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Mercados electrónicos baseados em Agentes - uma abordagem orientada ao conhecimento considerando estratégias dinâmicas

Viamonte, Maria João Monteiro Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.2%
Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores; A tese, aqui apresentada, propõe um modelo Multi-Agente para um Mercado Electrónico, no contexto do Comércio do tipo “Empresa com Consumidor”. Os Mercados Electrónicos atingiram uma complexidade e nível de sofisticação tão elevados, que tornaram inadequados os modelos de software convencionais. Tais mercados são caracterizados por serem abertos, dinâmicos e competitivos, e constituídos por várias entidades independentes e heterogéneas. Tais entidades desempenham os seus papéis de forma autónoma, seguindo os seus objectivos, reagindo às ocorrências do ambiente em que se inserem e interagindo umas com as outras. Foram estas características dos Mercados Electrónicos que conduziram ao projecto por nós desenvolvido, e aqui reportado, de um sistema Multi-Agente que representa um Mercado Electrónico. Os novos mercados devem, ainda, possuir mecanismos que lhes permitam exibir novas capacidades. Para tal, foi por nós usado o conceito de “conhecimento de mercado” que sustenta e apoia o comportamento estratégico dos Agentes Vendedores e Agentes Compradores. Foram identificadas as técnicas de Descoberta de Conhecimento capazes de gerar tal conhecimento e adequadas para utilizar em aplicações de Comércio Electrónico. Um dos aspectos fundamentais deste trabalho tem a ver com o estudo e desenvolvimento de estratégias dinâmicas...

Agent-based simulation of retail electricity markets: Bilateral trading players

Lopes, Fernando; Algarvio, Hugo; Coelho, Helder
Fonte: IEEE - Conference Publications Publicador: IEEE - Conference Publications
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, has experienced major changes. Deregulation, unbundling, wholesale and retail wheeling, and real-time pricing were abstract concepts a few years ago. Today market forces drive the price of electricity and reduce the net cost through increased competition. As power markets continue to evolve, there is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches. Accordingly, this article looks at using software agents to help manage the complexity of electricity markets, particularly retail markets. The article focuses on bilateral trading and describes some important features of an agent-based system for bilateral contracting. Special attention is devoted to the characteristics and negotiation behaviour of Buyer and Seller agents.

Latin America and the Caribbean in the World Economy 2005-2006

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
Includes bibliography; The 2005-2006 edition of Latin America and the Caribbean in the World Economy is divided into six chapters. The first chapter analyses recent trends in the international economy and trade, capital flows and the region’s trade performance. The causes of external imbalances are examined, along with the behaviour of the economies of the United States, Japan and the European Union, oil prices, interest rates and exchange rates. It also presents Latin American trade projections for 2006 and 2007, as well as looking at the main risk factors that could undermine the favourable conditions now existing in the region. The second provides an overview of recent economic developments in China and India and examines these countries’ trade relations with Latin America and the Caribbean. Trade relations between these two Asian nations and the Latin American and Caribbean region have recently been flourishing thanks, in particular, to the prospects for securing access to South America’s natural resources. Nonetheless, these two countries have yet to take full advantage of the Latin American and Caribbean region’s potential as a supplier and buyer. The main issues raised by the Doha Round of trade negotiations following the Ministerial Conference held in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China are explored in chapter III. The participants in the Hong Kong Conference changed the direction of these talks and agreed to proceed on an “aid for trade” platform...

Identifying nutritive, physical and volatile characteristics of oaten and lucerne hay that affect the short-term feeding preferences of lactating Holstein Friesian cows and Thoroughbred horses.

Pain, Sarah Jean
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
Feeding behaviour is controlled by the integration of both perceived cues from the plant and postingestive signals received by the animal. In general practice, dairy cattle are presented with a variety of feedstuffs throughout each day, in addition to changing feedstuffs over time. In the Australian context, the feeds generally include fodder (usually hay) and pasture whilst grazing, as well as various concentrates. For horses that are stabled for prolonged periods, their diet consists of fodder (again usually hay or chaff) and concentrates, in addition to the pasture consumed whilst allowed access to graze. In such situations, where animals are presented with a range of feedstuffs, some of them novel and for discrete periods of time, it is important that they readily accept the feeds when they are first presented to them. For both lactating dairy cows and performance horses, for example, it is important to avoid periods of low intake, as this can have immediate and sometimes longer-term consequences to animal performance. The daily rate of food intake is the single most important factor affecting animal performance and productivity (Illius et al. 2000) and an animal‟s responses to a feedstuff can be considered the ultimate measure of its quality. The animal‟s first response to the presentation of a new feed...

