, J.; Morris, R.; Begg, N. T.; Cartwright, K. A.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The induction of immunological memory to serogroup A and C polysaccharides in UK infants immunized with three doses of a meningococcal A/C oligosaccharide CRM197 conjugate vaccine was investigated. Forty UK infants vaccinated previously with three doses of a meningococcal A/C oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age, were revaccinated at a mean age of 145.6 weeks with either a 10 or 50 microg dose of licensed meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine. Serogroup-specific antibody and serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum bactericidal assays, respectively. Following challenge, anti-serogroup A and C polysaccharide antibody levels rose from pre-booster geometric mean concentrations (GMC) of 3.1 and 2.1 microg/ml respectively to 19.6 and 21.0 microg/ml 1 month post-booster. Serum bactericidal antibody geometric mean titres (GMTs) for serogroups A and C increased 156- and 113-fold from 2.1 and 7.1 pre-booster respectively to 327.4 and 800.7 post-booster. A serogroup A control group of 45 children received a 10 microg dose of licensed meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine (with no prior history of serogroup A vaccination) had serogroup A SBA GMTs of 2.3 pre-vaccination rising to 8 post-vaccination with corresponding GMCs of 0.8 and 10.8 microg/ml. These rises in SBA following serogroup A/C conjugate vaccination are indicative of immunological priming.

Immunogenicity of a Heptavalent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine Administered Concurrently with a Combination Diphtheria, Tetanus, Five-Component Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Polio, and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine and a Meningococcal Group C Conjugate Vaccine at 2, 3, and 4 Months of Age ▿

Moss, S. J.; Fenton, A. C.; Toomey, J.; Grainger, A.; Borrow, R.; Balmer, P.; Smith, J.; Gennery, A. R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
The immunogenicities of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines have been demonstrated when they are administered at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. There is a paucity of data on the immunogenicity of this vaccine when it is administered concurrently with other vaccines in the primary immunization schedule of the United Kingdom. We immunized 55 term infants at 2, 3, and 4 months of age with the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccine, and the diphtheria, tetanus, five-component acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP5/IPV/Hib-TT) vaccine. The immune responses to the H. influenzae type b (Hib), MCC, and tetanus vaccines were measured at 2, 5, and 12 months of age; and the immune responses to PCV7 were measured at 2 and 5 months and then either at 12 months or following a 4th dose of PCV7. There were increases in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of all antigens postimmunization. Greater than or equal to 90% of the infants achieved putatively protective levels postimmunization for all vaccine antigens except pneumococcal serotype 6B and Hib. The GMCs of the PCV7 serotypes increased following a 4th dose, although one infant had not reached putative levels of protection against serotype 6B. In conclusion...

Updated Postlicensure Surveillance of the Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine in England and Wales: Effectiveness, Validation of Serological Correlates of Protection, and Modeling Predictions of the Duration of Herd Immunity ▿

Campbell, Helen; Andrews, Nick; Borrow, Ray; Trotter, Caroline; Miller, Elizabeth
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines were licensed in the United Kingdom more than 10 years ago based on correlates of protection that had previously been established for serogroup C-containing polysaccharide vaccines by using the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay. These correlates of protection were subsequently validated against postlicensure estimates of observed vaccine effectiveness up to 7 to 9 months after the administration of the MCC vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was, however, shown to fall significantly more than 1 year after the administration of a 3-dose course in infancy. Despite this finding, the marked impact on serogroup C disease has been sustained, with the lowest recorded incidence (0.02 case per 100,000 population) in the 2008-2009 epidemiological year, mainly due to the indirect herd immunity effect of the vaccine in reducing carriage. Updated estimates of vaccine effectiveness through 30 June 2009 confirmed high short-term protection after vaccination in infancy, at 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91% to 99%), falling to 68% (95% CI, −63% to 90%) more than a year after vaccination. The observed vaccine effectiveness more than 12 months postvaccination was consistent with measured declining SBA levels...

Safety and Immunogenicity of a 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Compared to Those of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Given as a Three-Dose Series with Routine Vaccines in Healthy Infants and Toddlers ▿ †

Esposito, Susanna; Tansey, Susan; Thompson, Allison; Razmpour, Ahmad; Liang, John; Jones, Thomas R.; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Maida, Alessandro; Bona, Gianni; Sabatini, Caterina; Pugni, Lorenza; Emini, Emilio A.; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Principi,
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been developed to improve protection against pneumococcal disease beyond that possible with the licensed 7-valent vaccine (PCV7). This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of PCV13 with those of PCV7 when given as part of the pediatric vaccination schedule recommended in Italy. A total of 606 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either PCV13 or PCV7 at 3, 5, and 11 months of age; all subjects concomitantly received diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine. Vaccine reactions were monitored. Antibody responses to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens, serotype-specific anticapsular polysaccharide IgG responses, and antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) activity were measured 1 month after the two-dose primary series and 1 month after the toddler dose. Overall, the safety profile of PCV13 was similar to that of PCV7. The response to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens was substantially the same with both PCV13 and PCV7. PCV13 elicited antipneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies to all 13 vaccine serotypes, with notable increases in concentrations seen after the toddler dose. Despite a lower immunogenicity for serotypes 6B and 23F after the primary series of PCV13...

Functional T-Cell Deficiency in Adolescents Who Experience Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease despite Receiving the Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine▿

Foster, Rachel A.; Carlring, Jennifer; Lees, Andrew; Borrow, Ray; Ramsay, Mary; Kacsmarski, Ed; Miller, Elizabeth; McKendrick, Michael W.; Heath, Andrew W.; Read, Robert C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.15%
Some individuals have experienced meningococcal disease despite receiving the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in adolescence. We sought to determine whether this is due to subclinical functional B- or T-cell immunodeficiency. Of 53 vaccine failures identified by enhanced surveillance of England and Wales from 1999 to 2004, 15 received MCC vaccine in adolescence, 9 of whom were recruited 2 to 6 years following convalescence from meningococcal disease. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with polyclonal activators designed to mimic T-cell-independent B-cell stimulation by bacterial polysaccharides and the T-cell stimulation provided by the protein component of the conjugate vaccine. Subsequent proliferation and activation of T and B lymphocytes were measured, along with T-cell help to B cells. Compared to age-, sex-, geographically, and ethnicity-matched controls, CD4 T-cell proliferation rates in response to both anti-CD3 (T-cell receptor [TCR]) stimulation and anti-CD3 in the presence of B cells activated through anti-IgD conjugated to dextran (α-δ-dex) were lower in PBMCs derived from vaccine failures (P = 0.044 and P = 0.029, respectively). There was reduced CD4 cell activation of the patient cells compared to controls following stimulation by CD3 (P = 0.048). B-cell activation during incubation of PBMCs with the T-cell stimuli...

Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial of Coadministration of RotaTeq, a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine, and NeisVac-C, a Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine ▿ †

Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Borrow, Ray; Kitchin, Nick; Baudin, Martine; Thomas, Stéphane; Fiquet, Anne
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
RotaTeq (Merck & Co. Inc./Sanofi Pasteur MSD) is a three-dose, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for the immunization of infants from 6 weeks of age for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The primary objective of the present trial was to demonstrate that RotaTeq can be coadministered with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenCC; NeisVac-C; Baxter Healthcare) to healthy infants without impairing the protective immune responses to MenCC. This was an open-label, randomized, comparative study conducted in Finland. The study was designed to assess concomitant versus sequential administration of RotaTeq and MenCC on the immune response to both vaccines. Healthy infants (n = 247), aged 6 to 7 weeks, were recruited. Coadministration of MenCC with RotaTeq was noninferior to sequential administration for the seroprotection rate against meningococcal serogroup C (the proportion of infants with a serum bactericidal antibody titer using baby rabbit complement of ≥8 was 100% in both groups). The other responses to MenCC (titer of ≥1:128, ≥4-fold increase in titer, and geometric mean titers [GMTs]) and the responses to RotaTeq (IgA and SNA response to G1 to G4 and P1A[8], GMTs, and ≥3-fold increase in titer) were comparable between groups...

Concomitant Administration of Mycobacterium bovis BCG with the Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine to Neonatal Mice Enhances Antibody Response and Protective Efficacy ▿

Brynjolfsson, Siggeir F.; Bjarnarson, Stefania P.; Mori, Elena; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Jonsdottir, Ingileif
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Mycobacterium bovis BCG is administered to human neonates in many countries worldwide. The objective of the study was to assess if BCG could act as an adjuvant for polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in newborns and thereby induce protective immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early infancy when susceptibility is high. We assessed whether BCG could enhance immune responses to a meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate vaccine, MenC-CRM197, in mice primed as neonates, broaden the antibody response from a dominant IgG1 toward a mixed IgG1 and IgG2a/IgG2b response, and increase protective efficacy, as measured by serum bactericidal activity (SBA). Two-week-old mice were primed subcutaneously (s.c.) with MenC-CRM197. BCG was administered concomitantly, a day or a week before MenC-CRM197. An adjuvant effect of BCG was observed only when it was given concomitantly with MenC-CRM197, with increased IgG response (P = 0.002) and SBA (8-fold) after a second immunization with MenC-CRM197 without BCG, indicating increased T-cell help. In neonatal mice (1 week old) primed s.c. with MenC-CRM197 together with BCG, MenC-polysaccharide (PS)-specific IgG was enhanced compared to MenC-CRM197 alone (P = 0.0015). Sixteen days after the second immunization with MenC-CRM197...