Qualifying Purchase Intentions Using Queueing Theory

Tirtiroglu, E.; Elbeck, M.
Fonte: Asociatia pentru Dezvoltare prin Stiinta si Educatie Publicador: Asociatia pentru Dezvoltare prin Stiinta si Educatie
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
We propose that a consumer’s purchase behaviour emulates a cognitive framework such that an appropriately selected queueing model can be used to assess the credibility of a consumer’s expression of purchase intention to proceed into purchase action. The modelling idea is to envision that the customer has a mental queue of needs, and the surfacing of a need represents a new arrival to this queue while a purchase satisfying a need represents a departure from the queue. Using queueing formulae (and/or readily available tables on queueing), several statistics known as "operating characteristics" can be computed to capture and describe the individual’s current need status. Hence, a description of the customer’s state of readiness or prospect of actually executing the expressed purchase intention for a product (good or service) whose future sales are of interest in a market survey may be obtained. In this paper, such a description is termed Individual Buyer Profile (IBP), and IBP is offered as a purchase intention qualifier.; Ercan Tirtiroglu, Matt Elbeck

Essays in networks and applied microeconomic theory

HUREMOVIC, Kenan
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
This thesis contains three papers which examine the role of networks and social structure in different modes of socio-economic interactions. The first chapter focuses on purely competitive strategic bilateral interactions - contests. I analyse situations in which agents, embedded in a network, simultaneously play interrelated bilateral contest games with their neighbours. The network structure uniquely determines the behaviour of agents in the equilibrium. I also study the formation of such networks, finding that the complete k-partite network is the unique stable network topology. This implies that agents will endogenously sort themselves in partitions of friends, competing with members of other partitions. The model provides a micro-foundation for the structural balance concept in social psychology, and the main results go in line with theoretical and empirical findings from other disciplines, including international relations, sociology and biology. The second chapter is joint work with my supervisor Fernando Vega-Redondo. We study a competitive equilibrium model on a production network of firms, identifying the measure of centrality in the network that determines the profit of a firm, and network structures that maximize social welfare. The significant part of this chapter focuses on how the network mediates the effects of revenue distortions on profits of firms and social welfare. The results are that the effects of distortions propagate both upstream and downstream through the network. The centrality of the affected firm determines the magnitude of the downstream effect...

The Australian online wine-buying consumer: Motivational and behavioural perspectives

Bruwer, J.; Wood, G.
Fonte: Carfax Publishing Limited Publicador: Carfax Publishing Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
Wine is particularly suited to various dimensions of the internet and hence creating a brand image that will attract and retain consumers is the conundrum of the online wine retailers. This article outlines the findings of a primary 'field' research study with a final sample size of 1377 using an online-administered structured questionnaire to obtain information about behavioural and motivational perspectives in relation to the Australian online wine-buying consumer. The research sought specific answers to the group demographic profiles of the principal adopters of the internet medium, security and site navigation issues and past wine-purchasing behaviour of the online wine buyer. It was found that the security of personal financial information was the most important risk perception aspect while website functionality rated as the most important navigational issue. Online wine buyers were mostly well-educated, high-income males in the 35- to 44-year-old age group. Wine was confirmed to be both an information- and price-sensitive product in the online retailing context.

An investigation about Brazilian mango and grape exports

Souza, Roberta de Castro; Amato Neto, Joao
Fonte: EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED; BINGLEY Publicador: EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LIMITED; BINGLEY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.97%
Purpose - The objective of this paper is to characterise the transactions between European buyers and Brazilian mango and grape producers. Design/methodology/approach - The method selected for this paper was multiple case studies. The Brazilian mango and grape supply chains' export activities to Europe were investigated. The field research was undertaken in Brazil, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK. In total, 41 face-to-face interviews were carried out. Findings - The supermarkets' literature tends to generalise the strategies of retailers focusing on differentiation and preferred suppliers. However, in empirical research conducted in the UK, Germany and The Netherlands it is possible to conclude that the procurement strategies of supermarkets can vary sharply. The results reveal the presence of different agents who demand different quality standards. The level of intensity depends on consumer behaviour, the features of product commercialised and the characteristics of the production segment in each country. Research limitations/implications - First, in relation to the empirical method there is a limitation because the case study does not allow statistical generalisation. Consequently, it will be interesting to undertake quantitative research in order to quantify the variables presented and their impact on the structure of value chains. Second...

Buyer and consumer's portuguese "quality wine" behaviour

Duarte, M. F.; Ruivo, Paula Lúcia
Fonte: Instituto da Vinha e do Vinho Publicador: Instituto da Vinha e do Vinho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
The main purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of a regional survey on buyer and consumer's behaviour. Results allow us to identify consuming buyer patterns and relate them to consumer's attitudes and caracteristics such as age, sex and educacional levels.They also suggest some important variables than can be used to differentiate portuguese "Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions" (QWPSR) and are potencial material to develop satrategies, useful to the new "quality wine" regions, particulary giving references for a segmentation process or even for the creation of communicational plans for each region or brand. This set of co-ordinated information, allows a better assessment of the Portuguese consumer's preferences. The research tries also to determine and discuss the positioning of the Portuguese QWPSR, as well as the opportunities that may be used by wine makers, the threats they might eliminate and the usefulness of constructing a good marketing plan. This survey was conducted in the the so called Grande Lisboa, in 1996, and the data were treated by using market research statistical techniques.

Autonomics: an autonomous and intelligent economic platform and next generation money tool

Munro, Benjamin; McLachlan, Julia
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/06/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
We propose a high level network architecture for an economic system that integrates money, governance and reputation. We introduce a method for issuing, and redeeming a digital coin using a mechanism to create a sustainable global economy and a free market. To maintain a currency's value over time, and therefore be money proper, we claim it must be issued by the buyer and backed for value by the seller, exchanging the products of labour, in a free market. We also claim that a free market and sustainable economy cannot be maintained using economically arbitrary creation and allocation of money. Nakamoto, with Bitcoin, introduced a new technology called the cryptographic blockchain to operate a decentralised and distributed accounts ledger without the need for an untrusted third party. This blockchain technology creates and allocates new digital currency as a reward for "proof-of-work", to secure the network. However, no currency, digital or otherwise, has solved how to create and allocate money in an economically non-arbitrary way, or how to govern and trust a world-scale free enterprise money system. We propose an "Ontologically Networked Exchange" (ONE), with purpose as its highest order domain. Each purpose is defined in a contract...

A single-item continuous double auction game

Ruijgrok, Matthijs
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/10/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.2%
A double auction game with an infinite number of buyers and sellers is introduced. All sellers posses one unit of a good, all buyers desire to buy one unit. Each seller and each buyer has a private valuation of the good. The distribution of the valuations define supply and demand functions. One unit of the good is auctioned. At successive, discrete time instances, a player is randomly selected to make a bid (buyer) or an ask (seller). When the maximum of the bids becomes larger than the minimum of the asks, a transaction occurs and the auction is closed. The players have to choose the value of their bid or ask before the auction starts and use this value when they are selected. Assuming that the supply and demand functions are known, expected profits as functions of the strategies are derived, as well as expected transaction prices. It is shown that for linear supply and demand functions, there exists at most one Bayesian Nash equilibrium. Competitive behaviour is not an equilibrium of the game. For linear supply and demand functions, the sum of the expected profit of the sellers and the buyers is the same for the Bayesian Nash equilibrium and the market where players behave competitively. Connections are made with the ZI-C traders model and the $k$-double auction.; Comment: 37 pages...

Indifference of Defaultable Bonds with Stochastic Intensity models

Houssou, Regis; Besson, Olivier
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/03/2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
The utility-based pricing of defaultable bonds in the case of stochastic intensity models of default risk is discussed. The Hamilton-Jacobi- Bellman (HJB) equations for the value functions is derived. A finite difference method is used to solve this problem. The yield-spreads for both buyer and seller are extracted. The behaviour of the spread curve given the default intensity is analyzed. Finally the impacts of the risk aversion and the correlation coefficient are discussed.