A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic and induces immune memory when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines in infants

Nolan, T.; Lambert, S.; Roberton, D.; Marshall, H.; Richmond, P.; Streeton, C.; Poolman, J.; Boutriau, D.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Immunogenicity and safety of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenCY-TT) candidate was evaluated when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV(Pediarix)+PCV7(Prevnar) at 2-4-6 months of age. Anti-PRP concentrations >or= 1.0 microg/mL were observed in 92.9-98.7%, rSBA-MenC/Y titres >or= 1:8 in >98%, rSBA-MenC/Y titres >or= 1:128 in >95.8 and >89.9% subjects. PRP and MenC responses were similar to respective controls (ActHIB and Menjugate) including for antibody persistence. Response to co-administered vaccines was not impaired. Polysaccharide challenge (PRP, PSC, PSY at 11-14 months of age) evidenced immune memory was induced for Hib, MenC/Y conjugate components. The safety profile of Hib-MenCY-TT was similar to controls. Hib-MenCY-TT administered according to the current US Hib vaccine schedule has the potential to induce protective antibodies against Hib and meningococcal-CY disease in infants and toddlers.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30521/description#description; Terry Nolan, Stephen Lambert, Don Roberton, Helen Marshall, Peter Richmond, Catherine Streeton, Jan Poolman, Dominique Boutriau; Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

A randomized trial to assess safety and immunogenicity of alternative formulations of a quadrivalent meningococcal (A, C, Y, and W-135) tetanus protein conjugate vaccine in toddlers

McVernon, J.; Nolan, T.; Richmond, P.; Reynolds, G.; Nissen, M.; Lambert, S.; Marshall, H.; Papa, T.; Rehm, C.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicemia globally. Recent shifts in serogroup dominance in some settings highlight the desirability of polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines with broader meningococcal coverage than serogroup C vaccines in widespread use. METHODS: We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of meningococcal quadrivalent (A, C, W-135, Y) tetanus conjugate vaccine (TetraMen-T), administered at 1 year of age. A total of 378 children were randomized to 1 of 6 groups--5 received alternative formulations of TetraMen-T, the sixth licensed adjuvanted serogroup C conjugate vaccine (Neisvac-C). Solicited adverse event reports were collected from day 0 to 7 after vaccination and unsolicited and serious adverse event reports throughout study participation. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assays containing either a human (hSBA) or baby rabbit (rSBA) complement source before and 1 month after immunization. RESULTS: All vaccine formulations were safe and well tolerated. Using the various measures of immunogenicity, no consistent relationships were observed between the dose of either polysaccharide or carrier and serogroup-specific response for any one antigen. The highest-dose vaccine provided optimal coverage for all 4 serogroups...

Investigation of Different Group A Immunoassays following One Dose of Meningococcal Group A Conjugate Vaccine or A/C Polysaccharide Vaccine in Adults▿

Findlow, H.; Plikaytis, B. D.; Aase, A.; Bash, M. C.; Chadha, H.; Elie, C.; Laher, G.; Martinez, J.; Herstad, T.; Newton, E.; Viviani, S.; Papaspyridis, C.; Kulkarni, P.; Wilding, M.; Preziosi, M. P.; Marchetti, E.; Hassan-King, M.; La Force, F. M.; Carlo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
A double-blind, randomized, controlled phase I study to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence of a new group A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) in volunteers aged 18 to 35 years was previously performed. Subjects received one dose of either the PsA-TT conjugate vaccine, meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine (PsA/C), or tetanus toxoid vaccine. The conjugate vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic as demonstrated by a standardized group A-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). This report details further analysis of the sera using four additional immunologic assays to investigate the relationship between the different immunoassays. The immunoassays used were an SBA assay that used human complement (hSBA), a group A-specific IgG multiplexed bead assay, and two opsonophagocytic antibody (OPA) assays which used two different methodologies. For each vaccine group, geometric mean concentrations or geometric mean titers were determined for all assays before and 4, 24, and 48 weeks after vaccination. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the six assays using data from all available visits. An excellent correlation was observed between the group A-specific IgG concentrations obtained by ELISA and those obtained by the multiplexed bead assay. hSBA and rSBA titers correlated moderately...

The cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Australia

Butler, James; McIntyre, Peter; MacIntyre, C Raina; Gilmour, Robin; Howarth, Ann; Sander, B
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 7 valent (PCV7) is the most costly vaccine yet considered for publicly funded programs. In mid 2001, Australia funded PCV7 for high-risk groups only (indigenous children and children with certain underlying medical conditions). World wide, non-industry-funded studies and studies using cost-utility measures are sparse. We undertook an independent economic analysis of PCV7 compared with no vaccination in the non high-risk Australian childhood population using cost-utility and cost-effectiveness measures. Methods: The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), non-bacteraemic pneumonia and otitis media was estimated using representative urban Australian data, or by extrapolation from comparable industrialised countries. A decision-analytic model was developed for a hypothetical birth cohort using the age-specific vaccine coverage from the Californian randomised controlled trial of PCV7. Health outcomes were measured by life-years saved and deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. In line with government guidelines, only direct costs were considered in 1997-1998 Australian dollars. Results: For a birth cohort of 250,000, the gross cost of vaccination is $ 78.6 million. Subtracting treatment cost savings...