Endo- vs. Exo-genous shocks and relaxation rates in book and music "sales"

Lambiotte, R.; Ausloos, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
In this paper, we analyze the response of music and book sales to an external field and to buyer herding. We distinguish endogenous and exogenous shocks. We focus on some case studies, whose data have been collected from ranking on amazon.com. We show that an ensemble of equivalent systems quantitatively respond in a similar way to a similar ''external shock'', indicating roads to universality features. In contrast to Sornette et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. {93}, 228701 (2004)] who seemed to find power law behaviors, in particular at long times, - a law interpreted in terms of an epidemic activity, we observe that the relaxation process can be as well seen as an exponential one that saturates toward an asymptotic state, itself different from the pre-shock state. By studying an ensemble of 111 shocks, on books or records, we show that exogenous and endogenous shocks are discriminated by their short-time behaviour: the relaxation time seems to be twice shorter in endogenous shocks than in exogenous ones. We interpret the finding through a simple thermodynamic model with a dissipative force.; Comment: to be published in physica a

Sources of information of the business consumer: the purchase of medicines by hospitals; Fontes de informações do consumidor organizacional: as compras de medicamentos por hospitais

Burlamaqui, Paulo Fernando; PUC - Curitiba - PR; Godoy, Roberto; Universidade Potiguar
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/07/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
The source of search for information accomplished by the business consumer can affect decisevely on the choice of a supplier. The understanding of how the search of information is undertaken during purchase can present a strategic situation for the marketing professionals in identifying the needs of business consumers. This study analysed how this search is done by organizational buyers by observing the behaviour of this consumer through a survey conducted with buyers for hospitals in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The research identifyed the strong utilization of the following sources of information: commercial, media, personal and experimental. It was observed that the main source is commercial. The conclusion hás indicated also that the buyer can understand how his organization (hospital) behaves before these variables.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8069.2008v10n20p163A fonte das buscas de informação realizadas pelo consumidor organizacional pode influir decisivamente no momento da escolha do fornecedor. A compreensão de como são processadas as buscas de informações realizadas nas compras se apresenta como questão estratégica por parte de profissionais de marketing no reconhecimento das necessidades dos consumidores organizacionais. O presente estudo analisa como é efetuada a busca das fontes de informações na compra de medicamentos observando o comportamento deste consumidor...

Enforcement-proof contracts with moral hazard in precaution: ensuring ‘permanence’ in carbon sequestration

MacKenzie, Ian A.; Ohndorf, Markus; Palmer, Charles
Fonte: Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Publicador: Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.33%
Opportunistic behaviour due to incomplete contract enforcement is a risk in many economic transactions such as forest carbon sequestration contracts. In this paper, an enforcement-proof incentive contract is developed in which a buyer demands a guaranteed delivery of a good or service given a productive upfront payment, moral hazard in precaution, and the potential for opportunistic contract breach. The optimal design of forest carbon contracts to ensure permanence is derived. Buyer liability for loss of a carbon sink is shown to yield an inefficiently low level of sequestration. Yet it remains higher than the case where liability is neither allocated to the buyer nor the seller. Indexing contract prices to the seller’s opportunity costs potentially boosts the upfront investment as does shifting liability to the seller but not beyond first-best levels. Assigning liability is shown to have implications for forest carbon contracts in an international climate policy regime.

Ecological modernisation theory and Bangladesh: Lessons from the environmental compliance upgrading experiences of Bangladeshi garments firms.

Selim, Shahpar
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
In this era of international supply chains where Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are exporting to Developed Countries (DCs), concerns about economic growth that is environmentally benign has meant that LDC factories are taking environmental upgrading measures to meet standards set by DC customers. This thesis looks at the applicability of ecological modernisation theory (EMT) to this situation by examining the Bangladeshi readymade garments (RMG) sector that is part of the global apparel value chain. EMT suggests that economic growth can continue while providing environmental protection in the long run due to proactive environmental actions by the market actors, civil society and the nation state. This thesis tests the tenets of EMT by looking at the apparel value chain in three parts (management networks within firms, economic networks of the supply chain, and policy networks) and then as a whole (EM network). Evidence from Bangladeshi garment factories (corporate culture, organisational change and environmental learning) suggests significant problems: factories are compliant with buyer codes only on paper and not in reality. Firms have a mixture of proactive and reactive greening measures and enjoy only an indirect competitive advantage from greening. The absence of "win win" gains can be pinned to buyer behaviour along the chains...